Lecture 4 and 5 Notes
Lecture 4 and 5 Notes 81463 - BIOL 3030 - 001
Popular in Vertebrate Biology
81463 - BIOL 3030 - 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biological Sciences
80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001
verified elite notetaker
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Towe on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 81463 - BIOL 3030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Richard W. Blob in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Vertebrate Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
Reviews for Lecture 4 and 5 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/20/15
0 Review Assembling a Vertebrate Part 2 o Concerning the evolutionary assembly of vertebrates there was a lot of important structures that evolved before the first vertebrate cranium existed o The development progress I separation and migration of germ layers ectoderm outer body surface nervous system and neural crest endoderm gut lining amp organs from it liver pancreas lungs mesoderm rest of the body s needs somites myomeres vertebrae and dermis intermediate mesoderm kidneys gonads lateral plate mesoderm blood vessels heart mesenteries and more notochord 0 Organ systems organs lt tissues lt cells 0 The organ systems can be grouped into I Body Support and MOtion Integumentary skin hair nails Skeltal Muscular Energy Acquisition and Support of metabolism digestive respiratory cardiovascular excretory reproductive I coordination and integration nervous plus sensory organs endocnne o Integumentary system 0 external covering of vertebrates this includes skin glands accessory structures such as scales feathers hair nails keratin hoof and claw coverings 0 Functions boundary between internal and external environment Specific functions protection temperature regulation water regulation gas exchange vitamin D synthesis sensory stimuli reception defense against microorganisms pheromone production Vertebrate skin has TWO layers 1 epidermis superficial layer ectoderm germ layer that includes primary protection sensation and glands a Aquatic life has epidermis with living cells This includes mucus secreting glands The function it s antiparasitic and reduces drag b Terrestrial life has 2 distinct epidermal layers that include Stratum germinativum living and Stratum corneum dead The Stratum corneum dead cells protects the body from abrasion and water loss 2 dermis deep layer from somite mesoderm that includes blood vessels melanocytes the pigment cells a Note when a person blushes it is the blood vessels in the dermis that get a rush of blood suddenly o Skeletal system 0 0 internal supportive framework for the body The skeletal system is divided into two groups that includes nonmineralized and mineralized structures I nonmineralized notochord cartilage I mineralized bones enamel and dentine in teethscales There are two types of bone for skeletal system I Endochondral cartilage precursor cartilage later replaced with bone These structures are deep such as limbs and deep skull I Dermal grows in dermis no cartilage precursor starts as bone These structures are flat and superficial such as the roof of skull armor plates in crocodiles and early vertebrates Remember that skeletal tissues are ALIVE I bones are composed of protein fibers collagen and mineral crystals hydroxyapatite largely calcium phosphate I there is a blood supply to living nonmineralized cartilage parts of bone that allows it to repair from any damage o osteoclasts blood delivers cells to DESTROY olddamaged bone 0 osteoblasts blood delivers cells to DEPOSIT new bone 0 The region of the skeleton I axial appendicular skull o axial vertebrae ribs sternum o appendicular limbs 0 There are 3 regions of the skull 1 Chondrocranium braincase a There include the deep bones of the skull that have cartilage precursors cartilage gt bone b surrounds sides back and underneath of brain i occipital condyle foramen magnum 2 Splanchnocranium a arches that support gills and jaws b derived from neural crest c cartilage precursor 3 Dermatocranium a dermal with no cartilage precursor b superficial skull roof palate lowerjaw I Teeth are developed WITHIN the skin from integument I mineralized enamel and dentine over pulp cavity blood and nerves I This process of developing teeth is similar to how scales are formed I Initial use of teeth was to grasp and hold prey homodont dentition 0 usually frequent tooth replacement I often in various places in mouth notjust jaws I Later they began using teeth for prey processing Heterodont dentition this process was evolved over time o tooth replacement occurred less frequently 0 the teeth are more permanent and less random so it helps the teeth to fit together better 0 The appendicular skeleton I includes paired girdles fins and limbs Early vertebrates have NO paired appendages Cladoselache fossil shark has 2 pairs of fins Tetrapods and ancestors had jointed segments with a variety of shapes to relate how they are used c Muscular system 0 O Contractile tissue The cellular level of muscles fibers shorten in response to electrical signals from nerves There is a theory used to describe the shortening process of how muscles work