Week 2 (Brain & Cognition)
Week 2 (Brain & Cognition) PSYC 2014
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2014 at George Washington University taught by Dopkins, S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Cognitive Psychology Review from study question on 92 Which of the following would have object MOST strongly to a program of research exploring human mental processes A Cognitive Psychologists B Behaviorists Their whole point was you should study behavior observable from the outside not anything inside the mind which is why you should study animals because they cant tell you C Gestalt Psychologists D Human Factors Researchers Brain amp Cognition Building Blocks of the Brain Neuron a cell that is specialized for sending messages from one part of the body to another Neurons can send messages short or long distances Where does a neuron send messages What it does is VERY simple Neuron sending a message vs you sending a message If I wanted to send a message where could I send it Pretty much anywhere if you are hooked up to the internet you can send a message to anyone who is hooked up to the internet If a neuron wants to send a message it can only send messages to the few neurons it is hooked up to A limited audience What kinds of messages does a neuron send A human can send basically anything that you want that can be said in words A neuron can send Excitatory telling the recipient neuron to send neural messages Inhibitory telling recipient neuron NOT to send neural messages What determines whether a neuron sends messages A neuron is receiving messages from several other neurons If the neuron receives more excitatory than inhibitory messages it will be more likely to send messages If a neuron receives more inhibitory messages than excitatory messages it will be less likely to send messages What decides whether a neuron sends excitatory or inhibitory messages Excitatory neurons send excitatory messages Inhibitory neurons send inhibitory messages Throughout the neurons life it will do either one or the other lt literally is just doing what it is programmed to do Lets talk about a specific system to illustrate how neurons work Do NOT need to memorize any of this Slides 13 to 21 MI The point is to show the neurons doing their simple task in a 2quot framework that is more complex lt Budding Blocks of the Brain AKL y r Continued 9 Jl39u a 39 b quot How does a neuron send messages juvftw m f 39l Why can a machine do a task faster Major Divisions of the Brain sliced by vertical axis hemispheres than people Catching money as it is falling example Action potential is based on electricity but there is a whole complicated process as compared to electricity going through a wire Synapse a gap between two neurons across which neural messages are transmitted with neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters chemicals that transmit neural signals between neurons Ex Marijuana believed that it works by mimicking a specific neurotransmitter Ex Cocaine basically it impedes the deactivation of dopamine and serotonin Ex SSRls work sort of like cocaine more subtle slow the reuptake of serotonin Corrtum 39h m39m hquot 39 V C t cc u 4 pn V Why are there so many parts to the brain Because it gets more and more complicated More or less bilaterally symmetric 3 3 did Hindbrain controls automatic functions that regulate basic life support functions Breathing heart beating not conscious things not thinking about doing these things Very liable to being interfered with by a problem in the brain Ex if you have a brain tumor you do not want it in the hindbrain especially because it is controlling the most basic forms of life Most primitive part of the brain the lowest part of the brain Midbrain relay enter for neural messages bringing sensory information and directing motor responses Middle of the brain Forebrain supports higher mental processes Contains highest parts of the brain Brain Lateralization nqmullosum Hemisphere right or left half of the brain Corpus Callosum large fiber tract that connects the right and left hemispheres Contralateral Connections basic sensory and motor neurons from left side of body connected to right side of brain and vice versa BASIC do not get confused with lateralization of function Why does this happen No good explanation Lateralization of Function more complex processing occurs on only one side of the brain Left Side language Right Side space emotion Females are not as lateralized as males One reason females survive strokes better Better to be lesslateralized in the case of brain damage Why would it be better to be lessmore lateralized Less brain damage More takes less time because all the neurons are in the same place more efficient for language to be in one space versus on opposite sides of the brain Pictures of people Who is more happy top or bottom Summary smiles on the let side are the ones that look more happy lf emotion is processed on the right side of the brain then the pictures smiling on the left side should seem happier Visual information regarding smile will register closer to emotional processing area Review from study question on 98 Neuron A has just received a large number f messages from other neurons Now neuron A is sending a neural message The messages that A received were mostly A Excitatory B Excitatory ifA is excitatory C Excitatory is A is inhibitory D Inhibitory Why If you put B you39re giving the neuron too much credit It doesn39t do anything that complicated A neuron can be either an inhibitory or excitatory neuron If it is an excitatory neuron it will only send the message if the messages it receives are mostly excitatory Why it isn39t B It will receive the excitatory messages