Scientific Revolution History 150C1
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by juan gomez on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 150C1 at University of Arizona taught by Minayo Nasiali in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Europe in the Modern World in History at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
September 14 2015 The Scienti c Revolution 0 Key Terms from Lecture 0 Scienti c Revolution Changed the way people viewed nature Complex interaction among scholars discussing ideas on how nature works Roots of the scienti c revolution 0 Began in the mid16th century to the 18th century 0 Transformed how Europeans thought about the world o Moved common thoughts into question 0 Universities 0 Education had taken place in schools in which monks and nuns taught Became popular as princes and other leaders went there to study Focused on teaching students on how to write and live honorable lives Developing ideas about academic freedom 0 University of Bologna s Charter guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interest of education 0 Someone could travel from center to center in the pursuit of knowledge 0 Research 0 No limits to kind of research able to be done Scholar able to educate himself as much as he wants Exploration 0 European exploration dealt a blow to ancient authorities o Ancients had never travelled to North America or Africa The Religious Wars Shook the foundation of religions o Religions challenged many truths o Geocentrism Most had accepted the views that the center of the universe was the earth and the universe revolved around the earth The planets sun and moon revolved around the ea h Beyond the planets was a sphere that contained the stars Each of the four elements air earth re water 0 Had their place in the universe Ether was a fth element which was thought to be eternal Model failed to explain many other patterns in the sky By the 16th century the model was different due to all the additions done previously 0 Heliocentrism Nikolas Copernicus thought a simpler model was around He did not believe that the universe could be as messy as the geocentric model Writes the quotrevolutions of the heavenly spheresquot Argued the sun was the center of the sun Included mathematical equations to support his claims He never viewed his ideas as a challenge to God or any other types of divine creations Thought his example was a better model of the universe 0 Copernicus Theoretician Dealt with mathematics Kepler for example was a practitioner 0 Demonstrated that planets revolved around the sun 0 Followed elliptical rather than circular orbits 0 Physical laws governed how universe worked alnd earth 0 Galileo Galilee 1609 mathematician heard spectacle makers had made a lens that could magnify distant objects Sought to reproduce this device Observed the surface of the moon 0 Was actually rough instead of soft Also observed that there was spots in the sun Venus appeared to change its shape through many months Discovered evidence for developing theory on the planets Found evidence that the planets revolved around the sun Galileo successful due to better writing Structured his work in a way that sold his theones Advocate of the two competing world views Included research to support his evidence 0 Used a vernacular writing for people to understand 0 Previous words were wrote it in Italian 0 Italian easier to read 0 Italians who could read could actually accesstheseideas 0 Makes translation to other languages easier Gained popular support 0 Catholic Church began to feel threatened o Loses support of the pope 0 Put on trial and found guilty in Latin Galileo 0 Example as competing claims about truth 0 Two ideas of how the world actually works 0 Book placed on index of prohibited works 0 Made Main studies 0 Mechanics Optics 0 Isaac Newton In uenced by Kepler and Galileo Son of a farmer 16421727 Fascinated by mechanical devices Spent his time making wooden models of mills and other machines Newton hated farming mom was convinced to let him study At 27 became a professor of mathematics Formulated a set of laws to explain the entire world Theory of gravitation Some force holds down items to the ground Represents a synthesis on the work of others 0 Built on Kepler s and Galileo s works Established the existence of a single gravitational force 0 Broad notes National philosophers worked in their own ways There was no set method to formulate ideas Scientists observed and experimented 0 Francis bacon Experimentation Observation 0 Providing a hypothesis and putting it to the test quotputting nature to the questionquot Wrote that previous scienti c endeavors relied too little in scienti c experimentation Only by experimentation and observation should ideas be thought up Such inductive approaches were used broadly 0 William Harvey Performed experiments on human cadavers and animals Wants to know how the heart works People had thought beforehand that blood came from the liver A certain amount of the blood went from the liver to the heart then sent to the rest of the body Some kind of spirit gave the blood vital nutrients in the process of this process Believed that experiments were to be performed on cadavers and live animals to nd out how blood ow worked He opened up live animals in order to see through where the blood traveled through Found out the heart pumps blood through the body A school of practice was created in order to make further scienti c discoveries o lnductive reasoning Process in which theories appear only after you observe during an experiment Demands that all scienti c experiments be tested 0 Key terms from readings o The Microscopelll September 16th 2015 The Scienti c Revolution Part 2 0 Key terms from lecture o Rene Descartes Deductive reasoning Mind and body are distinct 39truth is that which is beyond the senses only that which we can know with certainty Cogt0 ergo sum 7e pense donc je suis Woke up at 11 every morning Obtained degree in law Enlisted in Dutch military Nov 19 1619 meditating on uncertainty of his knowledge Wondered if he could nd a basis to all knowledge Search for unifying truth a theory that could explain everything Series of dreams that seemed to put a stamp of divine approval on his research Leaves the military 1620 1628 Descartes moves and travels all around Europe Moves to Holland in 1629 living in seclusion for next 20 years Begins his philosophical writings Insists on the use of deductive reasoning countering Bacon s idea of inductive reasoning 0 Mind and body were distinct substances 0 Imagined a separation of mind and body 0 Human spirit occupies a mechanical body made up of substance Most popular idea 0 Motion of doubt o quotI think therefore I amquot Complicated explanation Could not doubt someone s existence There must be some truth beyond what we observe All that remained was the fact of doubting itself Something must exist to doubt o Deductive reasoning Opposite of inductive reasoning o Skepticism The tendency or obligation to doubt what we have been taught and are expected to believe Establishing a consensus in the eld Anything that does not seem possible you will reject or won t believe right away 0 Consensus Producing knowledge The Royal Society of England Universities giving academic freedom other universities had noble patrons funding them Led to important societies Strong absolutist monarchies France 0 Both supported research and science Group of scholars throughout the community general agreement about general information that is coming out in the eld in England and o The Royal Society Established 1660 chartered by Charles II In uenced by Baconian model inductive reasoning and observation Members held meetings for demonstrations 1665 rst journal was established and devoted to research 0 Members published colleagues to read Shaping how knowledge was produced experiments or their ndings for Had to be a member and then could participate in the journal but work had to be read and approved by senior members of the society Club in which members play an important role on determining how the world works Elite academy of scientists and science based thinkers Used Baconian method evidence on theories in order to n hard 0 The New Science and Religion Was god the power behind and creator of the mechanistic heliocentric universe If the earth was no longer the center of the universe then did humans still occupy a privileged position in nature and visavis God Many of the scientists themselves were very religion There are many ideas that seem to challenge the church Yet the scientists were highly religious Some argued that science and religion were too different Newton s theory undermined the divine model God was the supreme engineer Astronomical observations offered a new outlook on the position of human beings in the universe New model displaced humans from the center of the universe New questions about the status of humans in the universe Went back to challenging the differences of men and women Women s sexual organs were thought to be a deformed version of a man s Women were imperfect realizations of mans but as well as aberrations Women s sexual organs served a different purpose and were different for a reason New knowledge on reproduction the difference in sex Descartes believed the mind was separate from the body Mind had no sex men and women must be equal since mind and body are different 0 Princes Elisabeth of Bohemia Elisabeth asked Descartes o quotIf the mind and body are two separate entities then how do they interact with each other Exclusion of women from royal societies Challenged Descartes ideas on the body Correspondence revealed that Elisabeth was sma Descartes never provides a satisfying answer to this previous question