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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Harley Lynn on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSES 260 at Kansas taught by Lowcock, Phillip in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Personal and Community Health in Physical Education at Kansas.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Course ID l0wcock53202 Course Name community Health fall 2015 Course Type For student Enrollment Health Notes Aug 28 2015 The pleasure circuit is what makes us all mammals millions of years of evolution addiction is more than rational it is part of the CORE of our brain Addiction chronic progressive disease of brain reward motivation memory and related circuitry Characterized by uncontrollable craving for a substance or behavior Psychological dependence Habituation Psychological need for drug Our way of living on a daily basis is wrapped tightly around use of the substance a mental attachment to a drug the believe that the drug is needed to relieve stress anxiety or another mental discomfort Physical dependence Physiological Addiction Regular use of substance to function Physical withdrawal symptoms develop when a person stops using a drug Physiological need for the drug Our body has come to expect the substance to function normally Know these signs Substance Dependence a pattern of substance use that leads to significant impairment or distress at least 3 of these in 1 year Do you need more and more Use in larger quantitiesamplonger periods of time Inability to cut down control Spending inordinate amout of time on activities aimed at obtaining using or recovering from How drugs leave body drugs don t wear off they are broken down and metabolized organs metabolize drugs liver and kidneys metabolism of drugs varies depending on the person s weight gender health experience with drug ethnicity Methods of Drug administration IngestionSwallowing Injectionsyringe into body 1530sec Inravenous poke it all the way into vain 35min Intramuscular 57min Subcutaneous right under the skin Inhalationbreath drug into lungs 7lOseconds mucosal absorptionabsorbing drug through mucous membranes chewing tobacco cocaine 315min topical administrationapplying drug directly onto a body surface caffeine patch l7days short term effects cause the high ultimately through the release of the chemical dopamine Mental effects vary among userssome are relaxed others euphoric Long term effectsincreases risk of anxiety depression psychosis personality disturbances Impairs attention memory and learning Impairments in problem solving and complex decision making STIMULANTS stimulate the sympathetic nervous system causing acceleration of mental ampphysical processes in the body similar to fight or ight reaction May stimulate movement fidgeting and talking increase energyampmental focus produce intense feeling of euphoria and create a sense of well being this class of drugs is very likely to induce rebound effect once the drug is metabolized Caffeine relaxation blocker Cocaine effects disappear within a few minutes or hours users must continue use to retain feeling Side Effects increased heart rate blood pressure increased respiration temporary reduced appetite confusion paranoia chest pain seizures coma and death Monday Aug 31 Cont Ch 7 Methamphetamine jacks you up highly addictive and dangerous stimulant that is chemically similar to amphetamine but more potent and harmful most of it made from household items It can be smoked snorted and injected Crystal Meth is methamphetamine in its clear chunky crystal form Short Term Effects Rapid irregular heartbeat increased blood pressure and reduced appetite irritability anxiety insomnia confusion and tremors if it s a larger dose you can have cardiovascular collapse and death Long termMeth mouth acne open sores aggressiveness Bath salts May be 10 times more potent than cocaine Hallucinogens LSDlysergic acid diethylamide PCPphencyclidine PsilocybinMagic mushrooms Club Drugs MDMA methylenedioxxymethamphetamineECSTASY Responsible for several deaths recently GHBgammahydroxybutyric acid date rape drug Rohypnol date rape drug makes you forget Inhalants Chemical vapors that produce mind altering effects when you inhale it Ex solvents aerosols gasses nitrites Effects feeling intoxicated lasts for only a few minutes Health risks Sudden sniffing death Depressants Alcohol Barbiturates prescribed to induce sleep Benzodiazepines ativan xanax valium Alcohol mixed with these can cause death Heroin poppy plants Whole class of opioids are some of the most addictive substances known fast acting and highly addictive Vicodin Percodan and Oxycotin are all prescription opioids Methadone is just as bad but they use it to wien people off of heroine PrescriptionOver the counter Ritalin adderal Used as study aid doesn t help with understanding intricate concepts NOT meant to be taken in higher doses or for longer periods than directed on the label GETTING HELP FOR DRUG PROBLEM 12 step programs using peer support is a big key to their success Clinical options Residential programs for detox are by far the greatest success rate More complex for polyabuser CHAPTER 8 Alcohol more than 24 of students have never drunk Kills 1700 students every year Alcohol is most commonplace substance used in American society Difficult line between drinking to celebrate and devastating problems Caucasians have highest rate of alcohol use among any racial or ethnic group legal drinking age at 21 lead to positive effects on health Alcohol