New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BSC 116 Week 4 Notes- Lectures 11-13

by: Alexia Acebo

BSC 116 Week 4 Notes- Lectures 11-13 BSC 116

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 116 > BSC 116 Week 4 Notes Lectures 11 13
Alexia Acebo
GPA 3.7
Principles Biology II
Jennifer G. Howeth

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

A collection of the fourth week of notes from BSC 116 covering material from lectures 11-13.
Principles Biology II
Jennifer G. Howeth
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Principles Biology II

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jennifer G. Howeth in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


Reviews for BSC 116 Week 4 Notes- Lectures 11-13


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/20/15
Lecture 11 Advantages to living on land C02 in air gt C02 in H20 More sunlight more photosynthesis Can grow bigger Disadvantages C02 comes in water escapes More sunlight increase in temp more UV Need specialized tissue to move resources above below ground Leaf surfaces must balance photosynthesis and water loss Leaf size more available water larger leaves Phyllotaxy leaf arrangement light capture 9roots anchorage and absorption 9 stems 2 main functions 1 3D architecture 2 conduit for transport of water minerals xylem a xylem sap single direction b phloem sap bidirectional How does it move 1 Diffusion 2 Active transport 3 Bulk ow 3 routes for transport 1 Apoplast connected spores outside of living cells a Cell walls open mesh of cellulose 2 Symplast connected spaces inside cells a Must get through plasma membrane b Once c Cells connected by plasmodesmata d Includes phloem 3 Transmembrane repeatedly crossing cell membranes Active transport requires energy pumping solute against concentration gradient 0 typically involves proton pump I use ATP to create H proton gradient I membrane potential energy stored 0 use potential to move solutes against gradient I ions 9 side 0 cation exchange I use H gradient to loosen ions ions from charged ions water moves freely across membranes by osmosis water potential psi solute concentration and pressure moves from high potential to low Flaccid Cell H20 moves out of cell plasmolysis protoplasm shrinks from cell wall Turgid Cell accid cell in H20 protoplasm expands Longdistance transport relies on pressure rather than solute potential combo of diffusion active transport bulk ow movement by pressure independent of solute Diffusion and Active Transport get soil solution to xylem soil solution water and dissolved ions enter plant through root epidermis 0 via apoplastic symplastic 0 moves through cortex 0 9must pass endodermis before reaching vascular tissue xylem sap water and dissolved minerals at night water root pressure pushes xylem sap up through roots and stems day transpiration pulls xylem sap up transpirational pull depends upon the cohesiveness and surface tension of the water Bulk ow is powered by the sun stomata openings in leaf epidermis that control gas exchanges let C02 in oxygen and water out trade off with water loss of stomata per leaf area variable 12 of external leaf surface 9 guard cells can open close the stomata translocation movement of phloem sap through long sieve tubes companion cells transfer cells load sugar into phloem Lecture 12 What minerals are plants absorbing through their roots 17 essential nutrients to complete life cycle 9 macro 8 micro carbon C hydrogen H oxygen 0 nitrogen N phosphorus P potassium K sulfur S cal cium Ca magnesium Mg boron B chlorine Cl copper Cu iron Fe manganese Mn molybdenum Mo nickel Ni and Zinc Zn epiphytes grow on other plants absorb rain water etc parasitic plants many with roots that function as haustoria carnivorous plants get N from animals live in low N environments bogs venus y trap Rhizobacteria found in Rhizosphere rhizosphere soil adjacent to plant roots rhizobacteria mutualistic bacteria in the rhizosphere Plants and bacteria work together in the nitrogen cycle bacteria help plants acquire nitrogen 0 NS in atmosphere not usable Nitrogen fixation NZ to NH3 0 Bacteria make NH3 turns into NH4 in solution I Nitrogenfixing bacteria fix N2 I Ammonifying bacteria decomposers Nitrifying bacteria convert NH4 to NO3 that plants can use Legumes and rhizobium have special symbiosis o Rhizobium forms root nodules by infecting the root PlantFungi Interactions Mycorrhizae Important root mutualism 0 Plant supplies carbs o Fungus aids in absorption of water amp minerals especially phosphorus I Also secrete root growth enhabcers and antibiotics 0 Almost all plant species have mycorrhizal fungi 2 groups 1 Ectomycorrhizae external sheath of hyphae 2 Arbuscular grow through cell wall Lecture 13 2 Developmental Pathways Eudicot 2 cotyledons 0 Some have thick cotyledons no endosperm I Cotyledons full of starch absorbed from endosperm I Leaves embryonic shoot Monocot 1 cotyledon o Cotyledonscutellum o Excorn Last stage of seed development ejects most of its water and closes the micropyle seed remains dormant until conditions are favorable for germination Varies Can be dormant for decades Germination Begins with uptake of water imbibition 9causes expansion seed coat ruptures o triggers enzymes to digest and mobilize stored nutrients Eudicots radical emerges first followed by hypocotyl root Monocots coletopile protects shoot leads way up Simultaneous Seed amp Fruit Development double fertilization causes hormonal changes ovary transforms o ovary wall becomes pericarp thickened wall of fruit other ower parts shed fruits vary on arrangement simple single carpels aggregate multiple separate separate carpels multiple multiple owers in an in orescence ovary walls fuse 4 accessory incorporate other oral parts besides ovaries fruits transport seeds widely during dormancy o abiotic wind water 0 biotic animals WNE O Asexual Reproduction of Vegetative shoots embryonic meristems facilitate asexual reproduction by fragmentation parent plant severed leads to 2 individuals other mechanisms 0 adventitious roots 0 apromixis seeds produced by mitosis no fertilization advantages do not need another individual to reproduce no frail small seedling pass on exact genetic info disadvantages pass on exact genetic info 0 selfing is sexual but has the same advantages I many plants with self incompatibility I chronologically or physically separate male and female parts dioecious one sex or another


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.