Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes BIOL 160 - 021
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BIOL 160 - 021
Mary Alison Bennett
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Alison Bennett on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 160 - 021 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Purnima D Pinnaduwage in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Cellular and Molecular Biology Chapters 12 Review The Five Big Ideas FBls Evolution populations of organisms and their cellular components have changed over time through both selective and nonselective evolutionary processes Structure and Function all living systems are made of structural subunits which impact the functioning of those systems Information Flow and Storage DNA is the information code for life how it is used and exchanged within and among organisms is the basis of life on the planet Transformations of Energy and Matter all living things acquire use and release matter and energy for cellular functioning Systems living systems are interconnected and interact and influence each other on multiple levels Five Scientific Practices FSPs Link topics and synthesize information particularly in reference to the FBls Ask scientific questions based on models and data lnterpret scientific representations and come to an evidenced conclusion Summarize information from scientific articles or other sources Predict the consequences of changes to systems or pathways EvidenceBased Studv of Life There are many sources from which scientific problems and questions come from Biology is studied at many levels of organization Cellular and Molecular Biology The cell is the fundamental structural unit of all organisms What Makes a Cell a Living Orqanism Organisms range from millions of cells to just one The range of functions for organisms is huge But they are all alive Cellular amp Molecular Biology BIOL 160 Chapter 2 Biomolecules o Biomolecules are unique to the living world 0 Includes proteins ch3 nucleic acids ch4 carbohydrates ch5 and lipids ch6 Chemical Elements Bonds and Water Basic Atomic Structure o Atoms are composed of protons neutrons and electrons o Protons have a positive charge and reside in the atomic nucleus 0 Neutrons are electrically neutral and also reside in the atomic nucleus 0 Electrons have a negative charge and orbit the atomic nucleus in orbitals O 0 Each element has numbers to describe it 0 Mass Number equal to the number of protons plus neutrons 0 Atomic Number equal to the number of protons o The number of protons of any given element will always be the same regardless of charge Chemical Bondinq o Atoms use their outer electrons to bond to each other 0 The number of valence electrons usually equals the number of bonds the atom will form ex H91 C94 N93 092 0 However there are double and triple bonds that may change this 0 There are multiple types of bonds Covalent Bonds 0 Make atoms more stable by allowing them to share electrons and achieve full valence shells 0 Can be polar or nonpolar Cellular amp Molecular Biology BIOL 160 Chapter 2 0 Polar Covalent Bonds electrons are shared unevenly and result in partial charges in the atoms ex H2 CH4 0 NonPolar Covalent Bonds electrons are shared completely evenly ex NH3 H20 0 Electronegativity determines whether bonds will be polar or nonpolar o Electronegativity depends on the number of protons in an atom and the distance between protons and the valence electrons o Electronegativity is the greatest in the upper right corner of the periodic table 0 IMPORTANT 9 OgtNgtCSH Ionic Bonds 0 Form between ions typically a metal from the left side of the PT cation and a nonmetal from the right sideanion ex NaCl 0 When one atom gives up its electron to another atom so both can form full valence shells HH HCH H zNz H 0 Na Cl ole 9 5H H 8 H H 8 NonPolar Covalent Polar Covalent Ionic W Water as a Solvent 0 Water is a very effective solvent the solvent of life 0 Polarity and hydrogen bonds 0 Polar molecules are hydrophilic because the charged atoms will attract the opposite partial charges in water molecules 0 NonPolar molecules are hydrophobic because they do not attract the partial charges 0 Water has a unique structure 0 Small 0 Bent Shape Cellular amp Molecular Biology BIOL 160 Chapter 2 0 Highly polar bonds 0 Polar overall Special Properties of Water primarily due to water s ability to form hydrogen bonds 0 Water is cohesive water molecules are attracted to each other 0 Water is adhesive water molecules water molecules hydrogen bonding to other substances 0 Water is denser as a liquid than a solid ice floats 0 Water is able to absorb large amounts of energy Acids Bases and pH o The concentration of H is the basis for pH measurement pH 09H o H antilogpH 10quot H H concentration of H m 0 have H higher than 10397M o Acidic molecules release H into the solution 0 pH 07 m 0 Have H lower than 10397M 0 Basic molecules accept or pick up H ions in the solution 0 pH 814 Cellular amp Molecular Biology BIOL 160 Chapter 2 Functional Groups Functional Family of Group Formula Molecules Properties Example H l39l Acts as a base HxN13d9 Amino R N Amines tends to attract a H OH H proton Glycine 39 OH Acts as an acid HCCquot Carboxyl Carboxylic Acids tends to lose a l C OH proton Hl Acetic Acid Can react with H H I certain HC39C C Aldehydes compounds to R H produce larger H gt Carbonyl molecules Acetaldehyde H H 0 Wag Hes JL Ketones I II I R R39 Acetone Highly polar makes I If compounds more HCCO Hydroxyl OH Alcohols water soluble Ill 39139 H can be adweak Ethanol acn Multiple M NH 0 hosphates can Hot390rl0rto lt5 l organIC p 0H Em c39iH The N N Phosphate R 0 Fl 0H Phosphates store large I OH amounts of energy ATP 0 Can form k H Sulfhydryl 5 Thiols disulfide bonds in HS 0 H proteins NH Cysteine
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