slows down your central nervous system Low risk drinkers Mendrink no more than 14 drinks per week Womenno more than seven drinks per week Binge drinking rate is highest among young adults 1824 Binge drinking 008 or greater Binge drinking is considered one of the most significant health risk behaviors among college students Leads to drunk driving violence vandalism risky sex forced sex and poor academic performance The 2000 Harvard school of public health college alcohol study determined that about half of all college students who drink were binge drinkers Recent research has consistently shown the binge drinking rate to be in the range of 4050 College students UNDER 21 consume 48 of all alcohol consumed by college students Bing drinking often begins in high school Why we drink Avoid problems peer acceptance peer pressure is one of the TOP motives induce a positive mood make parties and outings more enjoyable Students Ease social inhibitions imitate role models cope with academic pressure mistaken believe of increased sexual arousal and performance goals get drunk get her done I can drink more Up to 28 of college students reportedly mix alcohol and energy drinks despite evidence that doing so is dangerous If you mix alcohol and energy drinks you re 3times more likely to leave a bar drunk and 4times more likely to drive drunk Four Loko EACH CAN contains 200mg of caffeine and as much as six beers in alcohol Good Effects Lowest rates of death occur among people who consume one to two drinks a day Increase high density lipoproteins Anticlotting effect on the blood reduces stress increases sensitivity to insulin in the body Once alcohol is absorbed into bloodstream it is quickly circulated to all the cells of the body 2025 absorbed in stomach 7580 absorbed upper small intestine Trace amounts are absorbed in lower GI tract Blood alcohol concentration BAC amount of alcohol in grams in 100 milliliters of blood Breath analyzers are valid based upon alcohol concentrations in the breath that correspond well to levels of alcohol in the brain Breath alcohol concentrations are accurate because of the alcohol exhaled out of the lungs NOT RESIDUAL ALCOHOL LEFT IN MOUTH ALCOHOL ABSORPTION Food in stomach slows alcohol absorption Women absorb alcohol into blood faster and in higher concentration Older people have less HZO less diluted alcohol Nicotine delays absorption Moods can in uence how fast your body absorbs Pure alcohol absorbs faster Carbonated drinks absorb faster If your tolerance is higher it will take longer Gender Differences Women generally more susceptible to effects of alcohol w higher BAC than men do based on generally smaller than men higher body fat percentage metabolize alcohol less efficiently Menstrual cycles change alcohol effect easiest time to get drunk right before period Birth control pills also slow how quickly alcohol is metabolized leading to bigger and longer effect of alcohol This makes women more vulnerable to Liver heart or brain diseasedamage AbsorbtionampMetabolism 90 is metabolized by the liver alcohol dehydrogenase ADH one metaboliteacetaldehyde AlcoholgtAcetaldehydegtAcetic Acid vinegargtC02 amp H20 Fri 04 2015 Alcohol suppresses an area in our brain responsible for our ability to perceive risk Relaxation from inhibition not as shy or reserved Fails to realized the real risk Less reserved where social risk is concerned Dehydration alcohol is a powerful diureticyou need to pee a lot Sleep disturbances Alters metabolic state of liver and other organs Elite level training inhibitor cannot recover properly when you need to train hard the next day Alcohol poisoning life threatening blood alcohol concentration which can produce collapse of vital body functions Blackout period of time when a drinker is conscious but has partialcomplete amnesia of eventspersons who experience blackouts are statistically more likely to become addicted to alcohol Long term effects cancers of the head neck digestive tract and breast cancer are more likely to occure directly damages brain cells causes dysfunction in lung cells at risk for malnutrition and weight problems Drunkorexia excessive alcohol consumption and disordered eating fetal alchohol syndrome pattern of mental and physical birth defects due to mother drinking while pregnant facial abnormalities retarded growth permanent intellectual and behavioral problems DrinkingampDriving College students are disproportionately affected by drunk driving Alcohol use alters judgment vision and hearing and reaction time Social problems violence robbery assault rape domestic violence homicide alcoholism drunk driving risk of injury suicide risk Unplanned sexual activies reported by 21 of college students who had too much to drink Lack of protection while having sex Heavy drinking increases woman s likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault BOTH partners more frequently than not have both been drinking Binge drinkers are 78 times more likely to experience rape of women who report being raped had been intoxicated at the time 23 of college men who acknowledge committing sexual assault report being multiple offenders Both maleampfemale college students tend to associate alcohol with more expectations Sexual assultampalcohol 42 of college women who have been sexually assaulted report telling NO ONE about assault Even if you do not want to report it get medical or counseling help for yourself Don t deal with it alone Emily Taylor Center for WomenampGender equity785 8643552 National Sexual Assault hotline l800656HOPE GaDuGi