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Lecture 8 and 9 Notes

by: Abigail Towe

Lecture 8 and 9 Notes 81463 - BIOL 3030 - 001

Abigail Towe
GPA 3.6
Vertebrate Biology
Richard W. Blob

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Vertebrate Biology
Richard W. Blob
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Towe on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 81463 - BIOL 3030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Richard W. Blob in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Vertebrate Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/20/15
Major Gnathostome Subclades o Eugnathostomes 0 true teeth 0 Teleostomi 0 bone gill covering operculum o Acanthodians I spiny sharks 0 not sharks but definitely spiny o aids in predator defense predators don t want to eat something so bony 0 Most poorly known spines teeth outline smudges o Small most 200 mm 1 ft or less biggest 2 m o Spines support all fins intermediate spines between paired fins in some o Clade Osteichthyes o bony fishes 0 includes tetrapods 4 footed vertebrates like humans 0 Synapomorphies I Lepidotrichia bony ray supports in fins I Lungs or swim bladder that evolved from them o ancestors were aquatic Lungs evolved in this group to support breathing air 0 overall Osteichthyes can be divided into 2 clades I Actinopterygii o ray finned fishes o fins supported only by rays o what united the group of the ray finned fishes together is the synapomorphy of the presence of the single dorsal fin I Sarcopterygii o lobefinned fishes o includes tetrapods 0 meat wing o besides just having rays they now have a robust internal skeleton gt Actinopterygian Diversity 0 Polypteriformesbichirs most basal living actinoptergian obligate air breather uses lungs freshwater native to Africa single continuous dorsal fin below the skin but gets frayed and torn above the surface Most poorly known spines teeth outline smudges 0 Small most 200 mm 1 ft or less biggest 2 m 0 Spines support all fins intermediate spines between paired fins in some 0 Chondrostei Sturgeon o retain heterocercal tail amp spiracle o lose heavy scales big rostrum beak Paddlefish o spiracle nostril opening above the eye 0 Neoptergians basal clades has two subclades o Gar Lepisosteidae o Bowfin 0 reduction of heterocercal tail 0 median fins can move side to side now 0 retain ganoid scales 0 lacks spiracle o bones of cheek region in both taxa are now able to be gt Teleost specializations flared out to the side helps this fish to use suction to pull prey into their mouth 0 new functional advantages for this group and probably contribute as to why there are tons of species within the teleostei clade but not with others This is because I feeding and swimming differences o feeding increase jaw mobility O O 0 allows jaws to be protruded moved out from face mobile premaxilla allows the jaw protrusion advantages of jaw protrusion I catch food far away increase volume inside head o improved suction performance Different types Ram Feeding swim to prey and engulf it whole in mouth ancestral Suction draw viscous water into mouth and take food with it TEETH numerous on jaws palate and pharyngeal bones oral jaws used to capture the prey not chewing o the pharyngeal teeth can provide 2nd set of jaws for processing hard prey usually homodont all teeth similar o acrodont teeth attached to jaw edge no sock 0 bone to bone connection I polyphyodont teeth can be replaced frequent as in multiple sets 0 as they break off they get more 0 Some teleosts use biting take chunks off big items o swimming homocercal tail the two lobes are equal size 0 so now that the tail does all the work the other fins can now do novel functions to increase diversity and func onaluses o lighter scales are allowed to increase body flexibility I Teleosts locomotor specializations o homocercal tail 0 vertebral column does not extent into tail fin o the end vertebral column allows the fish to keep swimming level without having to use paired fins for control I this allows pelvic and pectoral fins to diversify in function o Light scales 0 increase body flexibility I no enamel I bones grows in concentric rings indicating age I two types cycloid and ctenoid o cycloids smooth edge around the back o ctenoids serrated edge o Both may be found in same fish some fish reduce scales drastically o minimize drag o drag force resisting motion in a fluid 0 minimize by streamlined body shape I which reduces water turbulence and friction around body o have to generate thrust o a force that propels animal through fluid 0 they do this through Newton s 3rd law of motion I for every active force there is an equal and opposite reaction force 0 to move through water animals must exert force on water which will exerts a propulsive reaction force back on animal o Fish exert forces on water by producing vortices o vortices whirlpools create a big central jet o Fish have a huge body and caudal fin 0 this use this for swimming Body and Caudal Fin BCF swimming 0 Another type of swimming median and paired fin swimming MPF swimming 0 part of body used to swim o faster fish tend to move less of their body to swim reducing drag Teleosts locomotor specialization O tail shape and swimming style sustained cruising versus sudden bursts of energy swimming 0 part of body used to swim o MPF median paired fin swimming 0 BCF body caudal fin swimming 0 Cruisers have a narrow tail base caudal peduncle to reduce drag and crescent tail fin with widely spaced tips to generate larger vortex rings and greater force Lookdown cruising narrow tail base crescent tail fin burst swimming broad caudal peduncle allows greater muscle mass for starting from dead stop 0 sailfin molly burst C start o broad caudal peduncle tail base 9 Distinction of red and white muscle fibre proportions 0 all vertebrates have distinct red and white muscle fibers 0 White fast glycolytic 0 use glycolysis anaerobic