Week 3 (Brain & Cognition Continued, Attention)
Week 3 (Brain & Cognition Continued, Attention) PSYC 2014
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2014 at George Washington University taught by Dopkins, S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Wednesday September 16 2015 Cognitive Psychology Brain amp Cognition Continued Brain Plasticity original belief that the brain just stayed as it is throughout life Neurogenesis process whereby the brain cells grow new connections throughout life Show in animals but it is harder to show in humans but it is assumed to be occurring Someone who loses a limb feels a Phantom Limb Someone can feel the limb there but it isn39t actually there Initially there but goes away after a while VVhy Brain cellsnerves that were there before are still there and so they give the amputee a sense of the limb still being there The body can be shown sort of like a map on the brain gt touch area of the brain Somatosensory Cortex 32190ng pva NJJ um l v c a a W J um Kroc leg 02 anx In general parts of the body are represented in a logical way Bernluls Some places are not that logical Face and head represented twice why Tongue Suiuluscrscvy cult Because your brain is a very important part of your body 80 if you lose your arm what happens to that area of the brain that used to be the brain A great adaptive way the brain could use this area is that other areas of the body now use that area of the brain NOW why can he feel the stimuli happening on his face on the phantom arm Wednesday September 16 2015 The brain is being rewired and so the face is invading the area that used to be the arm That area on the brain that was once the arm is still in flux of the face taking over that area and so there may be some residual feeling from the nerves cells that once went to the arm Brain Imaging Methods READ THE BOOK All these techniques work by observing something the brain is doing some manifestation of brain activity that we think is underlying the cognitive Most obvious way to do this would be to measurerecord the electrical processes going on in the brain Electroencephalography EEG uses electrodes on the scalp to record electrical activity of the brain 39W quot AW Example of an EEG is this one taken of sleep stages gt Higher frequencymore irregular when 5 awake 3 J i a I Thisiswhenapersonisawake HIHHHH and when they are having a n r quot l u r UKquot seizure quot 39 39 7 a x139ll39lquotiii39in You39re braIn IS fIrIng massively r 39 but nothing usefulmeaningful L vc 39quot39 quot39 r v3939 a A 4 3939 31 r A p f I 9quot I It is okay when you are asleep r r t t but not good when you39re ma I UV Fundamental problem with EEG for studying refined cognitive processes what is it It doesn39t show you were the electrical currents are occurring It just isn39t going to be that precise spatially Action potential burns calories why Because the brain needs to push the ions around takes a lot of energy comes in the form of glucose Wednesday September 16 2015 Comes through the blood Positron Emission Tomography PET monitors brain blood flow and thus brain activity using radioactive glucose Take injection of some sort of radioactive material let it go through your system and then you are observed by the PET scan Shows you what areas of the brain the blood is Downsides Don t typically want radioactive substances in your body Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI monitors brain blood flow and thus brain activity using blood s magnetic properties Can detect tiny little magnetic fluctuations associated with having a lot of blood flow in one area This is MUCH better and healthier than a PET Different than EEG because Pinpoint location NOT good at getting rate of what is happening MRI delayed as compared to EEG because it isn39t measuring brain waves directly it is just measuring brain blood flow Not a good time sense Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation rTMS influences electrical activity of the brain area using magnetic stimulation Can use this in various different ways Put a lot of electrical energy in essentially will cause that part of the brain to be disfunction Wednesday September 16 2015 Attention Must be paying attention to get input from outside world that you can use What is attention Class responses Fuses together all the senses together to focus on one specific thing More about ignoring things you are choosing to ignore various stimuli person tapping pencil sound of keyboard etc so you can focus on one thing the lecture His definition Attention is limited can t focus on a ton of things at once At any given moment what will it be that you focus on This or that Limit varies person to person Vigilance Task 1 8 presented visual display that may or may not contain target 2 8 indicates whether target present in the display 3 Target rarely present Developed during WWII to see how long someone can stare at a radar screen to see if a threat is coming without zoning out What is this like in real life Things you are hoping to see but rarely see Examples money on the ground rarely see but want to see Example in class staring at a white screen waiting for a plane to show up on the screen hard to stay focused thats what a bunch of white slides in the PPT were lntroverts do a lot better on this type of thing that extroverts do why Theory is that introverts are more highly aroused Extroverts are not as highly aroused Wednesday September 16 2015 Attention is selective by definition attention means you need to be selective Visual Search Task 1 8 presented with array of figures that may or may not contain target Real life applications Looking for someone in a crowd Actually do this slides with green plus sign 2 different ways 2 8 indicates whether target is present in array Looking for green plus sign in an array of green Ts Harder You had to look at each and every one to see if the plus sign was there Looking for green plus sign in an array of blue Ts Easier why You just had to look for the different color to see if the plus sign was there It selects you versus you selected it in a way How does this affect the way you pay attention Attention is part of everyone s cognitive architecture book talks about this but he won t Spotlight Metaphor for Attention Cueing Task 8 presented cue indicating left right or neither an arrow 8 presented square on leftright side of display regardless of where the arrow was pointing S presses key as soon as square appears Harder when the arrow is pointing in a different direction than the side the square appears on Bums than M 20 50 Accuracy M cu Wednesday September 16 2015 Your spotlight is on one side of the screen but when it appears on the other side you need to move your spotlight to the other side of the screen Platform for Attention Where does attention start Where are your choices How is our visual experience similar to that of a blind person If a blind person came in here what would they do to see what was going on They would need to go through everyone and everything a feel it to know what is going on For us visual experiences involve us piecing together what we see in our world How do we do this Saccades sharp movements that eyes make between fixations on one target after another where targets are parts of visual display that are salient or informative You don t just look at the world and it is there you need to piece it together Each saccade ends in a fixation on some aspect of what is there put them together to get the whole of what was there Sensory Storage holds onto incoming sensory info long enough for subject to comprehend what is happening and choose what to pay attention to Essentially you are piecing together your view of the situation and putting it all into this sensory store which has it for a moment How do we know this exists Thanks to George Spurling don t need to know his name Famous for his work on sensory storage Whole Report Procedure Present array of letters Subject tries to report contents of array About 33 recall Wednesday September 16 2015 Then realized they were doing this all wrong If he asked us to write down everything we learned all semester people would write pages and pages of things and then by the time they got to page 10 they would forget what they learned because its taking them so long to write down Partial Report Procedure 1 Present array of letters 2 Present row signal ex sound that quot 1 indicates what row to report 4 We infer how much is in their memory by the proportion of what they remember 39f39 3 Subject tries to report contents of row i l i gt ONLY works if they are asked to report the 39 Mg row right after the array of letters disappears Number able to remember goes down the longer it takes for the subject to know which row to report
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