A&P Week 4 - Notes
A&P Week 4 - Notes BIOL 2457
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Peterson on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2457 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Timothy L Henry in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
982015 Embryonic Connective Tissue Loose Connective Tissue Areolar Connective Tissue W M OSt Wide distributEd in the body quot8 CmMLQ Ne a quot vL 0Contains several types of cells and all three W Mesenchyme A 9 Gives rise to all other connective tissues 7 Wet Mucous Wharton39 Jelly 39 Found in umbilical cord of the fetus ber types 45 15 126 AA Wei Skin Sectional view oi subcutaneous omelet connective tissue Arqu connective tissue Loose Connective Tissue W Connective Tissue Contains adipocytes gs 31ka Good for insulation and energy reserves 39White common and brown adipose tissue 0 oosslcokws Riots Puma Fil e interlacing reticular fibers anal cells Forms the stzroma of liver spleen and lymph nodes Macith iil mticulnr call 239 Reticuhr ber sectional We reticular nonnative ows at a lymph noon if CJ JBQ wag WW c itkw s 14 A to gm 9 SW M W o o 318201 5 Dense Connective Tissue Dense Connective Tissue Dense Regular ll l l l l V l l A o N 1 Connective Tlss a e 39Dense connective tissue N law s i a H g 39C tains numerous thick and dense fibers quotBundles 0f 0 agenf39bers are regularly To C l l l l arranged in parallel patterns for strength Packed closely wrth fewer cells than loose i leak S tendons and most Ii me nts connective tissue get UP l regal Types quotDense regular connective tissue 39Elastic connective tissue Nucleus oi broblast Collagen A A 39 rmar Sachem aw pl dam regular mum Darts regular cenmctiva li aua tissue of a tendon Dense conn ECt39VE T3955U93 m Dense irregular Connective Tissue Connective Tissue quot 39Colllagen fibers are usually irregularly arranged Contams branching elastic bers Founcl where pulling farces are exerted in Stmng and can recoi to original shape after many directions stretching quotLung tissue and arteries 39Dermis of skin and heart fiber Flame 1 new f s vim of elastic Elastic Ikem 5mm vim of dun lmgulu Dim irregular WM them at mm liewe m reticular region of denMs 15 982015 D CKx Types of Mature Connective Tissue W Hyaline Cartilage 39Cartilage is a dense network of a Hagen M9 tabunme quotitquotiehOdV fibers and elastic fibers firmly embedded 39j lg tg ffjngg ch d Um We except quotquot9 in Chon A mltln Sullfate Provides flexibilityand support 39Chrondrocytes 39 Reduces friction 39 Cartilage cells found in the spaces called lacunae m 39 Perichondrium I Cover inj of dense irre xular conne A surrounds the cartilage Two layers outer fibrous layer and inner cellular layer lo blood vessels or nerves except A w cinemamu lemlbom and dared 04 mm Wrmyma tive tissue that W Hyahne caning Elastic Cartilage Fibrocartilage 39Chondrocytes are located within a threadlike Cl10 droc es are scattered among bundles of collagen ne we I D be astic bers fibers Wlthm the extracellular matrix P A h d e A 39Lacks a perichondriurn em on um IS present IStrcm est typeofcarti lage 7 wrong medes Strength and elasmcllty 0Found in intervertebral disc between vertebrae mm a Qu dl lcl l We mm cl gar A a W39tnmci hm I ww W35 M Nmiem 231 W madame mm m can 39 A vim cl imam all IW hemmed W39mdammnamdwrm elm W l 039 lmr timb 16 3 2182015 Bone Tissue Bones are organs composed of several different connective Cartilage grows Slowly tissues bone lows tissue periosteum and endosteum A 4 d 4 d i A 39Compact or spongve When injure or in ame repair is s ow Ostean mhav ersriansvstem due to its avascular nature Spongv bone lacks osteonsiThev have columns called trabeculae by Repair amp Growth of Cartilage IT ewe g mmtewk 031ame in rm utm matrix Two patterns of cartilage growth alnterstitial growth 4 A Growth from within the tissue 2 ppositiona growth A Weave Growth at the outer surface of the tissue Umlo Lacuna Lacuna em Sectional view at meow