respiration fast contraction rapid fatigue thick fibers no fat no myoglobin Good for sudden bursts of action 0 Red slow oxidative use oxidation aerobic respiration slow contraction slow to fatigue thin fibers high fat myoglobin present 0 Good for slow sustained activity 0 red and white fibers are distributed through muscles but in fish the red and white fibers are distributed in separate regions Actinopterygian digestive system 9 fairly simple tube in most actinopterygians terminating at cloaca anus O evolutionary chances o lamprey o no stomach 9 but they are sucking in prey that don t require a lot of mechanical processes it s basically all liquid soft diet 0 spiral valve of intestine provides large surface area for absorbing nutrients 9 located in intestine it s a spiral in the tubed intestine so that the food goes around and around to increase the journal time and give the body more time to absorb it GOO GOO o Chondrichthyes o has stomach and spiral valve 0 Actinopterygians o stomach and tubular coiled intestine no spiral valve 9 Primitive features of all fishes A A A 0 they all three have immobile tongue 0 can t use it to move food around in mouth like humans can 0 because of this they don t do any processes of food in their mouth no chewing 0 they have few or no oral digestive glands Actinopterygian and ancestral vertebrate circulatory system 9 venous blood from body ows into the sinus venosus atrium ventricle conus arteriosus o sinus venosus membranous collection chamber basically just collects the blood 0 membranous sac o atrium large thin walled muscle sac 0 this is more muscularized muscular sac o ventricle 0 large thick walled structure composed of cardiac muscle 0 functions as distributing pump 9 valves 0 present between atrium and ventricle o in conus arteriosus prevents back ow 9 blood ows along a single circuit 0 one way ow Actinopterygian reproduction 9 most are dioecious separate male and female sexes but some are hermaphroditic gonads of both sexes present 0 synchronous male and female gonads active at same time self fertilization possible rare found in some sea bass species 0 sequential male and female gonads active one at a time in sequence either order male or female first 9 method of fertilization 0 internal male inserts gonopodium modification of the anal fin into female to conduct sperm guppies mollies 0 external female deposits eggs out of body male fertilizes them with sperm 9 habitat differences in reproduction patterns 0 freshwater 0 eggs at risk for getting swept away by current 0 larger though fewer dense eggs with lots of yolk helps sink them 9 this means that freshwater fish lay fewer eggs than marine fish but still 100s or 1ooos nests in which eggs are attached to bottom in some species parents guard nests sometimes after eggs hatch but lack of care is more common 0 open marine 0 lots of small buoyant eggs with little yolk o larvae hatch new surface where light levels make plankton abundant providing larvae food Teleost communities habitat variation 9 teleost have an abundance species numbervariety 9 body size all decreases in deep water 9 deep water below looom no light aphotic zone 0 total depth being 4ooom 9 coral reefs o brightly lit colorful fish 0 below a looom basically in the dark so no bright fish 9 wide range of adaptation for finding food and mates in deep water environments 0 for finding foods 0 once you find something you better get it o the structures that enable them to do so 9 big fangs dragonfish 0 also has a photophore o a light emitting bacteria 9 to attract other fish for prey lure them in 9 but also to attract mates 9 big mouth gulper eel O reproductive method of finding mate keeping it 0 male attaches as a parasite o trades sperm for food stops eating after he matures o monogamous 1 male attached per female 0 about 30 males for every one female hatched so most males fail to find a mate Clade osteichthyes bony fishes O First fossils from Devonian 4oo MYBP 59000 living species Includes TETRAPODS 4 footed vertebrates like us SYNAPOMORPHIES 1 LEPIDOT RI CHIA bony ray supports in fins 2 LUNGS or swim bladder that evolved from them Divided into two clades o sarcopterygii 0 has meat wing o lobed finned fishes 9 includes tetrapods fins supported by robust internal skeleton muscular paired fins with robust internal skeleton more abundant than actinopterygians through Devonian only 8 fish species today 0 actinopterygii o ray finned fishes o fins supported only by rays 9999999 coelacanths O Last fossils known from Cretaceous 1 species found alive 1938 9 2nd in late 1990s 65 Myr gap in record Lazarus taxon O Living fossil very conservative body plan little change since first sp 9 All fins lobed except 1st dorsal 9 Posterior tassel on tail midline axis 9 Give birth to live pups fossil evidence for this too O Deep marine though some freshwater fossils O Pectoral amp pelvic fins can move in alternating pattern but no walking 9 lungfish dipnoi 9 devonian recent 9 lots of fossils only 6 living species 4 AFrican 1 South American 1 Australian O teeth specialized and fused as crushing plates 9 lungs allow aestivation in African species 0 species living in seasonally dry habitats burrow in mud mucous cocoon o metabolism slows breathes air 4 months to 4 years until rain returns 9 Tetrapod relationships within sarcopterygians 9 tetrapods vertebrates with 4 feet with fingers and toes not fins 9 tetrapodomorpha united by sharing choanae internal nostril 0 allows air to pass through eternal nostrils to lungs with mouth closed 0 choanae how the tetrapods are related to sarcopterygians 9 ELPISTOSTEGALIIDS 9 close relative 9 describe in 2006 Tiktalalik O attened skull lived in shallow water next to land 9 no dorsal or anal fin 9 less fish 9 like modern alligators 9 near surface raise nose up to breathe through nostrils 9 robust fin skeleton digit precursors reduced lepidotrichia


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