SOC 240 Week Five Notes
SOC 240 Week Five Notes Soc 240
Popular in People In Places: Understanding and Developing Community
Popular in Sociology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Meyer on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 240 at Illinois State University taught by Michael Dougherty in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see People In Places: Understanding and Developing Community in Sociology at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
SOC 240 Week Five Notes What On Earth 1966 339 Movie depicts earth s inhabitants as cars 339 The Martians see humanity from the air 339 They see no humans Money Machines or Mobility Safdie and Kohn 339 There is little space in cities 339 Interstate systems cut through the center of downtown cities This creates a divide between communities It reduces civic life which also reduces diversity 339 Roadshighways expand from cities They divide section suburban and rural towns They segregate peopleplaces The car became a necessary tool for individuals to visit towns or neighborhoods separate from their own We can visit people far away from us using cars but the car displaced people in the first 1m Cars aren t inherently convenient they were made this way by mentalinterpersonal institutions 339 Cars removed pedestrians from the street Public domains used to be all spaces outside of homes and institutions Face to face interaction was high in public domains Individuals trust each other in places with lots of face to face interaction Samford 339 The modernized downtown was modified to include a shopping mall 1980s 339 The shopping wall was boxed in from the street with parking lots on all its sides The ground level of the shopping mall was raised two stories above the street 339 The streets surrounding the mall were desolate and empty very strange With few people on the street the public domain is now privatized Civic involvement declining 339 The number of Americans attending public meetings declined 50 since the 1970s 339 Membership in unions dropped 50 since the 1950s 339 Membership in PTAs is down Why does this matter 339 Hypocrisypeople want change but they aren t involved 339 Changes in the community will ripple out globally 339 Community requires individuals to interact and involve themselves Without the interaction no community exists v If individuals don t involve and interact then they depend on professionals for help and guidance Depending on professionals causes more deterioration COUNTERVAILING TRENDS to decline in civic involvement 339 Soccer leagues 339 Social movements occupy 339 Membership in national advocacy groups Sierra Club AARP 0 v Nonprofit organizations 339 Support groups Putnam doesn t believe these trends mend the problem of decreased civic involvement The trends have weak ties local communities Membership in the countervailing trends doesn t imply individuals to leave their home and interact with others 339 United communities include civic interaction rather than individualistic behavior staying at home 339 Support groups Alcoholics Anonymous require individuals to seek out help gesselschaft type concept because it the action is based on the will of one individual 339 Ideally the community comes together to determine what is agreed to be an ailment then proceeds to eradicate the ailment Defining Social Capital Flora and Flora claim social capital is the engine under all seven capitals When social capital is healthy and functioning all seven capitals will be healthy and functioning The value of social networks is determined by the density of social ties 339 Density consists of intensity and extensity 339 Intensity is how well one individual knows another 339 Extensity is how many individuals each individual knows Density of Acquaintanceship more intensity and extensity are better 339 Interaction with a diverse network of others 339 Diverse networks lead to more diverse networks 339 Channels of networks provide opportunities 339 Common acquaintance unites random individuals Norms of reciprocity and trust 339 If one individual does something for another the favor will be returned 339 This is a naturally occurring phenomenon 339 It is greedy and un natural to expect things in return keep a list 339 It is a phenomenon that simply occurs One individual helping another is a functioning characteristic of a healthy community Social Capital BondingBridging Bonding is a strongintimate relationship with others 339 Individuals have each other s trust 339 Bonds are tight woven relationships Individuals discover jobs through social ties 339 More usual to find jobs through weak ties than those we ve bonded with best friends 0 v Bridging with communities and groups outside your own develops weak ties High Bridging Low Clientelism Progressive High change driven participation externally change driven professional by broad problem coalitions Bonding Extreme Strong Bonding Individualism Boundaries poor get left out mistrust among groups little cooperation racism xenophobia result Low Bridging Bonding Social Capital 0 v Sports team 339 Greek life 339 Can become too exclusive Di erences in bridgingbonding tell us about communities ability to do well 339 Tight bonds but willingness to bridge is ideal Communities with high levels of social capital are Safer places 0 v Busy urban neighborhoods are safer People talk about crime that happened People are willing to lookout for each other Criminals have a disincentive to robhurt people they know 339 Abandoned places have less people paying attention to them It is easier to do bad things in these empty spaces Higher social capital makes things more vibrant 339 There are increases in happiness quality of life and emotional health In these communities there is economic resilience 339 When economic shock occurs the communities bounce back readily 339 There is active citizenship so individuals are interacting and spreading information 339 Everyone knows what certain individuals are good at 339 Individuals direct those with qualities and skills to opportunities Democracy and participation 339 When everyone is invested in the community power is shared and resources are distributed evenly is trickle down economics possible with 100 citizen participation The Dark Side of Social Capital 339 Narrow mindedness v Exclusion 339 Reinforcing powerful elites quot Gangs Deep mistrusthostile behavior towards outsiders violencedeviance results 339 NIMBY Individuals in community have an ordinary support for a theory Community organizes against the theory being applied to the area near their community Individuals decide they don t want to be near the functional application of the theory Wind Turbines Prison Complexes Explaining the Decline in Social Capital WorkEconomic Pressure Everyone is busy and stressed out Studying 18 credit hours or working full time are both demanding Some students do both Everyone is too busy with their own schedule to block off time for civic engagement and recreation SuburbsSprawl Our homes are vary large compared to the past 0 Many are fenced off We commute in private vehicles Individual s habitats are isolated from the habitats of other individuals There are various types of screens TV we focus on instead of facetoface interaction Busy schedules isolated habitats and distracting screens caused the Ideological Generation Change Millenials feel different about the frequency and nature of interaction with others A majority of our daily business is conducted alone without interaction URBAN RENEWAL Urban Planning orthodoxy 40s50s FreewaysExpressways are born growing Science technology and engineering are on the rise As a culture it was believed science technology credibility and prestige are the solutions to societal problems Suburbs were sucking capital out of cities This made cities poorer more violent and created un used space Large infrastructure projects ports stadiums were the response to the movement of capital out of cities Euclidean single use zoning develops The city of Euclid Ohio planned out how certain spaces in the community would be used Space was developed based on the type of land The plan was to maximize the benefit provided by specific spaces Ambler Realty sued Euclid for telling the company how to use land they owned The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Euclid This was the origin of zoning laws Euclidean zoning was e icient and innovative so other cities followed Euclid s lead Project buildings were a function of urban renewal Project buildings were built after slums were torn down Slums were privately owned housing gt The housing was old and left in bad conditions by owners slum lords gt African American from the south and ethnic enclaves of Europeans inhabited the slums Project buildings were progressive and radical Scummy slum lords were eliminated gt Urban planners and engineers the professionals didn t ask the citizens what living conditions they preferred Jane Jacobs 1961 Critigues urban renewal high modernism and social engineering of cities Advocates density diversity ethnic industrial socioeconomic and racial and mixed use of community spaces gt Work and commerce would all take place on the same street gt These domains are public thus safe vibrant and fair