Weeks 2 and 3 Notes World History, 1500-Present
Weeks 2 and 3 Notes World History, 1500-Present HIST 1011
Popular in World History, 1500-Present
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lizzy Dawahare on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1011 at George Washington University taught by Professor Dane Kennedy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see World History, 1500-Present in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Traditions Chapter 22 Vasco de Gama led a trade mission from 14971499 during which he made his way from Portugal around the Cape of Good Hope to Calicut Southern India and back In Calicut he traded his gold for pepper and cinnamon both of which were a hit in Portugal This voyage opened the door to direct maritime trade between Europe and Asia and established links between major world religions Europeans linked the lands together therefore Europe saw greater benefits from the connections European influence in Western Culture allowed Europe to find more power and wealth as they become more prominent than ever before Its expansion allowed for the creation of a worldwide network of transportation communication and exchange giving birth to a global economy These voyages allowed mariners to develop an accurate understanding of the world s geography Motivation to explorebasic resources suitable for growing cash crops new trade routes and expanding Christianity Portuguese Exploration the Portuguese ventured out into the Atlantic to find fish seals timber whales and lands on which they could grow wheat in order to supplement the lack of resources in Portugal They called the Canary Islands and there was a strong temptation to create sugar plantations because the demand for sugar was alway so high Traders realized that by eliminating the Muslim intermediaries they could have more direct access to Chinese goods such as ginger and could create a greater profit by creating new maritime trade routes Another goal was to expand Christianity because it is a missionary religion This expansion was not always peaceful and leaders and missionaries often formed alliances against Muslims Sailors developed a rudder on their boats so that they could survive adverse sailing conditions They also took advantage of a combination of square and triangular sails in order to increase efficiency when sailing Magnetic compasses and astrolabes were also important tools used to sail efficiently They allowed the sailors to determine their direction and latitude so that they could assemble data about the earth s geography and develop safe and quick trade routes Knowledge of winds and currents was also crucial in these long voyages Winds and currents often forced sailors to take alternative routes in order to protect the assure the safety and swiftness of the voyages The vota do mar strategy invented by the Portuguese allowed sailors to return home safely from the Canaries back to Portugal through an alternative route that didn t force them to fight trade winds The route took them well out of their way but it was more efficient because they face little resistance from certain winds This principle became a useful and widely used one in the world of trade Columbus39s voyage to the Americas opened the doors for many opportunities and Europeans began to realize the magnitude of the potential that the Americas held Magellan s 3year circumnavigation of the world was torturous and of the 280 men who embarked on the journey only 18 returned Russia did not begin its sea explorations until around the eighteenth century Portugal attempted to seize control of the Indian Ocean but by the end of the sixteenth century they had lost their power and were no longer a prominent figure in the Indian Ocean trade routes The English and the Dutch rose to more prominent roles in trade after the decline of PonugaL Europeans conquered and imposed their rule on the Philippines and Indonesia Russia focused on land expansion while everyone else focused on maritime trade English and French merchants became the most common in the Indian Ocean Pirates preyed on Spanish ships The Seven Years War British forces fought little in Europe because their Prussian allies held off armies but elsewhere they fought off the French and the Spanish The aftermath of The Seven Year s War put Britain in a position for world dominance The Columbian exchange gave way to the transfer of many diseases such as smallpox and diphtheria Some diseases wiped out almost entire populations such as the Aztecs The long term effect was beneficial however because of the global spread of crops and animals Traders began to exploit animals and drove several species to extinction Traditions Chapter 23 The Protestant Reformation Martin Luther Johannes Gutenberg introduced printing to Europe Luther attacked the Roman church for a wide range of abuses and called for reform He wanted the closure of monasteries translation of the Bible from Latin to vernacular languages and an end to priestly authority including the Pope himself Luther fueled several movements including a large one in Germany Half of the German population had adopted Lutheran Christianity by the mid sixteenth century Protestants began to appear in Italy and Spain but authorities suppressed their growth John Calvin organized a Protestant community in France and Switzerland where he also sought reform Calvin believed in basic structure similar to that of Martin Luther but his beliefs also differed in fundamental ways in that he emphasized the power of God more and he believed in predestination Calvinists were expected to dress simply and to study the bible regularly and also to refrain from dancing playing cards and other such activities King Henry VIII severed ties with the Roman church and made himself Supreme Head of the Anglican church English Pope when the Pope would not allow him to divorce his wife who had not produced a male heir England had permanently left the Roman Catholic community by 1560 The Catholic Reformation The Council of Trent was an assembly of bishops cardinals and other high church officials who met intermittently between 1545 and 1563 to address matters of doctrine and reform They defined in detail elements of Roman Catholicism The Society of Jesus went on the offensive and sought to extend the boundaries of the reformed Roman church Witch hunts became common and most convicted witches were women Difference in religion also led to religious wars between Protestant and Roman Catholic communities The Thirty Year s War is the umbrella term used to refer to the years during which the continental religious conflict happened Religious views were the driving motives behind joining the war though motives were sometimes political or economic This war was the most disruptive European conflict prior to the twentieth century The war damaged economies and societies throughout Europe and led to deaths of almost a third of the German population Charles V didn t expand his empire much but he was able to draw on the financial resources of wealthy lands Absence of effective imperial power allowed public affairs to fall to the various regional states that had emerged during