9/16/15 PSY 325 48607
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Fajardo on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 325 48607 at University of Arizona taught by Kenneth Forster in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in cognitive linguistics and psychology at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
91615 Topic 3 Cont More evidence for feature analysis Neisser s 1963 visual search experiments Task 1 Find theZ Task 2 Find the Q EIMVWX RDQOCG XMZWVI GRDCOU VIEXWM DCURZG WVXQIE Easier to find the Z in the second task because the other letters are curved where as in task 1 all the letters share features with the letter Z If the target letter has the same features as the nontargets then the task is difficult How are more complex objects recognized 0 Printed letters tent to be fairly standard 0 But spoken words are far more variable this is also true for handwriting o Handwriting is more like speech than written letters because of the variation they don t fit to a rigid template 0 Ordinary objects such as chairs tables do not conform to a specific patter o Enormous variation 0 These stimuli can be very noisy 0 Have to learn to assign importance Recognition of Speech 0 Distinctive features for consonants o Voicing I B is voices p is not 0 Nasalization I N vs I I When the air comes out through the nose and the tongue is touching the roof of the mouth 0 Duration I S vs T I Length of the sound made 0 Place of articulation I Lips teeth tongue 0 Syllables that share many features are more likely to be confused 91615 0 Da and ta but not da and sa I Da and ta are confused but far more likely to be confused than da and sa I More similar in distinctive features Biederman s Recognitionbycomponents theory RBC 0 Geons 3D volumes 0 Different shapes and how we recognize them in certain objects 0 36 make up large proportion of objects in environment 0 View invariance can be identified when viewed from different angles I Can be recognized at whatever angle you look at it I Properties do not vary with view Recognizing objects 0 Discriminability geons can be distinguished from others from almost all viewpoints 0 Resistance to visual noise geons can be perceived in nosy conditions Prototype Matching Posner and Keele 1968 0 Subjects learn to categorize dot patterns formed by distorting familiar shapes triangle or letters 0 Original has dots in a triangle Distortion has dots out of triangle outline 0 Understand that there is a prototype that is being distorted in a certain way 0 Better categorization of the original patters even though never seen before 0 Subjects have formed prototypes and categorization depends on how closely the input matches the prototype Textbook has a different type of perception that says that we don t have to impose structure on objects that we see He says that all we have to do is look at the properties and the object is apparent to us Tachistoscopic Exposure demonstration Problem found was that no matter how brie y the letters were presented people could still recognize them Visual Sensory Iconic Memory 91615 Buffer for visual inputs Similar system to precategorize acoustic storage echoic storage Stores a copy of the sensory image brie y Reading p 101102 Sperling 1960 was convinced that subjects could see more in a brief display than they were able to report He believed that there was a visual buffer which decays very rapidly Sperling s experiment Typical display 3x 4 matrix P R X F T U V M S T L D Two different tasks 0 WHOLE report including all the letters 0 PARTIAL report including just one row Whole report group might get 45 letters 3040 Partial group might get 3 letters 75 Why There are less letters to have to memorize We scan it in a particular order If you know which row to look at you can focus on that and concentrate on the one that is relevant This is not surprising is the partial group knew ahead of time which row to focus on If a cue is presented before the display subjects could selectively process just the critical row BUT the cue is delivered after the display is turned off Sperling assumed subjects could still see the display when the cue was presented and the display was no longer present What happened if the cue was displayed 0 Performance went down Duration of the iconic trace Sperling varied the brightness of the pre and postexposure fields
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