Human Anatomy BIOL 103 - 54
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Demicia Hart on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 103 - 54 at University of Indianapolis taught by Marion Belfils Chaloux in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Anatomy in Biology at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Cells and Tissues Prokaryote any cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes and has its genetic material in the form of single continuous strands forming coils or loops 0 Eukaryote any organism having as its fundamental structural unit a cell type that contains specialized organelles in the cytoplasm a membranebound nucleus enclosing genetic material organized into chromosomes and an elaborate system of division by mitosis or meiosis The structure of a generalized cell 0 plasma membrane the cell membrane that forms the outer limiting barrier separating the internal contents of the cell from the external environment modi ed extensions cilia a agellum and microvilli o nucleus the largest structure within the cell and is enclosed by a nuclear envelope contains the DNA a uid that is call the nucleoplasm and a darkstaining body called the nucleolus o cytoplasm a general term for all cellular components between the plasma membrane and the nucleus the primary components are the cytosol organelles and inclusions Tissue groups of similar cells and extracellular material that perform a common function such as providing protection or facilitating body movement 0 Epithelial Tissue skin 0 Traits composed almost entirely of tightly packed cells with a minimal amount of extracellular matrix between cells has an apical external surface and a basal internal surface attached to a basement membrane by its basal surface lack blood vessels are richly supplied with nerves to detect changes in environment at that body or organ region undergo cell division frequently Function lines body cavities and organ cavities covers body and organ surfaces forms some glands Simple Squamous Epithelium 0 Structure single layer of thin at cells resembling irregular oor tiles the single nucleus of each cell bulges at its center 0 Function rapid diffusion ltration and some secretion in serous membranes 0 Location air sacs in lungs lining of lumen of lymph vessels and blood vessels serous membranes of body cavities Simple Cuboidal Epithelium 0 Structure single layer of cells about as tall as they are wide spherical and centrally located nucleus 0 Function absorption and secretion forms glands and small ducts 0 Location thyroid gland follicles surface of ovary kidney tubules secretory regions and ducts of most glands Simple Columnar Epithelium 0 Structure single layer of cells that are taller than they are wide nucleus is oval orientated lengthwise and located in the basal region of the cell Function secretion and absorption 0 Location nonciliated lines most of the digestive tract from the stomach to the anal canal ciliated lines the larger bronchioles in the lung and the luminal internal surface of the uterine tubes Strati ed Squamous Epithelium nonkeratinized 0 Structure multiple cell layers basal cells are cuboidal or polyhedral whereas apical external cells are squamous apical cells are alive and kept moist 0 Function protection of underlying tissue from abrasion 0 Location lining of oral cavity part of pharynx esophagus lining of vagina and anus Strati ed Cuboidal Epithelium 0 Structure two or more layers of cells cells at the apical surface are about as tall as they are wide 0 Function protection and secretion 0 Location ducts of most exocrine glands some regions of the male urethra and ovarian follicles Strati ed Columnar Epithelium 0 Structure two or more layers of cells cells at the apical surface are taller than they are wide 0 Function protection and secretion 0 Location large ducts of salivary glands and in membranous part of male urethra o Keratinized Strati ed Squamous Epithelium 0 Structure multiple cell layers basal cells are cuboidal or polyhedral whereas apical external cells are squamous apical cells are dead and lled with the protein keratin 0 Function protection of underlying tissue from abrasion 0 Location epidermis of skin 0 Transitional Epithelium O 0 Structure epithelial appearance varies depending on whether tissue is stretched or relaxed some cells are binucleated two nuclei relaxed polyhedral rounded cells at the apical surface stretched attened cells at the apical surface 0 Function distension stretching and relaxation to accommodate urine volume changes iin the urinary bladder ureters and part of urethra 0 Location lining of urinary bladder ureters and part of urethra Pseudostrati ed Columnar Epithelium 0 Structure single layer of cells with varying heights all cells connect to the basement