SafeCenter Drinking alcohol to excess regularly or individual occasions disruption of work school home life and causing interpersonal social or legal problems physical dependence on alcohol to the extent that stopping will bring withdrawals Symptoms in lyr period Tolerance withdrawal loss of control desire or inability to quit overwhelming time commitment interference with life continued use Risk factors Having a parent who abused alcoholgenetic or social self medicating growing up with dysfunctional family low self asteem impulsiveness peer pressure poverty being a victim RELAPSE Returning to drinking after a period of sobriety 90 of drinkers experience this when they first try second try maybe life commitment WED 092015 TOBACCO Leading preventable cause of death in the United States 15 deaths is due to smoking More than 90 of smokers get hooked in adolescence Smoking is negatively correlated with educational attainment Higher the education you have less likely you are to smoke 3Xmore likely to smoke with less than high school education Psychosocial factors family member that smokes associating with peers that smoke coming from low SES family doing poorly in school What s in a cigarette NICOTINESTIMULANT 50 shredded tobacco leaf 30 other parts stem ect 20 expanded tobacco puffed up tobacco filler Nearly 600 additives Tasts ammonia boosts delivery of nicotine into lungs ampbloodstream Nicotine is an alkaloid from plant responsible for smokings psychoactive and addictive effects Releases more than 60 carcinogenic cancer causing chemicals Tarsticky brown residue Releases arsenic formaldehyde hydrogen cyanide benzene carbon monoxide Short term effects 710 seconds to produce Stimulation and sedation Adrenaline and Endorphins are released to stimulate and cause mild pleasure Increases heart rate and blood pressure decreases peripheral body temp Less effectively delivers oxygen to muscle cells CO carbon monoxide Nicotine mildly suppresses the hunger center Why do people smoke Most addictive of all psychoactive drugs quickly addictive increases release of dopamine pleasure and reward Behavioral Dependence many smokers have a harder time imagining their future life without cigarettes than they do dealing with the physiological symptoms of withdrawal Nicotime suppresses appetite and slightly increases basal metabolic rate Weight control is one major reason young women give for smoking SmokingampPregnant Babies born to women who smoke are 23 times more likely to die of sudden infant death syndrome than babies born to women who don t smoke More likely to be born prematurely They are more likely to weigh less than 55 pounds at birth increasing their risk for illness or death Risks for Men Greater use of other forms of tobacco cigars pipes smokeless tobacco higher risk for cancers in mouth throat esophagus and stomach Problem with sexual functions impotence Fertility motility shape and number of sperm Secondhand Smoke environmental tobacco smoke Smoke to which nonsmokers are exposed when someone has been smoking nearby Combination of sidestream smoke and mainstream smoke Sidestream smoke smoke emanating from the burning end of a cigarette or pipe Mainstream smoke exhaled smoke Nonsmokers 2530 increased risk of heart disease Respiratory illness asthma in children Ear infections in children Sudden infant death syndrome in babies infants and children are especially vulnerable to the effects of ETS Other forms of tobacco Cigars usually not inhaled but increase risk of oral cancers Clove cigarettesno evidence they re safer than any cigarettes Bidis No safer than cigarettes Smokless spit tobacco Delivers 23x nicotine Electronicecigarettes delivers nicotine no evidence YET UNGREGULATED available in avors interesting to young people and nonsmokers Fri Sept 11 Treatment options Nicotine replacemtn therapies gum inhalers nasal sprays lozenges Prescription drugs chantix and zyban Therapy education and support groups Dealing with relapse May experiencw withdrawal symptoms when they first quit difficutly concentrating negative mood strong urge to smoke Relapse can occure moths or even years after quitting ANY smoking increases the likelihood of a full relapse Change Yourself Change your World Prohibit smoking on campus Provide accessible treatment programs prohibit the university from holding stocks in or accepting donations from the tobacco industry CHAPTER 9 Human Experience We are born into relationships with parent or family and are in relationships with those around us for all our lives The fact that relationships are a near certainty in the human existence does NOT MEAN they are easy Three important relationships are ones you have with yourself friends and intimate partners SelfPerception How we relate to others depends in part on how we feel about ourselves People with low selfesteem are more likely to feel lonely and socially isolated Sense of self Relationships begin with who you are as an individual and what you bring to the relationship Important attributes Reasonably high self esteem Capacity for empathy Ability to be alone and to be with others Relationships Heart of human experience Family community classmates acquaintances friends partners patterns of attachment in our earliest relationships with others form the template for attachment in later relationships a healthy family environment with respect and nurturing allows children to learn how to have strong relationships later in life Gender Rolls behaviors and tasks considered appropriate by society based on whether someone is a