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Chapter 3: Cognitive Foundations

by: Kaitlyn Mirabella

Chapter 3: Cognitive Foundations Psych 3390

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > Psych 3390 > Chapter 3 Cognitive Foundations
Kaitlyn Mirabella
GPA 3.8
Adolescent Psychology

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Hi all, Here are my notes on Chapter 3: Cognitive Foundations! Let me know if you have any questions.
Adolescent Psychology
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Mirabella on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3390 at Tulane University taught by Fabian in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
Chapter 3 Cognitive Foundations Cognitive development changes over time in how people think how they solve problems and how their capacities for memory and attention change 0 Adolescence is a crucial time in developing one s thinking skills 0 Training to become an adult Piaget s Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget In uential Swiss developmental psychologist best known for his theories of cognitive and moral development 0 Children of different ages think differently Changes in cognitive development proceed in distinct stages belief that development is discontinuous not gradual 0 mg a period in which abilities are organized in a coherent interrelated way The driving force behind development from one stage to the next is maturation o Maturation process by which abilities develop through genetically based development with limited in uence from the environment 0 Separated Piaget from other theorists o Genetically based development The active construction of reality takes place through the use of schemes 0 Scheme A mental concept framework that is useful in organizing and interpreting information 0 Kids learn by organizing what they know and putting new things into those categories 0 Kids are driven to learn they like getting new information and playing with stuff striving to gure out their worlds Piaget Schemes Assimilation the cognitive process that occurs when new information is altered to t an existing scheme 0 As a 15 month old thinking all 4 legged animals are dogs because all she knows is dog Accommodation the cognitive process that occurs when a scheme is changed to adapt to new information o Realizing scheme is wrong not all 4 legged animals are dogs change the scheme Stages of Cognitive Development in Childhood and Adolescence Stages Age Brief Description Sensorimotor 02 Learn to coordinate activities of the senses with motor activities making sense of what you see hear smell touch Preoperational 27 Capable of representing the world symbolically e g language egocentric I can see the world from my point of view and my point of view only Concrete Operations 71 1 Better at using mental operations can reason logically about concrete events understand conservation Formal Operations 1115 Can reason about problems involving multiple variables can to 20 think logically and abstractly can apply the rigor of the scienti c method to cognitive tasks Formal Operations Stage Hypotheticaldeductive reasoning the ability to systematically test possible solutions to a problem and arrive at an answer that can be defended and explained 0 At this stage one should be able to do this Thinking is 0 Abstract I Reason about concepts that cannot be experience directly I Justice freedom good evil politics religion I What could be different in the world What can we do 0 Complex I Can perceive multiple aspects of a situation or idea I Can understand metaphors sarcasm o Metacognition thinking about thinking I Can monitor and reason about their thinking processes learn and solve problems more efficiently Limitations of Piaget s Theory Critiques of the Formal Operations stage Maturation development driven by biology 9 do all individuals go through the same stages at same ages Individual differences 0 A great deal of variability among individuals in formal operational thinking 0 Schooling 0 Even if capable formal operational thinking is selective or is not needed Cultural differences 0 What are the cognition requirements in a particular culture Cognitive Development in Emerging Adulthood Formal 0perationsthe LAST stage Postformal thinking 0 Pragmatism I Incorporations of practical limitations to logical thinking I Dialectical thought most problems do not have a single solution 0 Re ective judgment I Move away from dualistic thinking seeing the world in polarized terms InformationProcessing Approach A different approach from Piaget Computer as a model of human thinking Created by cognitive psychologists Cognitive development is gradual continuous 0 NOT in stages as Piaget theorized Explains how the mind manages information steps in the thinking process especially attention and memory The components of information processing 0 Attention o Shortterm amp longterm memory 0 Processing speed automaticity and executive functioning Information Processing In human thinking the different components operate simultaneously We have a lot going on sensory information but not all goes to longterm memory some goes to shortterm memory Attention Attention Focusing of mental effort Most information that enters the senses is processed no further Selective attention your ability to decide what to focus on 0 Hard for kids gets better with age 0 Can be practiced Divided attention attending to more than one thing 0 Watching a movie AND doing homework listening to music AND on Facebook driving AND talking on the phone 0 If attention is divided both tasks get LESS focus cannot multiply your attention 0 If the task at hand is at all complex or challenging multitasking considerably reduces attention to the key task Memory In order to learn and reason you need to retain information in memory and retrieve it when necessary Shortterm memory very shortterm 2030 seconds if you want to keep anything longer than that have to process it further Longterm memory capacity is limitless just takes effort and thinking about it again and again and using it Working memory involves conscious active processing of incoming information and of information retrieved from longterm memory 0 Actively incorporate new things link it to old things 0 With age capacity increases as well as the knowledge base 0 The larger the knowledge base the better you can think about new stuff easier it is to learn new things Processing Speed Speed of processing 0 Adolescents are better than kids adults are better than adolescents declines in late adulthood Automaticity The more automatic a task is the faster you can do it and the less working memory capacity