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Test 1 Textbook Notes!

by: Julia Marcinak

Test 1 Textbook Notes! SOP3004

Marketplace > Florida State University > Psychlogy > SOP3004 > Test 1 Textbook Notes
Julia Marcinak
GPA 3.5
Social Psychology
Christopher Beck

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About this Document

These are a summary of the notes from the textbook chapters for test one! This should be a helpful addition to the class notes when studying for the exam!
Social Psychology
Christopher Beck
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOP3004 at Florida State University taught by Christopher Beck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 09/20/15
CH1 1 Social Psychology is the scienti c study of how people think about in uence and relate to one another a 90 The Central Themes include i How we construct our social worlds ii How our social intuitions guide and sometimes deceive us iii How our social behavior is shaped by other people by our attitudes and personalities and by our biology iv How social psychology s principles apply to our everyday lives and to various other elds of study Social psychology is all about life your life beliefs attitudes and relationships We are biopsychological organism39s Attitudes and personalities in uence behaviors i They are in uenced by external social factors Our intuitions and unconscious information processing are routinely powerful and sometimes perilous How we construct the world and ourselves is important Social psychology compared to sociology focuses on individuals and does more experimentation Social psychology compared to personality psychology focuses less on individuals differences and more on how individuals in general view and affect one another 2 Social psychologists values penetrate their work in obvious ways such as their choice of research topics and the types of people who are attracted to various fields of study a They also do this in subtle ways such as their hidden assumptions when forming concepts choosing labels and giving advice The penetration of values into science is not a reason to fault social psychology or any other science Human thinking is seldom dispassionate this is why we need systematic observation and experimentation if we are to check our ideas against reality 3 Social psych is criticized because it studies things that seem obvious The outcomes are more obvious after the facts are known a Hindsight bias I knew it all along people are overcon dent of their predictions and judgements 4 A good theory will distill an array of facts into a much shorter list of predictive principles We use these predictions to con rrn or modify the theory to generate new research and to suggest practical applications 5 Most Research is either correlational or experimental a Correlational studies are conducted with systematic statistics to study the relationships between variables b Experimental research looks at cause and effect by constructing a controlled environment where variables can be controlled to study how they affect behavior i Researchers must get informed consent CH 2 1 We tend to think that others are paying more attention to us than they are this is the spotlight effect 2 We believe that our emotions are more obvious than they are this is the illusion of transparency 3 Our Sense of self helps organize our thoughts and actions When we process information we reference ourselves and we will remember it well a Selfconcept has two parts i Selfschemas guide out processing of selfrelevant information ii Possible selves that we dream of or dread b Cultures shape the self i Individualistic cultures assume an independent self ii Collectivistic cultures assume an interdependent self c Our selfknowledge is awed We often do not know why we behave the way we do Unconscious processes control our behavior and we may not consciously relate to why we did something i We tend to misdirect our emotions ii We underestimate the power of our psychological immune systems and overestimate the durability of our emotional reactions to significant events 4 SelfEsteem is the overall sense of selfworth we use it to appraise our traits and abilities a Our selfconcepts are determined by multiple in uences including the roles we play the comparisons we make our social identities how we perceive others appraising us and our eXperiences of success and failure b Selfesteem motivation in uences our cognitive processes i When facing failure people will high selfesteem will sustain their selfworth by perceiving other people as failing too and exaggerating their superiority over others ii People with highself esteem and narcissism are the most aggressive 5 There are many benefits to being selfefficant and feeling in control People who believe in their own competence and effectiveness and who have internal loss of control cope better and achieve more than others Learned helplessness often occurs when attempts to improve a situation have proven fruitless Self determination is bolstered by experiences of successfully exercising control and improving one39s situation When people are given too many choices they may be less satisfied with what they have rather than if they only had a few choices 6 SelfServing Bias We take credit for our successes but blame others for failures a b c Most people rate themselves as better than average on desirable traits and abilities We exhibit unrealistic optimism about our futures We overestimate the commonality of our opinions False consensus and underestimate the commonality of our abilities and virtues False Uniqueness These perceptions arise from a motive to maintain and enhance selfesteem Selfserving bias causes us to savor the good things in our life but blame others and feel cheated out of something we think we deserve when things go bad 7 We adjust our words and actions to the audience we are around a CH3 This explains false modesty When someone credits someone else in public but privately takes credit for themselves People will selfhandicap with selfdefeating behaviors that protect selfesteem by providing excuses for failure Selfpresentation refers to our wanting to present a favorable image to both an external audience and an internal audience i Those who score highly on a scale of selfmonitoring will adjust their behavior to each situation Those who do not will seem insensitive 1 Our preconceptions strongly in uence how we interpret and remember events a b Priming is when people39s prejudgments have striking effect on how they perceive and interpret information Beforethefact judgements bias our perceptions and afterthe fact judgments bias our recall Belief perseverance is the phenomenon in which people cling to their initial beliefs and the reasons why a belief might be true even when the basis for the belief is discredited Our memories actually form when we retrieve them and are subject to strong in uence by the attitudes and feelings we hold at the time of retrieval 2 We have a huge capacity for autonomic efficient and intuitive thinking a Our cognitive efficiency occasionally makes errors that we are unaware of i It is useful to identify ways in which we form and sustain false beliefs CH5 ii We overestimate our judgements because we can imagine why we might be right easier than why we might be wrong iii People are more likely to search for information that can con rm their beliefs then information that will disconfirm it iv We often ignore baserate information due to the ease of recall of vivid information availability heuristic V We are swayed by illusions of correlation and personal control 1 It is tempting to perceive correlations where none exist illusory correlation 2 We think we can predict or control chance events illusion of control vi Moods infuse judgments Good and bad moods trigger memories of experiences associated with those moods They affect our interpretation of current experiences Attribution Theory involves how we explain people39s behavior a Misattribution is attributing a behavior to the wrong source b Fundamental attribution error correspondence bias when explaining other people39s behavior We attribute their behavior to their inner traits and discount situational constraints We do the opposite for our own behaviors Usually our beliefs about others have a bias a Special treatment elicits superior or inferior performance and lead to confirming the original false assumption b Behavioral confirmation selffulfilling prophecy where people39s social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations Research on social beliefs and judgements reveals how we form and sustain beliefs that usually serve us well but sometimes lead us astray Natural selection favors behavioral traits that promote the perpetuation of one s genes Human diversity The behaviors and ideas that de ne a group and that are transmitted across generations a Differences in cultures show us how we are the products of cultural norms Gender differences Women are typically more caring express more empathy and emotions and define themselves more in terms of relationships a Men tend to have more social power and aggression They also think about an initiate sex more often Evolution may have predisposed gender differences Sexually aggressive males reproduce more often a Biology and social roles both play a major role in the in uence of gender differences Gender Roles re ect a biological in uence but also socialcultural impact Males have socially dominant roles a They differ from culture to culture b Culture is passed on to childrenpeers Biological and cultural explanations are not contradictory They interact a There is a power of social in uence complemented with the power of the person b They interact in three ways i Individuals vary in how they interpret and react to situations ii People choose many of the situations that in uence them iii People help create their own social situations


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