tissue ol thigh barrel Details oi an oetaoayia Liquid Connective Tissue Membranes were 7 yMembranes are flat sheets of pliable 4Q N 5 39 tissue that cover or line a part of the body i ll Blood tissue 39 Connective tissue with liquid extracellular matrix called blood plasma Epi thelial membranes are a combination of an epithelial layer and an underlying connective tissue layer Mucous Serous and Cutaneous membranes quotSynovial membranes Lines joints and contains connective tissue but not epithelium 17 918201 5 Membranes Epithelial amp Synovial Epithelial Membranes UMucous membranes 39 Line body cavities that open directly to the exterior Epithelial layer is import nt for the be y s defense ragaquot r st pathogens 0L 3x s geeer 39 Connective tissue layer is areolar connective tissue and is called lamina propria Mucus w it Sman intestine Epithelium Lamina pmpria azaolar don neclive tissue Mucous A s membrane Q r Chis55 A Epithelial Membranes Epithelial Membranes SET membquotes or S ems a g A a is 39CU taneous membrane skin Line body cavrtles that do not open directly to the exterior A A I 39 Covers the organs that lie within the cavity 39Covers the entire surface 0f the bow 39 Consist of areola connective tissuegcovered by 39COhSiStS 0f epidermis and dermis mesethelium simplesqusamous epithelium that secretes a erous Uld for lubrication Epidermig Dermis Skin 1 8 382015 Membranes Muscular Tissue 39Svnovial membranes Consists of elongated cells called tlne thecavities of freely movable Jomts S Cle bers or myocytes ack epithelium Svnoviocytes secrete synovialfluid to lubricate and quotCEHS use ATP tO generate force nourish the cartilage in the mint Performs several functions WWW Classifications ISkeletal muscle Cardiac muscle 1 39Smooth muscle e Wes clv Anim ating bone a Aer Synowml 603M tissue cavity contains semi uid lu quot 0 314 Articulating bane Skeletal Muscle Tissue Muscular Tissue quotquot x Attached to bones of the skelegl r 39Cardiy muscle tissue Has stri i n5 3 mwd striations Performs voluntary movement or contractions by CONSCIOUSCOHUD I l IT A I t t 4 a a 0 Varies in length up to 40 cm and is roughly cylindrical in shape 939 un aw movemen contrac Jon 395 01 l A conscmus v controlled m LWVQ K JVKM IA abreasu A I 39nt 1 1 I Wdlsc IS unique to cardiac muscle tlSSUE 19 918201 5 Smooth Muscle Tissue Excitable Cells Walls of hollow internal structures Neurons and muscle bers Blood vessels airways of lungs stomach and intestines 4 A Nomtriated m exec siergsct ch 39Exhiblt electrical Witty ally involuntary quotThe ability to respond to certain stimuli by producrng electrical Signals such as f g t or action otentials may i c g 39ACthl iS potentials propagate along a up a g g m hampi nerve or muscle plasma membrane to 39 cause a response a Release of neurotransmitters Muscle contraction a quot control Gait 3 ngbkmi if 53 im 0x 2 Neural Tissue Nervous Tissue 39Also called nervous or nerve tissue quotConsists of two principle types of cells Specialized for conducting electrical 39Neumns 339 ewe GEMS impulses Weuroglia Rapidly senses internal or external environment Processes information and controls responses or A A Nuclei 91 neurogiia Mom in at 20 Neural Tissue HEUHOGLIA Iupp r ng coils c structum Aliarm w y 2 quotw vaid39o in mm egg 1 Er at quotKiri t i v t W munstir uid A J leg 7 W m r W w39tt quot A quot f quotquotquoti Musing M Mu i LB 3 m m I i NH A Axon cum1 quot39 Womn on u calls Q t i it 1 691161th Nucleus t 1 x r Jer can J I Geri nucleus and mi am mlm A ripmmtmiw mm L can and smst vary widely Neurai Tissue 39Neural tissue is distributed through i the Peripheral nervous system i quotSensory Afferents39 x 9 39 Motor Efferents f v a c PA is J 9 9981 20 5 Neural Tissue 39Neural tissue is concentrated in the central nervous system 39Brain Spinal cord 7 7 c m m 39aFW mustangs v 39 t 39 um iucms i GHQ a Ou i W m t 21 Neural Tissue Cell Parts of a Neuron Cell body Contains the nucleus and nucleolus ODendrites