Ch 3: American Corrections
Ch 3: American Corrections 273
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by JoseAbregoUWM on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 273 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Ruben Burgos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Correctional Process in Criminal Justice at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Ch 3 American Corrections The Colonial Period William Penn gt Adopted the great law of Pennsylvania gt Emphasized hard labor in the house of corrections as punishment for most crimes gt Death was only if you killed someone gt Replaced by the Anglican code gt Corporal punishment used for a variety of offenses Arrival of the penitentiary gt A place to isolate prisoners from society and from one another so they could repent on what they did rehabilitation gt The penitentiary rst appeared in 1790 gt Philadelphia s Walnut Street Jail The Pennsylvania system solitary con nement gt Prisoners has to go through selective forms of suffering gt Prisoners were individually isolated and did everything within their cells Pennsylvania system principles gt Solitary con nement was punishment because humans are social gt There was a strict rule of silence gt Thought that solitary con nement would mean less time prisoners would need to rehabilitate therefore fewer prisoners would be needed The New York System Congregated system gt Congregated system prisoners worked together during the day but still forbidden from talking and at night they would be isolated gt Contract labor svstem inmate labor was sold on a contractual basis to private employers to make products Debating systems gt There were debated on which system was better gt NY system believed inmates had to quotbe brokenquot gt Pennsylvania system rejected harsh punishment gt Most European visitors favored the Auburn System NY for penitentiaries Development of prisons in the east and west gt Lease system inmates were leased to contractors who provided prisoners with food and clothing in exchange for labor gt In the south prisoners were used as eld laborers Reformatory Movement gt By 18005 reformers were becoming disillusioned with the penitentiary because of overcrowding understaf ng and minimal nancing gt Mark System good time credit prisoners were graded upon good behavior which could lead to an early release from prison Cincinnati 1870 Indeterminate sentencing replaced by xed sentencing Reformation rather than lapse of time necessary for prisoner s release Classi cation of prisoners based on characteristics and improvement Penitentiary practices of xed sentences the lockstep rule of silence and isolations were seen as debasing and humiliating VVVV Elmira Reformatory gt Brockway was the superintendent of the rst reformatory at Elmira gt He believed that diagnostics and treatment were keys to reform and rehabilitation Lasting Reforms gt Indeterminate sentencing gt Inmate c classi cation gt Rehabilitative programs gt Parole Rise of progressives gt Emphasized state actions to deal with social problems of slums adulterated food dangerous occupational conditions vice and crime gt gt Mostly came from people of the upper class background Rehabilitation through individualized treatment Individualized treatment and the positivist school gt Set of men and women sought to understand crime case by case Positivist school assumptions gt VVV Crime behavior not a result of free will but stems from factors over which individuals have no control over 0 Biological characteristics parents in jail born a criminal o Psychological maladjustments o Sociological conditions committing crime because of environment made into a criminal Criminals can be treated to live a crime free life Treatment must center on individual and individual s adjustment Probation recognized individual differences and allowed offenders to be treated in the community with supervision Indeterminate sentences min and max terms within the correctional process of rehabilitation could operate parole board could decide if offender was ready to be released from prison Parole Criminals are released from prison early but are under supervision similar to probation Rise of the Medical Model gt Medical model assumption that behavior caused by social 1929 gt gt gt psychological or biological differences that require treatment Congress authorized Federal Bureau of Prisons to develop institutions toward proper classi cation treatment care of offenders 19505 known as era of treatment Prisons were to become something like medical hospitals that would rehabilitate and test the inmate Medical model to community model gt Social and political values of 19605 and the 19705 0 Civil rights movement 0 War on poverty 0 Resistance to Vietnam gt Americans challenged government institutions leading with 0 Education 0 Mental health 0 Adult corrections Community Corrections gt Reintegration into the community should be the goal of the criminal justice system gt Corrections should turn away from psychological care and turn to programs that would increase offenders success upon leaving institution Crime Control Model gt The decline of rehabilitation gt Longer sentences especially for career criminals and violent offenders gt Robert Martinson s quotNothing worksquot report gt Lock up everyone who committed a crime no matter what they did Emergence of crime control gt Change occurred in the 19705 and 19805 gt Crime rate at historic levels gt Response by legislators judges criminal justice officials
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