the middle ages New monarchs included Henry VIII of England Louis XI and Francis l of France and Fernando and Isabel of Spain French kings levied direct taxes on sales households and the salt trade New sales tax in Spain boosted royal income The Spanish Inquisition investigated suspected cases of heresy Constitutional States The English Civil War The Glorious Revolution The Dutch Republic The Sun King Absolutism in Russia Peter Catherine II and the Limits of Reform The Peace of Westphalia The Balance of Power Military Development American Food Crops Population Growth Urbanization The Nature of Capitalism Supply and Demand JointStock Companies Politics and Empire Puttingout System Serfdom in Russia Profits and Ethics The Nuclear Family The Ptolemaic Universe Planetary Movement The Copernican Universe Galileo Galilei Isaac Newton Emilie du Chatelet September 9 2015 A The Americas Food crops corn maize and the potato two of the four staple crops Before 1492 the potato was limited to South America but maize was in both North and South America 1 Mayans Arose in an area of lowlying jungles 2OO BCE 900 CE afterwards organized into city states City states engaged in war and war of succession were quite common B Mexican Highlands Different people often speaking different languages or dialects various statescivilizations All operated in a fashion in which the central power would establish some set of alliances with surrounding peoples Aztecs sacrifices done on top of pyramids to feed to gods to ensure that the citizens would be provided with adequate harvests Sophisticated society with great cities and a unique agricultural system floating gardens 1 Andes The Incas perfect an extraordinary ability to cut stone and build C SubSaharan Africa Many of the same diseases and food crops found in Eurasia some originating in Eurasia and finding their way to SubSaharan Africa indicating a long history of contact with others despite its isolation from other parts of the world due to the desert D Water World Polynesians in the Pacific The Polynesian peoples who started out in Southeast Asia made voyages from one island to another and began to populate the entire Pacific over the course of a few generations Small maneuverable ships Acquired a knowledge of currents and winds charted their locations using stars and the altitude of the sun long before the Europeans developed devices to do the same Produced bizarrelooking maps and spread word about their colonization through word because they had no written language Easter Island was the farthest that they made it They brought domesticated animals crops etc Constructed stone monuments each weighing 3040 tons over 600 scattered across the island Sophisticated highlyorganized society capable of creating a lasting impact Eventually they used too many resources and the population eventually collapsed Terms Cahokia Anasazi Aztecs Machu Benin Picchu Great Zimbabwe Prester John September 14 2015 Roots of Eurobean Hedemonv Rise of Western Europe Lords Pre 1200 nobody would ve given this area of the world any chance of dominating the world as they eventually would Most backward region of Eurasia escaped Mongol invasion only because it is so far west Feudal System based upon largely subsistence agriculture hierarchical Serfdom instead of slave labor no pay No salaries or currency Region is not bound politically rather it is bound together through religion Everyone living in that region is Christian Catholic Christians Orthodox Christians etc Minority communities Jewish communities in Eastern and Western Europe Muslim communities Spread of the bubonic plague which kills off half of the population in some areas Rat s native habitat was central Asia so when the Mongols spread the plague also spread lndustrious Revolution Revolution in industriousness Happens as a result of the end of the Feudal System and serfdom Former serfs congregate in towns and cities and engage in manufacturing textiles metal tools ships etc Rise in banks modern bookkeeping mechanisms private shareholding companies all of the things that we associate with capitalism begin to show in Europe during this period Gothic Cathedrals Intellectual Renaissance more time can be devoted toward education By 1500 there were 80 universities across Europe The Printing Press Gutenberg Important in sharing religious texts Political Consolidation states get larger and more consolidated How do rulers maintain control troops under their direct command In order to build an army they needed money instead of relying on the This led to a system of taxation and in order to pull that off they needed a bureaucracy Why Europe Commerce motive Growth of capitalism modern capitalism rises Religion motive Christianity as a motive for expansion NationStates means Technology means The Happy Accident Terms Mongols Black Death bubonic plague Marco Polo 12711295 Johannes Gutenberg 13931468 Protestant Reformation 1517 Thirty Years War c 16151648 September 16 2015 1492 turning point in history Columbus discovers the Americas Brings the New World into renewed contact with the Old World Eurasia Didn t truly appreciate what he had found believed he discovered outlying regions of China Not the first outsider to have discovered America Norse established settlements in Nova Scotia Japanese blown off course and landed on the west coast Columbus makes it possible for that connection to be sustained and amplified Erased an insuperable barrier between the two worlds Makes 4 voyages from the Old World to the New World Figures out wind patterns of the Atlantic Native Americans Disastrous consequences for Native Americans Death of millions Europeans Opportunities to exploit labor and resources All the trees were as different from ours as day to night and so the fruits The Americas had embarked on a different evolutionary path postpangea Different crops diseases animals technologies etc Different languages Columbus takes Native Americans as prisoners until they begin to acquire Spanish thus the two cultures can communicate First period of contact two societies that don t understand each other s language intentions motives etc Leads for suspicion doubt conflict Initial conflict result of misunderstanding of each other Diseases smallpox tuberculosis the flu typhoid remnants of the plague measles mumps chicken pox whooping cough diphtheria pneumonia amoebic dysentery Europeans bring their own diseases and African diseasesmalaria yellow fever New World diseases come to Europe syphilis Virgin Soil Epidemics Native Americans had no immunity to European diseases Estimate 90 of Native Americans died from European illnesses within 100 years 1519 1810 approximately 50 epidemics through the central highlands of Mexico The population was slashed from 25 million to 860000 in 100 years Syphilis why did the Old World have so many diseases while the New World had few Not as many large domesticated animals in the Americas animals transfer diseases Exchande of Plants Equal exchange between Europe and the Americans Mutually beneficial Rice wheat onions citrus fruits grapes Old to New Potato tomato corn tobacco chocolate New to Old
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