it takes leaving room for other tasks Gets better with age Executive Functioning Ability to control and manage cognitive abilities such as attention memory planning and reasoning Limitations of the InformationProcessing Approach Not a developmental theory not a holistic perspective 0 Not about change over time Computers are not selfre ective Computers lack emotions Practical Cognition Critical Thinking amp Decision Making in daily life Critical Thinking Going beyond rote memorization Does not develop automatically or inevitably Teaching people how to learn Can adolescents make competent decisions Behavioral decision theory 9 Decisionmaking process 0 Possible choices With age better at identifying more 0 Consequences of each ch01ce Choices anticipating o Des1rab111ty amp likelihood of each consequence consequences 0 Integrating all information to make a decision eValuatlng mformatlon Why do adolescents take more risks than adults Make poor decisions Different evaluations of desirability of a consequence Dual processing theory 2 cognitive systems analytic amp heuristic o Analytic reasoning ability objective reasoning skills 0 Heuristic intuition I have a feeling that this is the right thing to do I have a goodbad feeling about this Steinberg amp Cauffman decision making is an interaction between cognitive and psychosocial factors 0 Cognitive similar to analytic system 0 Psychosocial similar to heuristic worry stress anxiety friendships peers relationships how is this person going to feel Adolescents give more weight to psychosocial factors Social Cognition Social cognition the way we think about other people social relationships and social institutions 2 Aspects l Perspective taking ability to understand thoughtsfeelings of others one of the most important milestones being able to take someone else s perspective i Gradual development ii Theory of mind the ability to attribute mental states to self and others iii Important to practice taking someone else s perspective iv Only a loose connection between age and perspectivetaking abilities v Related to popularity among peers success at making friends those who are wellliked are very good at perspective taking strongly related to social skills vi Related to how adolescents treat others vii Predict sympathy and prosocial promoting the wellbeing of others behavior 2 Adolescent egocentrism type of egocentrism in which adolescents have difficulty distinguishing their thinking about their own thoughts from their thinking about the thoughts of others i Imaginary audience belief that others are acutely aware of and attentive to one s appearance and behavior ii Personal fable a belief in one s personal uniqueness often including a sense of invulnerability to the consequences of taking risks a Risky behavior optimistic bias Psychometric Approach Psychometric approach evaluating cognitive abilities with intelligence tests 0 It is in the domain of intelligence that the most attention has been directed to individual differences Intelligence tests 0 Alfred Binet 1905 in Paris developed a method of identifying children who might have difficulty in school 0 Created age norms to see who would need special assistance in school 0 Louis Terman at Stanford revised it for American children called it the StanfordBinet i Americans began introducing the concept of IQ ii Modified test to be able to give IQ scores iii Binet had no intention of doing that o The Wechsler scales are widely used intelligence tests WAIS WISC i Age norms ii 11 subtests to provide Overall IQ Verbal IQ and Performance IQ o IQ Tests are NOT supposed to be quizzing you on stuff you learned in school Performance on IQ Tests 0 Relative performance results compared to persons of same age 0 Absolute performance results compared to others regardless of age i Crystallized intelligence scores on verbal subtests tend to improve with age from 16 to 38 ii Fluid knowledge absolute scores on performance subtests peaked in mid20s and then declined Wechsler IQ Tests 0 Are the WISC and the WAIS reliable and valid i The Wechsler IQ tests have HIGH testretest reliability ii Little change over time in your IQ o Validity 9 do IQ tests really measure intelligence i IQ scores in adolescence have reasonably good predictive validity educational attainment occupational success A certain IQ score can predict how many grades in school a person completes certain degrees how successful they are in their job ii But NOT the sole indicator of competence Intelligence Tests amp Adolescent Development 0 Intelligence nature or nurture 0 Adoption studies 1 Adoptive parents environment Biological parents genes ii With age the intelligence tests scores of adoptees looks more and more like that of their BIOLOGICAL parents iii Immediate family environment becomes less in uential with age iv And increase in active genotype 9 environment interactions v Transracial adoption studiesRacial differences in IQ most likely due to cultural and social class differences rather than genetics Brain Development in Adolescence Neurons nerve cells the nervous system s basic units Myelination the myelin sheath insulates the axon increasing the speed and efficiency of information processing Synapse where neurons connect and communicate Overproduction a thickening of synaptic connections 0 00000 Prenatal period through 18 months of age Brain is giving you way more neurons than you re going to need Also occurs when puberty begins ages 1012 Especially concentrated in frontal lobes Overproduction peaks about age 11 Following that a massive amount of synaptic pruning takes place i Synapses that are used remain those that are not used wither away brain can work more efficiently Cerebellum continues to grow throughout adolescence and into the mid20s O Nonverbal learning mathematics music social skills Culture and Cognitive Development Review A Cognitivedevelopmental B Information processing C Psychometric D Brain development Discover principles of cognitive development that apply to all people in all times and all cultures Lev Vygotsky sociocultural theory Children learn through interactions with others more about individual differences What children need to know is determined by the culture Scaffolding degree of assistance provided to the learner should gradually decrease Learning is best achieved in the Zone of Proximal Development the range of tasks that can be accomplished with guidance 0 Lower limit level of problem solving reached on these tasks by child working alone Upper limit level of additional responsibility child can accept with assistance of an able instructor


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