man or woman Gender roles are often learned in childhood and continue into adulthood affecting how we communicate Community quotGroup of people connected in a way that transcends casual attachment typically share common goals and sense of belonging Being active in a community is likely to have a positive impact on health Good community can improve selfesteem improve social capital by sharing and exchanging of resources Spirituality experience of connection to self others and larger community providing sense of purpose and meaning Does NOT require participation in an organized religion Spiritually connected people stay healthier and live longer High levels of health related quality of life are connected to spirituality Communication Communication is the cornerstone of every successful relationship Effective communication is a skill that can be developed an improved the sharing of honest feeling and personal information about yourself with another person Sharing feelings can leave us vulnerable and exposed but to be close we must speak honestly and freely about what is on our minds Assertiveness speaking up for yourself without violating someone s rights Mon 14 2015 Gender Differences Communication We tend to nourish and maintain OR damage and destroy our relationships through communication Patterns of communication are learned and therefore subject to social and cultural in uences including gender Men More likely to use communication to compete Establish dominance competence and knowledge Feel oppressed by lengthy discussion Do not want to take orders perceive as someone telling them what to do Think every question needs to be answered Goal is to FIX problem Showing independence by not asking probing questions Women likely to use communication to connect Find commonalities share experiences and give and receive support Decision to be discussed first and made by consensus appreciate discussion itself inclined to do what is asked of them believe a question is not simply a question but opening for negotiation think when m en change the subject they are showing a lack of interest and sympathy goal is to share develop listen Nonverbal communication Communication that is conveyed by body language We tend to guard what we say but our nonverbal often gives off a true picture of how we really feel Metamessage The message that you give or receive that encompasses the conscious and unconscious aspects of a message What you hear and feel about communication what when where and the way it is said Being a good listener Be silent while another person is sharing his or her feelings or concerns Empathize what the other person is saying Try to se aside any anger or resentment you may be feeling Make other people feel comfortable when they are speaking to you Give the speaker your undivided attention Resolving con icts con ict avoidance active avoidance of discussing concerns annoyances con ict with another person Con ict resolution resolving a con ict in a manner that both people can accept and that minimizes future occurrences of the con ict Con ict escalation increasing con ict to a more confrontational painful or otherwise less comfortable level Effective con ict resolution strive to resolve con ict rather than to win voice frustrations as soon as possible approach the con ict as you would any other problem tat needs to be solved evaluate each possible solution agree on an option and make specific plans on how and when to implement it STRONG RELATIONSHIPS balance between separateness and togetherness in both couple and fam ily relationships Balance between intimacy and autonomy balance between stability and change Too much stabilityrigidity too much changestressampchaos Communication tool to adjust levels of cohesion or exibility Considered long lasting and more stable compared to romantic ones Important for good emotional and physical health Offer psychological and emotional buffer against stress anxiety and depression Increase one s sense of self worth College students with lower levels of social support are sixfold greater risk of depression 97of Americans say they have someone in their life that they trust and can turn to for support when needed Maintaining old Friendships Understand you and friends are changing Don t overwhelm old friends with college life Intimate relationships More exclusive Deeper levels of connection and caring Sexual component Dating one on one time to determine if there is attraction or desire to see more of each other Tendency to be attracted to people who are similar to us who we are and how we behave in uence attraction Tend to be happier when you have more in common DatingampMore People who are straightforward and respectful in developing a relationship are more likely to get a positive response Partners are often found through social connections Importance of caution It is harder for your instincts to protect you over the intemet Wed 16 2015 Hooking up Often fueled by alcohol Negative impact on psychological wellbeing and social status Regrets Decreased relationship skills sexual risk takingSTI s and unplanned pregnancy Same sex relationships Longterm samesex couples are just as committed and satisfied in their relationships as heterosexual married couples Same sex couples have same desire for intimacy companionship passion and commitment in relationships Couples face challenges due to disapproval and discrimination from society or family Sexual Orientation Refers to person s emotional romantic and sexual attraction to a member of same sex opposite or