Chapter 6: Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism
Chapter 6: Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism BIOL 2601 - 01
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BIOL 2601 - 01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Suzanne Notetaker on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2601 - 01 at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Asch in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 206 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Chapter 6 Energy Enzymes and Metabolism Energy and Chemical Reactions Energy ability to promote change or do work Two Forms 1 Kineticmovement 2 Potentialstored energy due to structure or location a Chemicalenergy in molecular bonds Laws of Thermodynamics 1 Energy can t be created or destroyed Conservation of Energy 239 Do nothing and it s probably going to get worse Entropydegree of disorder in this case increases Free Energy amount of energy available Total energy usable energy unusable energy Energy transformations increase in entropy H G TS where H enthalpy total energy G free energy T temp S entropy Spontaneous reactions occur without input of energy not always fast can be slow Free Energy Change AG AH ATS A difference for example G2 G1 Exergonic spontaneous AG lt 0 Energy released Endergonic not spontaneous AG gt 0 Requires additional energy Synthesis and Hydrolysis of ATP Synthesischemical reactions exergonic Hydrolysiscellular processes endergonic Enzymes and Ribozymes ALL ENZYMES ARE PROTEINS Catalyst speeds up rate of reaction without being consumed during reaction Enzymes protein catalyst Ribozymes RNA molecules with catalytic properties Activation Energy initial input of energy to start reaction Overcome activation energy 1 Large amount of heat 2 Enzyme lower activation energy How to Lower Activation Energy 1 Straining bonds in reactants 2 Position reactants together 3 Changing local environment Active site location where reaction takes places Substrates reactants that bind to active site nzymesubstrate complex when enzyme and substrate bind Steps for EnzymeCatalyzed Reactions Substrates ATP and Glucose bind to enzyme Enzyme undergoes conformational change binds substrates Substrates converted to products 4 Products ADP are released Enzymes can be released WP Substrate Binding enzymes have high specificity for substrate 1 LockandKey metaphor only right key substrate will fit in lock enzyme 2 Induced Fit Phenomenon similar to lockandkey but goes through changes so substrates fit easier into enzyme Enzyme Reactions Saturation all active sites occupied by substrate Vmax velocity of reaction near maximum rate Michaelis constant Km substrate concentration where velocity is half maximum value High Km high substrate concentration Inhibition shutting down enzyme you don t need for awhile 1 Competitive Molecule binds to active site Inhibits ability of substrate to bind no reaction Km increases more substrate needed 2 NonCompetitive Binds to allosteric not active site Change shape of active site inhibit ability of substrate to bind Lowers Vmax without affecting Km Other Requirements for Enzymes Prosthetic groups small molecules permanently attached to enzyme 1 Cofactor inorganic ion temporarily binds to enzyme 2 Coenzyme organic ion left unchanged NOT PROTEINS Enzymes are affected by environment narrow range of temperature and pH where normally found Overview of Metabolism Chemical reactions occur in chemical pathways Coordinated by specific enzyme Catabolic breakdown cellular components Exergonic release energy make ATP energy to drive endergonic reactions AnabolicBiosynthetic synthesize cellular components Endergonic need energy use ATP coupled to exergonic reactions make large macromolecules and smaller molecules not available from food Two Way to Make ATP 1 Substratelevel phosphorylation enzyme directly transfer phosphate from one molecule to another 2 Chemiosmosis energy stored in electrochemical gradient used to make ATP from ADP and Pi Make Most ATP Redox Reaction electrons e removed from one molecule is added to another Oxidation lose e Reduction gain e NADH coenzyme catch electrons that are going away and harness them for their energy Useful 1 Releases lots of energy make ATP 2 Donate electrons Regulation of Metabolic Pathways Gene regulation turn genes onoff Celular regulation cellsignaling pathways Biochemical regulation Feedback inhibitionto prevent over accumulation of product and shut down pathway for a while can be Competitive or NonCompetitive Recycling of Organic Molecules arge molecules exist for short amount of time Halflife time it takes 50 of molecules to be broken down and recycled ALL efficiently use and recycle organic molecules Expression of genome allows cells to respond to changes in environment RNA proteins made when needed broken down when not mRNA degradation important conserve energy remove faulty mRNA Proteasome large complex that breaks down proteins Protease cleave bonds between amino acids break down proteins Ubiguitin tags target proteins to proteasome to be broken downrecycled Allows cell to 1 Degrade improperly folded proteins 2 Rapidly degrade proteins to changing conditions Lysosomes hydrolases to break down macromolecules Digest substrates taken up by endocytosis Autophagy recycling worn out organelles
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