Chapter 5 - Quiz 3
Popular in Psychology and Law
Popular in Psychlogy
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Chapter Three Criminology the study of why crimes happen Serious crime has decreased since 1994 o In 2005 hit an all time low Property crime also decreased during this time than leveled off at 2003 The media provide extensive coverage of heinous crimes contributing to a heightened state of fearquot In other words publicity on crimes directly contributes to people being more afraid of how serious a crime is School Crimes Page 56 Dekalb Illinois Blacksburg Virginia Red Lake Minnesota Littleton Colorado Students with intent to kill went to their school In public schools 19992000 71 of students had one or more violent incidents 20 of those students had serious ones In 2001 17 of highschoolers had a weapon 6 brought them to school 20052006 17 of public schools had one serious incident Zero tolerancequot policies proved to not be effective they just instigate the problem 0 Threat assessment When one considers the nature of the threat risk posed by the individual and the needed response to reduce the risk of harmful action I This method has better success rates Dexter Morgan Main Character in hit tv show is similar to the real life personality disorder psychopathy Four Theories of Crime 1 Classical school of criminology a Concepts free will hedonism and aws in social contrast are used to explain criminal conduct i Hedonism pursuit to find your own pleasure 2 Positivist school of criminology a The individual free will is not important they emphasize factors that they believe could have caused this criminal behavior i Want to solve the crime using science and analyzing empirical data 3 Sociological Theories of Crime a Sociological behavior Maintain that crime results from social cultural forces that are external to any specific individual in other words crime emerges from ones environment and experiences b Divides into two parts i Structural theories emphasizes that dysfunctional social arrangements ie bad school system mess up people s efforts toward trying to do the right thing and result in their breaking the law ii Subcultural theories crime originates when different groups of people endorse cultural values that clash with the dominant conventional rules of society Con ict of social norms c Focal Concerns Walter Miller s theory criminal activities of lower class adolescent gangs as an attempt to achieve the ends valued in their culture through behaviors that appear best suited to obtain the ends i Youths must adhere to the six characteristics he sought 1 Trouble toughness smartness excitement fate and autonomy 2 Le youth teens pick a fight to prove toughness ii Thinks youth act the way they act to achieve the goal in the most accepted way 4 Biological Theories of Crime a Search for or genetic chemical or something your born with that could predispose people to criminal behavior i We can see the effects of emotional arousal and weaker physiological reactions ii Psychological factors might lead to increased aggressiveness and delinquency iii Heritable characteristics relate to antisocial behavior Psychological Theories of Crime this emphasizes individual differences in the way people think or feel about their behavior The ID persuasion is too strong for the weak ego and superego 0 These are affected by environment But maybe its unsuccessful parenting most common assumption Freud theorizes that the criminal has a compulsive need for punishment to remove feelings of guilt found in the unconsciousness from the Oedipus complex Criminal Thinking Patterns rejects psychoanalytic explanations of criminality broken home unloving parents etc o Yolchelson and Samenow conclude that based on interviews with a small sample of offenders the criminals are in full control over their actions 0 This theory doesn t explain how the choices are made in the beginning Piohl 1985 Personality based explanations three inherited to a certain degree personality types are described as follows based on Eysenek and Gudjonsson 1989 o Extroversion more likely to participate in crime because they have less fear of punishment 0 Neuroticism High neuroticism leads to greater restlessness and drive to carry out behavior of all sorts including crimes 0 Psychoticism high psychoticism causes more of a primary tough mindedquot psychopath Psychopathy blame personality defects for crimes Closest diagnosis label to psychopathy is o Antisocial personality disorder emphasis on chronic antisocial behavior 0 Hare amp McPherson 1984 says the he proposed that psychopaths have a deficiency in the left hemisphere of their brains so they have no executive function Psychopaths have less anxiety to aversive stimulation and are relatively under roused in the resting state Herbert Quay 1965 advanced the stimulationseeking theory claims that the thrill seeking and disruptive behavior of the psychopath serve to increase sensory input and arousal to a more tolerable level Social Psychological Theories of Crime Control theory people behave antisocially unless they learn through a combination of inner controls and external constraints on behavior Learning theory stresses how individuals directly acquire specific criminal behaviors through different forms of learning Control Theories Conger 1980 theorizes that people will behave socially unless trained not too by others Reckless 1967 containment theory reckless proposes that is an external containment laws or social pressure controls crime Environment controls crime good neighborhood or bad Operant learning how people get certain behavior attributes and how they keep it through consequences 0 Rewards encourage repeat behavior more than punishment does 0 Immediate consequences are better than delayed ones Classical conditioning developing and working on creating a strong conscience for antisocial or bad behavior Conscience is conditioned through repeat behavior and close pairing with unwanted behavior and punishment I The bad act is the conditioned stimulus I The unconditioned stimulus is the punishment must cause unpleasant emotional physiological responses Learning Theory Differential association approach criminal behavior requires socialization into a system of values conductive to violating the lawquot 0 In other words the criminal develops his definition of behavior that make bad behavior seem acceptable 0 Using this method Sutherland and Cressey 1974 propose certain reasons for criminal behavior 1 Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other people during communication 2 When criminal behavior is learned it takes a Techniques of commiting a crime b Specific direction towards motives c A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law appears more socially accepted to be a bad assquot Differential association reinforcement theory criminal behavior is learned through operant conditioning and modeling if they see people who like and encourage criminal behavior that s how they are gonna act Social learning theory acknowledges the importance of different types of reinforcement to result in new behaviors o Applies a lot of focus on cognitive observational factors Vicarious learning 0 This type of learning depends on Attention retention reproduction and reinforcement 0 Its in uenced by family subcultural and symbolic Social learning theory points to a bunch of environmental cues 0 Models Prior aversive treatment Incentive inducements Instructions Delusions Alcohol and drug use The Strength of social learning is it explains how individual defenders develop specific patterns of criminality Social Labeling Most extreme suggestion OOOOO o Comes from frustration about the inability of prior approaches to provide comprehensive explanations o A shift in emphasis from why people commit crimes to why some people are labeled criminals Racial profiling is an example Distinguishes between primary deviance criminals actual behavior and secondary deviance society s reaction to the criminal act Social labeling theory stigma of being branded a deviant can create a self fulfilling prophecy Conclusion One variable cannot be to blame for a persons criminal decision There are early indicators like antisocial conduct Developmental processes early signs of criminal behavior turn into patterns Violent offending can become an entrenched way of life when one or more maintenance factors are in place
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