together Sliding Filament Theory thought that filaments slide past each other to shorten 0 muscle shortening causes motion 0 muscles work in antagonistic pairs to allow back andforth motion at joints When looking at the muscular system in fish you will find axial muscles myosepta and horizontal septum axial muscles myomeres are the main muscles for locomotion how the organism travels myosepta separate segments of myomeres head to tail refine control horizontal septum left to right divides epaxial from hypaxial muscles When looking at the muscular system in terrestrial land vertebrates you see that there is a decrease in axial muscle mass increase in appendicular muscles There are many many more appendicular muscles than axial Reminder axial includes trunk while appendicular includes limbs o Digestion system 0 0 When observing the digestive system in vertebrates you will find that they are heterotrophs meaning that they are consumers Vertebrates must acquire and break down food 0 they complete this by using physical and chemical mechanisms absorbs nutrients and expels waste also There is a divided gut digestive tube there are valves or other anatomical structures that partition the tube into different regions to divide the digestion process 0 the partitioning system depends on the organism o for example it can be unspecialized like the lamprey or highly modified herbivores plant eaters o the basic structures and functions of some organs in digestive system I mouth pharynx esophagus food intake mechanical and chemical breakdown I stomach food break down physical and mostly chemical I intestine breaks down with chemicals food and absorbs nutrients I anus waste elimination o cloaca common exist for digestive excretory reproductive system in some organisms o Respiration o The respiratory system serves to deliver oxygen to cells so that cellular oxidation of nutrients can occur and to remove wastes like carbon dioxide 0 the method of this system depends on body size and environment I One type Cutaneous respiration o This is present in small animals across wet skin This includes cephalochordates and amphibians I Another gills o receive oxygen out of water as water goes into mouth and passes over gills and out of pharyngeal slits c this is a oneway flow so it saves energy 0 oxygen diffuses from water to blood lower in oxygen then distributed to body I Another type uses lungs 0 receive oxygen out of air o internal sacs gut outpocket with moist membranes for gas exchange with blood vessels air moved via pressure gradients o This type is used in most terrestrial vertebrates and their descendants Modified into swim bladder in most fish 0 Circulation 0 This system derives from the lateral plate mesoderm 0 it s a closed system all blood is in vessels 0 there are 3 main parts 1 muscular pump heart a moves blood to gas exchange regions first to pick up oxygen then carries it throughout the body 2 conduit system vessels a arteries away from the heart b veins toward heart c capillaries site of gas exchange with tissues d portal veins veins between two capillary beds to help filtering organ like kidney or liver 3 transport medium blood a liquid portion plasma b cellular portion i white blood cells immune response ii red blood cells hemoglobin for binding with oxygen Vertebrate Organ Systems Continued Excretory system 0 This system is developed from the intermediate mesoderm I similar to reproductive system 0 the function of the excretory system is to remove metabolic wastes excess salts and water via anatomical structures called nephrons I nephrons are collected in the kidneys there are several million nephrons that function together to form kidneys I blood enters through capillary beds and then filtered in the glomerulus o The development and evolution of the kidney I Pronephros 0 located far toward head and only in embryos I Then opisthonephros 0 located further toward tail and now it is present in fishes and amphibians I Then metanephros 0 located rearmost part of opisthonephros 0 present in reptiles birds mammals o the formation of this version is the bean shaped structure we are familiar with Reproduction Sex organs develop from INTERMEDIATE MESODERIW close association with Excretory system I sex organs gonads 0 female ovaries 0 male testes 0 Distribution of sex organs I DIOECIOUS has either male or female gonads separate individuals MOST COMMON I HERMAPHRODI T E male amp female reproductive organs in same individual I PART HENOGENET I C females produce young no males 0 partheneo virgin 0 Method of fertilization o EXTERNAL fertilization occurs outside of body 0 INTERNAL fertilization occurs inside of body I Protect embryo I Delayed fertilization some verts store sperm until more favorable time o Breeding periodicity can correlate with environmental conditions 0 photoperiod temperature water availability 0 Modes of reproduction o OVIPAROUS egg laying ancestral 0 VI VIPAROUS give birth to non shelled young 0 Reproductive rates 0 r strategists vs K strategists I r strategists lots of tiny young little parental care does not invest lots of time with each young I K strategists fewer large young some to lots of arental care to ensure h1gher survival rates among the few they ave 0 