Short branches extending from the cell body Receive incoming signals 39Axon nerve fiber long thin extension of the cell body Carries outgoing electrical signals to or W Aging 8L Tissues Tissue heals faster in young adults Surgery of a fetus normally leaves Young tissues have a better nutriti 39Extracellular components also cha Changes in the body s use of gluco and elastic fibers contribute to the process seeps at g F a A 2 m stab their destination U3ch u Quc s Riga OKO JKLQS I 3 were gaggle no scars one state blood supply and higher metabolic rate nge with age seco agen 4 aging 982015 Tissue Repair Restoring Homeostasis iWhen tissue damage is extensive both stroma and parenchymal cells are active in re pair Fibroblasts divide rapidly INew collagen fibers are manufactured sNew blood capillaries supply materials for heaHng All of these processes create an actively growing connective tissue called gra nu lation tissue 5 2A 22 Chapter The lntegumentary S sStem Development of the lntegumentary System 0 The epidermis develops from the ectoderm nails hair and skin glands are epidermal derivatives the epidermis of a fetus is protected by a fatty substance called vernix caseosa a special white sebum a The dermis develops from the mesoderm it is connective tissue 9 I 520 l 5 introduction 1ndng 135 The organs of the integumentary system L 1 AWN include the cutaneous membrane skin f i N and its accessory structures Including 4 k paws hair nails and glands as well as blood 3 vessels muscles and nerves Dermatology is the medical specialty for the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the integumentary system Development of the Integumentary System a Fwthwdc to Lu 0 ece lSd A mec Tlhki j a amp m m we he 4 H ca es 1 9 l 5201 5 Development of the lntegurnentary System Types of Skin 39 Thin hairy skin eCo vers all body regions except the palms palmar surfaces of digits and soles Thick hairless skin Covers the palms palmar surfaces of digits and soles w x A lamam A t kxacirecr were MQM S 5 59 G WI Wind Hair mil Fame hhair Comparison of Thin amp Thick Skin Functions of the Skin FEATURE mm sum rum sum A A A lstributi on Alim sni39ihehmiycxocpt Amssuchmrm inlSUIBtion mas such aspaims imd palmar palmspalmar surface A AA A As 4 4 A 5W AA a A m m evaporationvasodilatation amp vasoconstrictlon A E idemal Uln m 06an I A r K A v A 6 239 time rerunomens momma A QM skam Blood rese rvorr Fquot A 2quot A A g o A Epidermal Stratum lucidum essentially Thick strain Miriam x Tm A A A L A 5quot Lg gj gfg zfm M Q g I Protection of underlying tissues 8 organs A Epid emal Lamking duemprmriy Premnidmmmll e r E A A AAA I ridges develomarndrcwerma developemdmm w 519 L 35 39 Cutaneous sensations touch pressure pain amp V r lcsswclieorganizmi dermal nurmwus dermal A A A papillae papillae organized in pe ratu Are l parailclmws Hal 4 Laud k A 39 a o n l ganglia Present Absent V quot 39 l Excretion salts water organic waists Vla glands amp a if M W pilimuscles 1 U A A C BAIP J v he A A Summons Present Absent A C w w 339 Qk wags glands 4 a A F I 3mm Em mm AA an A Synthesis of Vitamin D A A UM Ag 0 51135 Sparse WAQ QA AA A k M a CMquot M3 on CPIEv wte 0 CQkOLHD alpscgrbg r n Qt met Connec ons Cardiovascular system Blood vessels in the dermis 0 Nervous system Sensory receptors for pain touch pressure amp temperature Cutaneous Membrane Epidermie A wt Maeliaok Epidermal ridge Dermal My Papiiia Dermls a Relationship between the epidermis and dermis 91 5201 5 Structure of the Skin 39 The skin cutaneous membrane covers the body and is the largest organ of the body by surface area and weig t its area is about 2 square meters 22 square feet and weighs 45 5kg 1011 ib about 16 of body weight it is 4 mm thick thinnest on the eyelids thickest on the heels the average thickness is 1 2 mm Structure of the Skin Major layers Outer thinner layer called the epidermis Consists of epithelial tissue lnner thicker layer called the dermis 39 Subcutaneous subQ layer eAlso