both Known to be in uenced by complex interaction of biological genetic psychological and societal factors Heterosexuality other sex Homosexuality same sex Bisexuality both sexes Transgender sense of identity as a male or female con icting With biological sex Intimacy Liiking intimacy Companionate love intimacy commitment Romantic love intimacy passion Consummate love intimacy passion commitment lintatiuation 7 Empty love passuon Famous love commitment passion commitment Successful relationships are built on trust respect and communication Cooperation compromise and commitment can help couples through troubled times Dysfunctional relationships one or both partners being manipulative controlling mean disrespectful or verballyphysically abusive These actions are often learned in childhood When children observe how their parents relate to each other You can break the chains Signs partner expects you to justify What you do and Who you see or you expect your partner to do so You are afraid to disagree and your ideas are criticized Lying to each other You feel sti ed and trapped unable to escape the pressures of relationship You or your partner is addicted to drugs or alcohol Jealousy response to a relationship threat from an actual or imagined rival for partner s attention Physical abuse partner is physically threatening or abusive to you or children remove yourself and the children form relationship ASAP Relationships End Many relationships end despite our best efforts Recovering from relationship takes time and effort Focus on what is good about you Take care of yourself Keep yourself busy Give yourself time to recover Committed relationships Cohabitation Unmarried couples living under same roof Increased during last century Time to get to know a partner before marriage Unwed pregnancies poverty relationship instability MUST BE ADDRESSED Those couples who do get married after cohabitating are more likely to get divorced Marriage Contract between couple and the state 2009 median age to get married men28 women26 Benefits better mental physical and financial health Divorce is leading cause of poverty Domestic Partnership Legal benefits are often less extensive than benefits given to married couples Strengths of Successful Relationships Selfesteem and mutual respect Good communication Enjoy spending time together in leisure activities Handle con ict constructively Friends as well as lovers unselfishcaring Staying single 2008 22men 17 women ages 3544 have never been married Some prefer to focus on education or career Legally single while still receiving the benefits of committed relationship Women today are much more financially independent and face less pressure to marry for economic stability being truly single means you have complete control of all decisions Starting a family Birth rates in US are at ALL TIME LOW women wait longer to have children spacing births further apart and ending fertility at earlier ages Nontraditional families single parent households or unmarried couple households on the rise with their number increasing sixfold since 1950 Choosing children when children are born relationships change less time for self health and finances Stepfamilies Common in modern society 34 of divorced adults go on to remarry 65 of remarriages one or both partners have children from previous relationship Can take several years for family members to integrate Single Parenthood 13 of children are born to unmarried mothers and end up being raised in a singleparent home or living with other relatives or stepparents Biggest hurdleeconomic hardship Still much discussion over if being raised in a single parent house is determental to child Children born out of wedlock tend to experience more behavioral and emotional problems than children from married two parent families Happy Families Commitment dedicated to family and promote one another s happiness Appreciation and affection they care for one another and are not afraid to express it Positive communication good talkers and good listeners Ability to manage stress and crises Sept 18 2015 Wellness of Sexuality Sexuality is an important part of wellness Reduced risk of heart disease reduced risk of depression Improved immune function Lowered risk of death AnatomyampFunction Arise from same undifferentiated tissue during the prenatal period Sex organs are similar purposed and functions are complementary Male Anatomy Epididymis coiled tube on top of each testicle where sperm are held until they mature Vas deferens tube ascending from the epididymis that transports sperm Prostatitis infection or in ammation of prostate gland Female Anatomy External Vulva Female external organs collectively genitals Mons Pubisfatty rounded areas of tissue in front of pubic bone LabiaMajora and minora eshy lips surrounding protecting clitoris ampvaginal and urethral openings Clitoris composed of spongy tissue and nerve endings sensitive to sexual stimulation Internal Vagina tube that connects women s external organs with uterus Uterus womb pear shaped organ where growing fetus is nurtured ovaries reproductive organs ova eggs reside fallopian tubes pair of tubes that connect ovaries to uterus Menarche First onset of period Dysmenorrhea Pain during menstruation that is severe enough to limit normal activities or require medication Edometriosis Condition in which endometrial tissue grows in areas outside of uterus Amenorrhea cessation of menstrual periods at a time in life when menstruation should be occurring
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