PY 271 Chapter 1 Notes
PY 271 Chapter 1 Notes PY 271
Popular in Research Design and Analysis 1
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by klallen4s on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 271 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Nicolas Wilkins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Research Design and Analysis 1 in Psychlogy at Southeast Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Chapter 1 Notes for FY 271 Research Design amp Analysis What are statistics 0 Statistics A set of mathematical procedures for organizing summarizing and interpreting information 1 Stats can put large quantities of information into simple and condensed figures 2 Help researchers draw conclusions from the data objectively and quantitatively 0 Quantitative stats measures a variable data is in the form of numbers These also come to objective conclusions and answer how much questions 0 Qualitative stats Describes the nature of the variable Answers what questions and comes to subjective or ambiguous conclusions Some important terminology 0 Population Set of all of the individualsevents of interest in particular research study 0 Sample Set of individuals selected from a population usually intended to represent the population in a research study 0 Descriptive Statistics Statistical procedures used to summarize organize and simplify data 0 Inferential statistics Statistical procedures that allow us to study a sample and then make inferences about the population from which it was selected 0 Parameter A value that describes the population 1 A statistic is a value that describes a sample Problems with using samples 1 Samples may not always be representative of its population 0 Sampling Error The difference between the sample statistic and the population parameter 1 Factors that in uence the sample s ability to represent the population randomness and size 0 Size Different sample sizes can lead to different accuracies of measurement 2 Typically a larger sample size leads to increased accuracy in estimating properties of the population Scales of Measurement 0 Nominal When items are assigned to groups or categories typically used for classification 0 1 No quantitative differences one is not more or less than another Ordinal Simple scale that orders people objects or events along some continuum 1 Doesn t tell you the magnitude of the difference Interval equally spaced and differences are meaningful 1 No absolute zero Ratio Same as an interval scale but With an absolute true zero point Variables Discrete variables Variables that consist of separate indivisible categories 1 No values can eXist between 2 neighboring categories Continuous variables Variables that take on any value 1 Can be broken down into fractions decimals etc Independent Variable variable that is manipulated by the research Dependent Variable Variable being measured Whether a variable is an IV or a DV depends upon the design of the experiment In true experiments the effects of on variable the IV are manipulated to determine the effects on another variable the DV Statistical Notation 0 Order of Mathematical Operations PEMDAS 1 Parentheses 2 Exponents 3 MultiplicationDivision 4 AdditionSubtraction
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