called hypodermis Located underneath the dermis Attaches the skin to the underlying tissues and organs Components of the Integurnentary System N93 M quotden Dermal pm m WWW mumaw 5mm pm sebaceous glue 8 Nimpii mum m Q Hairle quot Mammal DEMS Structure of the Skin Ke ratinocytes 90 of the cells most abundant in a aw MN epidermis A 5 Cer9 Procluce keratin which is a tough fibrous which 15 6L protein that provides protection u 9 A W P y 39 Melanocytes Produce thepigment melanin that protects against damage by ultraviolet radiation t b 39 Epidermis characteristics 39 4M a Structure of the Skicrli7k so Avascular stratified squamous epithelium Nutrients and oxygen diffuse from capillaries in the dennE Composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium L2 aJ3939 0 gotta Vacs re w er Contains four maior types of cells WESTKM Keratinocytes Melanocytes Langerhans cells Structure of the Skin 39 Langerhans cells i Involved in immune responses fixed macrophage 7 Arise from red bone marrow quot L 0 landwqu 39 Merkel cells Function in the sensation of touch along Q 0 with the adjacent tactiie discs 4 SWd s g u a a Me quot Stu13 er IW Ev tau NW 9152015 Types of Cells in the Epidermis 1 oil 5 r Melanin Dead A A A 4sz upaqu39 granule m om ll l ntarmadiata titamen t keratin Laolam graham Mam c Keratinocyie d1 Melanocyte W A can Stratum r oo aoJ all ucw oili Stratum hatsilo Marlrdm a AWMWM WYW Sham harm gs taro tma M were cannon John Wiley and Sam inc in raw ram 3 Four principal oat typed in epidermis m3 immigranun d I abortion of thick skin e Langerhans cart in Marks coir Epidermis Epidermis Epidermis lave rs Stratum lucrdum Four layers in thin skin A y y A k 1 A 39 Present only in skin the skin of the fingertips palms and soles 6 k knob Q o amp a Stratum corneum la lers in mmquot 5H Ladme 4 Composed of many su blayers of flat dead ileeratinocytes called Lave rs 5 6 39 corneocytes or squames that are continuously shed and replaced by MW cells from deeper strata pk Constant friction can stimulate formation of a callus 39 Deepest layer Keratinization Where continuous cell division occurs which produces all the other layers Stratum spinosum 39 840 layers of keratinocytes Stratum granulosum 39 includes keratohyalin and lamellar granules Stratum basale or stratum germinativum Accumulation of more and more protective keratin it Occurs as cells move from the deepest layer to the surface layer Dandruff An excess of keratinized cells shed from the scalp Dandruff Psoriasis 773 11 fo 9 COM 91152015 Epimnms A Bbuum ammum minimalism Suntan wtquot alumni panama Maureen Smur m Fau pnmpal an m in M Mammogram u n o I uch am A gm as m Tamra 9 MP 1111 cuimm 4 Jam Marat11 s m A manna warm Layers of the Epidermis Dana mummies Sumrfmal ll Stmtum coran Lama ur granule Kormth to A v Stratum minume Langerhans cell Make all A Home the WV neuron Slramm m nsum shill1m quotT39s3 mlth u hauls 240 lb m a 91th skin a Few painch cw man in upid cmia STRATUM Basale Sp inosum Granulosu m Lucidum Comeum Rickets o oo PiaVim Epidermal Strata DESCRi PTiON Deepest layer commaml of a single mw ofeuboidai or columnar keratinocytcs39 that contain scariein iono iamcms iimenncdiale laments elem cells undergo ceii divisian to pmducc new kcraiinocyies 39 meianocylcs and Martel celis associaied with Mcrkcl discs are scattered among the kcmtinucytes Eight in ten wws of inanzyesidcd keratinucyics with bundles of Oil lii39mlmi i includes anniike processes of mclnimcyies and Langerhans ceiis Three to ve mm of attened kmtimcyics in which urgenclicsi are beginning to degenerate ceila cuniain the pmlein keratohyalin which stamens mil laments I into keratin and iamciiai39 granules which mimic a Izipiderich waterremnant secretion Present only in skin of ngertips palma and soles consists of three to ve rews 0f clean at dead kcmlinocytcs with large amounm of keratin Tweniy tive m ihiny rows of dead at kemtinocyms that contain mostly keratin Vitamin D3 9152015 Vitamin D3 