example humans 0 Precocial vs Altricial o precocial born ready I wildebeest zebra run away from lion ri ht after birth minimal care from parents performs at very high evel o altricial need time to develolp I oung that still need a ot of care from parents best examples umans Humans including professors K strategists altr1c1al young Endocrine system 0 s stem of ductless glands masses of tissues inside the body that releases out iffuses chemicals into the body 0 signals are transmitted via hormones secrete chemicals 0 controls continuous graduate or long term processes 0 examples growth metabolism metamorphosis sexual development Nervous system c d1v1ded into two parts 0 brain and spinal cord central nervous system o nerves peripheral nervous system o Silgnals are transmitted v1a nervous electrical impulses T is communication is fast targete d1str1bution because nerves are electr1cal that allows direct connect for specific target to be reacted 0 controls processes re uired rapid specific response 0 exam le musc e tw1tches o composed o neurons 0 neurons have parts that make up the neuron 1 cell bo y holds nucleus 2 dendrites receives signals 3 axons transmits signals usually single axon o a nerve is a bundle of neurons mostly axons 0 there are some sensory neurons the signal received from body and sent toward CNS 0 there s also some motor neurons CNS to target 0 myelin sheath fatty cells coating axons except at gaps speeds signal transmission 0 brain main center for rocessing and integratin all neural signals of the body 0 3 main regions indbrain midbrain and orebrain I the hindbrain processes hearing and balance vestibular system 0 vestibular apparatus hearing and balance I midbrain vision I forebrain smell 0 lateral line skin receptors in aquatic vertebrates that perceives detects disturbances of either prey or predator in water 0 spinal re ex arc spine receives sensory input integrates and sends out response Eaer Vertebrates o In early vertebrates the vertebrates had bony scales that were made from calcium 0 AGNATHANS jawless vertebrates hos hate o o o T e 01 est vertebrate w1th bony scales was Anatolep1s mar1ne life GNATHOSTOMES jawed vertebrates CHONDRICHTHYANS cartilaginous fishes OSTEICHTHYANS bony vertebrates l CYCLOSTOMES 0 0 0 CGN co lt5 a5 5 as K we 6 K x b R 06 c4 0 Ho Ur3 0K o to Q vb Q a 03 Sq 9 0 8 a as 393 b bquot fog of 0 11 ooq z a gvo ob Cog gg x b 0 b 0 0 0 Q Q Q 0 0 k 0 o o Qco 393 oSrv t a 2 5 a efge 5 95 WW 1 e V 0 lt2 87 e v s 03 85 e Endochondral bone Teeth on jaws Jaws pelvic fins Pectoral fins Dermal bone Mineralized tissues Wshaped myomeres Distinct head with cranium 7 70 Fearsm UlK b J l In 0 Clade Petromyzontiformes O O O O O 0 aka lampreys 40 species including mar1ne and freshwater jawless horny rasp1ng pseudo teeth I majority are paras1t1c big parasite roblem for Great Lakes fisheries secondarily ost bone skeleton cartilaginous lacing paired fins 0 Next Clade on Cladogram Conodonts O O tiny first known from fossil teeth now body fossils filter feeders water passes in particles get caught in teethlike structures I opposite of lampreys that are parasitic o GRADE on cladogram Ostracoderms O O O 0 around 100 million years old successful in their time lots of kinds I arandaspis astraospida heterostraci anaspida thelodonti 1galeaspida p1tur1asp1da osteostrac1and placoderm1 not a c ade ust a rade marine life ar er t an conodonts bone forms bo y armor some is reduced to scales I this is important because the bone helps store calcium and phosphorus deep body S1irst stomach or at bod bottom dweller many have ypocercal tail bottom obe is larger O I this quality in vertebrates is no lon er found in living vertebrates most groups lack paired fins and most lac any sort of appendage I these appendages are important for stabilization in water 0 Next Clade Osteostracan O O O O O sister to gnathostomes large pectoral ins this feature demonstrates the close relationship to nathostomest t e broad head aids in stability to prevent the vertebrate from rolling broad at head and a ventral mouth creates a vertebrate that is a bottom detritus feeder new tai desigln heterocercal tail I this w1 1 now produce downward lift 0 Gnathostomes jawed mouth 0 O O 0 include chondrichthyans cartilaginous fishes and osteichthyans bony vertebrates clades include placoderms holocephalans elasmobranchs acanthodians actinopterygians and sarcopterygians origin of jaws in nathostome vertebrates I segmenta structure of ancestral Craniate head 0 includes skeletal elements GILL ARCHES I 1st MANDIBULAR arch forms jaw joint 0 Upper element PALATOQUADRATE CARTILAGE o QUADRATE BONE I Lower element MANDIBULAR CARTILAGE o ARTICULAR BONE o Mandibular arch from SPLANCHNOCRANI UM I DERMATOCRANIUM bones overlie mandibular arch I in most taxa 0 2nd HYOID arch suspends jaw joint from braincase o Gill slit between mandibular and hyoid arch becomes I the small SPIRACLE in some taxa eg sharks but lost in others I ANY ADVANTAGE TO JAWS o Faster gill ventilation gt Oxygen o Faster feeding Synapomorphies of Gnathostomes I jaws I 2 pairs of paired appendages I a 3rd horizontal semicircular duct in vestibular system of ear aids in 3D orientation
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'