Week 1 (Intro, What is Cognitive Psychology?)
Week 1 (Intro, What is Cognitive Psychology?) PSYC 2014
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2014 at George Washington University taught by Dopkins, S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Monday August 31 2015 Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Psych more scientific but not overly scientific Feeling of philosophy sometimes Understand and figure out what is going on in peoples minds without asking them Why notjust ask them Can t tell you May be dishonest Don t want to be intrusive into someones affairs May not be aware of things they do that everyone does but only the things they do uniquely lntrospectionism school of psych in which trained observers describe their conscious experiences as means of studying the human mind Started before 1800s Wilhelm Wundt father of psychology He wanted to decide if it is possible to think without seeing mental images Will you see something when you think about something like truth 5050 said yes I do or no I don t Said Yes grad student was asked and he said I see truth as a bluegrey top of a kind of scoop which has a bit of yellow above it and is digging into a dan mass of plastic material 39 THIS IS RIDICULOUS You cannot trust what someone says because if they are trying to make a point they will say whatever supports that theory You experiment in cognitive psych to find out what people are thinking Roger Shepard did this experiment big deal in psychology Monday August 31 2015 2 3D images of blocks are they the same below first one we had a lot of time and said yes second time it was quick and we struggled 2 ways to do this Mirror reversal and orientate it rotate it 39 Response times time goes up in a very reliable linear function as the amount of angle increases the picture was rotated As the amount you rotate the object goes up the response time goes up Important point LINEAR why Something happens that is taking someone longer to see if the first image is the same as the second image It is taking longer to rotate the image in your mind the farther and more it is manipulated NOT IMAGINATION you already can see the object on the screen you have no control over your image rotator in your brain you just need to let it rotate to see if it matches the other image Does it take you longer to image you are in Dupont Circle than to image you are in NYC No typically it does not In your imagination you are king you can dictate whatever you want 39 IMAGINATION Cognitive Neuroscience more concerned with your brain what lights up in the brain when you39re thinking etc We are focused more on the mind Monday August 31 2015 What is the value of knowing what lights up Does not tell you what you are actually thinking It does not help you understand the thought process it can but not immediately Just knowing where something is in the brain does not really help you Monday August 31 2015 What is Cognitive Psychology Rene Descartes He was initially a scientist Small scrawny man lifelong bachelor Developed a habit when he was young to lay in bed well past noon thinking which lead to great ideas initially in science and math quotFrom the Greeks Descartes took it farther to assign numbers to locations quotEssentially just merging algebra and geometry leading to more advancements When he was about to publish his works he heard about Galleleo s troubles who was in trouble with the Church so he decided to wait to publish the work until peace was restored in Catholic Church He then decided to devote his life to philosophy from a point of view of doubt he doubted everything leading him to start fresh He realizes that he can t doubt that he isn t doubting because he is doubting which turns into the basis of his thinking He then tries to think of other things he cannot doubt which lead to Clear and Distinct ideas what Descartes believed were things that could not be doubted The less sensory content in an idea the clearer and more distinct it is A square is clear and distinct A sheep is not clear and distinct Think of it this way if you are shown a square can you dispute that it is a square If you re shown a picture of a sheep can you dispute that it is a sheep If you take a side away from a square it is no longer a square BUT if you remove a limb from a sheep is it still a sheep There is only ONE way to make a square sheep can be different They are in the mind with essentially NO sensory content Monday August 31 2015 A square has very little sensory experience but a sheep has more sensory expenence If a square has no sensory content how did it get into your headmind He says GOD put them there before you were born you come from the womb with your ideas already in your head AKA native intelligence which will be touched on later Rationalism humans understand the world by reasoning from basic principles The basis for human understanding is those ideas that you have at birthin the womb Obviously a very radical point of you and sparked a lot of conversation Dualism Descartes wondered the relationship between the mind what we discussed above and the rest of your body If you cut of an arm it doesn t change howwhat you are thinking which is dualism Body is matter Works according to laws of physics Very little exchange between body and mind Mind is from god Works according to laws of logic If your mind thinks it wants an ice cream cone how would you go get it without the body The Pineal Gland Descartes believed everything went through Descartes died and never figured out HOW exactly the body and mind needed each other and how their relationship works Empiricism humans understand the world by observing it We are born with nothing The opposite of Rationalism John Locke he was the spokesperson of this idea Monday August 31 2015 He only had one love affair which he said robbed him of his reason so he never did again He believed the mind is where you experience things and link parts together Such as you see some lines and some corners and your mind puts it together as a square 1 4 J l 4 l Try to argue for both sides think of arguments for both sides Wilhelm Wundt father of psychology Psychology emerged from the debate between Empiricism and Rationalism lntrospectionism school of psych in which trained observers describe their conscious experiences as a means of studying the human mind Philosophy vs lntrospectionism lntrospectionism wanted proofexperiments lntrospectionism was a more social enterprise Experiment of introspectionism Ball drops of table making sound and turning on clock Condition A S presses key as soon as possible after sound occurs Condition B S presses key as soon as they are aware the sound occurs Results showed faster response times for Condition A Behaviorism school of psychology holding that psychologists should only use behavior as data They said they are not gonna study people but animals Animals cannot tell you what is in their mind even if they wanted to John Watson he is a proponent for these ideas Monday August 31 2015 Went on for 3040 years until about the 1950s This time period was very rich culturally as well watched videos of different singers from the time different kind of music blues jazz What emerges form this Flock and Roll All the different currents came together to make rock and roll The same thing happened in psychology All these various currents of thinking came together to form Cognitive Psychology Currents Linguistics study of the structure of language Noam Chomsky made the point that behaviorism would never understand language His specific argument was that parents don t correct their children s speech but they still learn from observing others speak He supported the nativist idea Gestalt Psychology studies how perception of a whole is derived from the perception of its parts Wolfgang Kohler Human Factors Research studies ways to allow humans to perform tasks efficiently and safely Came out of WWII There was a strong communal enterprise everyone wanted to help in the war e on Psychologists realized that if you need to land a plane on an aircraft carrier you can use visual vectors Visual vectors emanate from the point at which your eyes are focused on lf focal point is the middle of the aircraft carrier the plane will land their Cognitive Neuroscience studies the relationship between brain structures neural activity and cognitive function Monday August 31 2015 This was originally used by doctors They realized that there are cells in the eye that allow you to recognize lines before you are born Designing you to perceive the world before you are in it They tried to train a raccoon to put coins into a piggy bank but it would not learn how to it would not put the coin into the slot it just turned it over and over in its hands This is because the raccoon instantly is very clean and that his instinct was to clean the coin The argument was Computer Stimulation creates computer models of human thinking and cognitive func on lnitialy very successful got the computer to play chess etc which made people believe you could use computers to imitate human thought ENIAC tried to get computer models to think like humans Herbert Simon Computers gave a good way to understand the relationship between the mind and the brain The mind is the software of the computer The brain is the hardware of the computer RESOLVED THE MIND VS BODYBRAIN ISSUE Led to confidence enough for them to study the mind through which emerged Cognitive Psychology school of psychology studying human mental processes and how they affect human interaction with the world Really is not all that different from introspectionism because we are studying the mind Cognitive Psych experiment Computer makes such and turns on clock Condition A computer makes high frequency sound A Monday August 31 2015 Condition B computer makes low frequency sound B S presses key correspondingly as soon as possible after the sound ooours Response times to Condition A was less time than Condition B Sound A mistaken for sound B less often than sound B mistaken for sound A
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