no matter what kind of neuron it is Brain amp Cognition Continued Major Divisions of the Brain Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain Getting more complex as you go up the brain vertically Breathing is simpler than thinking Contralateral Connections basic sensory and motor neurons from left side of body connected to right side of brain and vice versa BASIC SENSORY information coming in sounds smells touch etc BASIC MOTOR NEURONS responding to sensory information Lateralization of Function more complex processing occurs on only one side of the brain If someone calls you an idiot what do you do Respond verbally Ignore him Punch him Prove you aren t Typically these things are only done on one side Left Side language Right Side space emotion Split Brain syndrome in which the corpus callosum is not intact Each hemisphere has everything it needs to be a brain If you were to slice the brain horizontally you could not function properly When this happens you essentially end up with two brains Usually happens in surgery why Done in cases when severe epilepsy that can not be controlled by other means Epilepsy basically storm in the brain when brain waves are bouncing back and forth between the hemispheres electric storms in the brain Brains will be slightly different why Lateralization one side may have language capacities versus the other side that has emotional capacities Can they interact if you cut the corpus callosum Yes there are small pathways present that are not cut By watching each other the brains can work off info from the other side VIDEO of a man with split brain Brain Localization Localization of Function different locations in brain support different cognitive func ons Time of Dinosaurs Our ancestors were shrewlike Vision was our main sense Problem is that we need to avoid the dinosaurs If we become nocturnal we can avoid them because they are only active during the day Now we are living at night problem We can t see We can now evolve other senses how do you integrate the new senses to form one picture If you see a creature hear twigs snapping feel hot breath on you is that one creature or 3 different pictures Solution to this problem Cerebral Cortex evolves Cerebral Cortex most recently evolved part of the brain responsible for higher mental processes Supports these things evolved in the final stage of brain development in order to put these senses together Ours is MUCH bigger than those in other animals our way to be better than other creatures with other beneficial traits fast large resistant to physical harm etc Develop a sense of selfawareness and being able to understand yourself versus environment NOT a series of tubes like the intestines it is a big sheet which is wadded into the crevices and shoved into the head in order to fit inside the skull Have to keep the skull relatively small so that women can give birth Function of the big sheet to integrate the different modalitiessenses Put them far apart on the brain so that they can 17 integrate through the cerebral cortex m Hi i Notice that they are registering mainly in the back part of the brain The front part of the brain is figuring out what to do with that information Syndromes of the Brain The text gives you information on each lobe of the brain for this class we will not stress the name but more important to understand what it happening in those lobes between the sensory modalities Neglect Symptoms patient ignores left side of the visual world Damage producing this syndrome occurs in the parietal lobe not important Between the touch cortex and visual cortex on the right side in lateralized individuals Would get this if you had damage to a specific part of the brain Essentially ignoring half of the world VIDEO When asked to read draw a circle he sees circle first and then when prompted to read the words before circle he can look over and see them Basically just ignores the left side and focuses only on the right When someone with this syndrome is asked to draw a circle he draws the entire circle but then cant put the numbers in the left side he only does the right numbers Why can he draw a circle but not include the numbers Probably because there is not a lot of thinking involved in drawing a cirlce Typically happens to older people Why would these symptoms occur when the area between where visual stimuli and touch stimuli are registered is effected Touch is important for space because you act within the space you are in You will walk farther to touch something if it is far inside the space you are in and vice versa Vision is obviously important because you can see the space you are in This is lateralized You know this because the damage is only on one side of the brain and only effects one side of the persons world Nonfluent Aphasia Symptoms patient speaks with great difficulty few function words Damage producing this syndrome occurs in the frontal lobe Between the auditory cortex and the motor cortex on the left side in lateralized individuals VIDEO What do you notice about how he speaks It is incredibly choppy not fluent He seems to know what he wants to say but is struggling to get the words out Knows the major words to say what he wants to but is struggling to put the words into a coherent sentence Why would these symptoms occur when the area between the auditory cortex and motor cortex is effected The motor cortex is involved in controlling the motion of the mouth allowing you to speak Grammar is also processed here why Grammar allows us to arrange our sentences to make sense Previous belief was that the brain does not change but recent information and studies have shown that it does change throughout life Brain Plasticity Neurogenesis VIDEO