Epidermal ceiis produce choiecaiciferoi vitamin D3 i ln the presence of UV radiation Liver and kidneys convert vita min D3 into calc ltrioi To aid absorption of calcium and W phosphorus Insufficient vitamin D3 A ll Can cause rickets q om LS QW Q QT ne EJB er vb a Normal nevus mole 2b Malignant melanoma A is w3 bdmk domw M 3 39 Borax co0 9152015 Skin Cancers in Bum call mum b 4 M99 ix Melanocytes Melanocytes in stratum germinativum p Melanin pigment Basal lamina a L x 250 9 91 52011 5 Melanocytes Cutaneous Carcinogenesis ho Wu Z Mel anosome Keratinocyte 35139 3 363 Melanin pigment A STAY tiltr Melanocyte A A i I womenmew easementwest Basal lamina Dermis Composed of connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers amp capillaries Contains two layers Papillary region Outer layer In if A 39 Consists of areolar connective tissue containing thin collagen and elastic fibers derrnal pa illae including capillary loops corpuscles of touch and free nerve endings Reticular layer 39 Consists of dense irregular connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers adipose cells hair follicles nerves sebaceous oil glands and sudoriferous sweat glands 39 Striae or stret cnmar ks can appear if the skin is stretched too A DEMIS mUCh axmmmmmmm WW1 QI WOK V VCEJ S Wt 9152015 Papillary 8 Reticul ar Dermis a Epidermal Growth Fat10 EGF i 393 quot So will 9 G ext ii M ac i all HES UJL KW LxlU L I a 55390quot ESCR39PT39ON 39 Papillary The super cial portion of the dcnnis about one fth 3 a I 3 consists of molar connective tissue with thin collagen I in and ne elastic bers contains dermal ridges that house i A A capillaries Mcissncr corpusclcs and free nerve endings l im g Reticular The deeper portion of the dermis about font fths A 55 539 i consists of dense irregular oonncctivc tissue with 9ng dm gmn m ggnm ma WW bundles of thick collagen and some coarse elastic bers I A quot Spaces between bers contain some adipose V 3 cells hair follicles nerves sebaocous glands 39 tapair quotdkd lids a A 1 i 0 m g a i i glandular h Dermis The Dermis Lines of cleavage if 5 06 illVGquot Tension lines in the skin that indicate the predominant direction of underlying collagen fibers Epidermal ridges Reflect contours of the underlying dermal papillae Lines of Cleavage of the Skin Form the basis for fin orprints and footprints C Function to increase firmness of grip by increasing i m Wr39 ws 8 friction A ng 3 Dermatoglyphics the study of the pattern of A 4 Stud epidermal ridges S Q b w ow goo m 9152015 Structural Basrs of Skin Color 39 Based on variations in the amounts of three pigments Melanin carotene and hemoglobin Melanin A yellowred or brownblack pigment produced by melanocytes located mostly in the epidermis where it absorbs UV radiation Amount of melanin causes the skin s color to vary from pale yellow to red to tan to black Number of melanocytes are about the same in all people Differences in skin color is due to the amount of pigment produced 3 oceans to Emma m and mm yam M A quotWWW Nevus or mole A benign localized overgrth of A a W melanocyt es Structural Basis of Skin Color Subcutaneous Layer 39 Albinism 4 Hemoz gm men agiv i Subcutaneous subQ layer 1 wot dementia An inherited inability to produce melanin A A A AMIM Vitiligo ltra g IQ Also called h ypoderm ls gee A a Partial or complete loss of melanocytes from patches of skin ls n01 part of the skin Carotene 7 1w Wro39b Yello w orange pigment Found in the stratum corneum dermis and subcutaneous layer It attaches skin to the underlying tl SSUES Hemoglobin and organs Red color Functions y A y i a a A Contalns lamellated pacinian corpuscles Located in erythrocytes flowmg through dermal capillaries A A A A A A c mamas as lowth tack 39 Karma Wthh detect external pressure applied to 39 Jaundice bWNO gt the 5km bilirubin tm A g A arcokx Ava ewes in 1 RBQ l or d fbr i L 2 t 4 kg boltquot 1 CA Q MMQOEQQJS M H Accessory Structures of the Skin Hairs pili Functions Protection Reduction of heat loss Sensinglight touch Composition Dead keratinized epidermal cells Hair consists of Structure Shaft which mostly projects above the surface of the skin a Root which penetrates into the dermis Hair follicle Epithelial root sheath Dermal root sheath in W rat was ma Wm anes we cirwiw 4 1me 9152015 Hair shaft p M 39 Sebeceousgland A 44 Arrector pill muscia a J r v 3 M Hair root 4 L Q18 at A Connective tissue sheath Hair bulb Hair papilla S Wmcg 7 Accessory Structures of the Skin Types of hairs Lanu to fine non i mented down hairs that cover A the bidy of the 39FetEsg 6V you AOQAW K R LAM Vel ilus hairs short fine pale hairs barely visible to the naked eye Terminal hairs 1 CMS CWL us koaflr 4 quxrom my Long coarse heavily pigmented hairs Hair color Determined by the amount and type of melanin M Sebaceous oil glands Connected to hair follicles 39139 9152015 Skin Glands Sweat Glands I Sebaceous oil glands 4 16 0 debSE O39l Bweatpore amp Duel A y gt Myoeprmeual cell Secrete an oily substance called sebum Prevents dehydration of hair and skin 39 Inhibits growth of certain bacteria A Connective tissue of dermis 39 Sudoriferous sweat glands aEccr ine merocrine sweat glands Q Wsribke Stow 39 Help to cool the body by evaporation Apoerlna gland cells Bust 01 A apoc ne sweat gland if sz air M N M a I Eliminate small amounts of wastes Apocrine sweat glands at A la to rm I Located mainly in the skin of the axilla groin areolae and bearded facial regions of adult males Sectional plane vi through apocrine sweat gland m a 45s Excretory ducts open into hair follicles with sweat secreted during emotional stress and sexual excitement in Apncr ne sweat gland Cross section u of merocrlne sweat gland Sebaceous Glands Ho locrine Sweat Glands 8135 A 4 Cells burst mloulng cytoplasmic contents 39 39 5 33 m l Calls produee Q lactation incruling Sebaceous 3939sz gland mu division ream 39 last call follicle 39 395 m a clHolocrinequot N Stern cell 1392 9152015 Merocrine Eccrine Sweat Glands Apocrine Sweat Glands ff Secretoryx veswle Golgi apparatus SaliVary gland Eccrine Merocrine 8 Apocrine Sweat Glands Ceruminous Glands FEATU RE Distribution Location of secretory portion Termination of ECCRIHE SWEAT ELAN as Thmuglmut skin of most regions of the especially in skin of forolwnd palms and soles Mostly in deep tennis Surface of epidermis APOCRME SWEAT GLANDS Skin of the asiiln groin amolac bearded regions of the face clitoris and labia minom Mostly in subcutaneous layer Hair follicle Modified sweat glands located in the earcanal 39 Along with nearby sebaceous glands they are involved in producing a waxy secretion called cerumen earwax consists of the same omnponoms as merino sweat glands plus lipids and proteins excretory duct Secretion Less viscous consists of water ions Na Ci urea uric acid ammonia amino acids glucose lactic acid Regulation of body temperature waste removal and stimulated during emotional stress 30m after birth Wh39Ch PVOVides a sticky barrier that prevents entry of foreign bodies into the ear canal 0 little afar QC Funttions 39 Stimulated during emotional stress and sexual excitement Onset of function OPOHC AS tie at Lilo 14 9 5201 5 Nails 39 Composed of hard keratinized epidermal cells located over the dorsal surfaces of mm cues Lam manual the ends of fingers and toes Sagittal plane l mic 1 Free edge of nail 39 Structures 5 1 plrermis Free edge ma Phalanx nger bone Transparent nail body plate with a whitish lunula at its base mm a Dem view lb Sagittal section showing internal detail gNail root embedded in a fold of skin MWWMMMMWM 0 23 g W03 ELK 09 99925 Nails and Health Decub itus Ulcer bedsore pressure ulcer White nails liverproblems g g H malnutrition anemia congestive heart disease clubbed 39 Yellow nails fungus jaundice psoriases pits amp ripples thyroid disease cracked Blue nails hypoxia lung infection COPD anthrocosis fibracosis silacosis asbestosis I Black w red puffy edge melanoma quot Mmim Cmsa hcCve V 1l 1 1R