membrane but not all cells reach the apical surface ciliated has goblet cells and cilia nonciliated lacks goblet cells and cilia 0 Function protection ciliated also involved in movement of mucus across surface by ciliary action 0 Location ciliated lining of the larger airways of respiratory tract including nasal cavity part of pharynx larynx trachea and bronchi nonciliated rare lining of part of the male urethra and epididymis 0 Connective Tissue o Traits Mesenchyme common origin Connective tissue proper loose connective tissue areolar adipose reticular dense connective tissue regular irregular elastic Supporting connective cartilage hyaHne brocartilage elastic bone compact spongy Fluid connective blood 0 Identifying Connective Tissue o What kind of bers are in the ECM protein bers elastic bers collagen bers and reticular bers o Is the ECM uid loose dense solid lts consistency ranges from uid to semisolid to solid 0 Muscle Tissue o Skeletal Muscle Tissue StructureCharacteristics long cylindrical striated bers cells arranged parallel and unbranched bers are multinucleated ber is under voluntary control Function primarily responsible for moving skeleton and selected other components of the body Location Attaches to bones or sometimes to skin eg facial muscles 0 Cardiac Muscle Tissue StructureCharacteristics short striated cells typically branching cells contain one or two centrally located nuclei intercalated discs between cells under involuntary control Function pumps blood through heart Location heart wall myocardium 0 Smooth Muscle Tissue StructureCharacteristics nonstriated cells that are short and fusiform in shape contain one centrally located nucleus under involuntary control Function moves and propels materials through internal organs controls the size of the lumen Location walls of hollow internal organs such as intestines stomach airways urinary bladder uterus and blood vessels 0 Nervous Tissue 0 Structure contains neurons have a cell body dendrites an axon that extend from the cell body and glial cells lack processes seen in neurons 0 Function Neurons receive send and process nerve impulses Glial cells protect nourish and support neurons 0 Location brain spinal cord and nerves Unit 13 lntegumentary System o What is the integumentary system o It consists of the skin and its derivatives nails hair sweat glands and sebaceous oil glands 0 Functions of the skin 0 Protection Acts as a physical barrier protects entire body from injury and trauma 0 Prevention of Water Loss and Water Gain The epidermis is water resistant but not waterproof prevents water loss causing dehydration prevents water gain causing you to swell up like a sponge when you take a shower 0 Metabolic Regulation Synthesizes Vitamin D3 to regulate the levels of calcium and phosphate in the body 0 Secretion and Absorption Secretes sweat to cool off the body absorbs certain chemicals or drugs such as estrogen from a birth control patch or nicotine from a nicotine patch 0 Immune Function Epidermal dendritic cells located within the stratum spinosum initiate an immune response against pathogens that have penetrated the skin 0 Temperature Regulation Uses vasoconstriction to narrow the diameter dermal blood vessels and cause the further interior part of the body to warm up uses vasodilation to increase the diameter of dermal blood vessels so excess heat can be lost is the body is too warm 0 Sensory Reception The dermis39 extensive innervation allows touch receptors to detect stimuli such as cold pressure and vibration and then initiate sensory input to the brain Lavers of the skin 0 Cells of the epidermis o Keratinocytes the most abundant cell type in the epidermis found throughout all epidermal strata o Melanocytes cells with long branching processes that are scattered among the keratinocytes of the stratum basale Epidermis o Stratum Basale deepest single simple layer of cuboidal to low columnar keratinocytes in contact with basement membrane cell division occurs here contains melanocytes and tactile cells 0 Stratum spinosum several layers of keratinocytes attached to neighbors by desmosomes epidermal dendritic cells are present 0 Stratum granulosum 35 layers of keratinocytes with distinct granules in cytoplasm keratinization begins in this layer 0 Stratum lucidum 23 layers of anucleate dead keratinocytes seen only in thick skin 0 Stratum corneum most super cial layer of epidermis 2030 layers of dead attened anucleate keratin lled keratinocytes 0 Thick skin vs thin skin 0 Think skin is found on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet All ve epidermal strata are found in the thick skin The epidermis ranges between 04 mm and 06 mm thick It house sweat glands but no hair follicles or sebaceous oil glands 0 Thin skin covers most of the body It lacks a stratum lucidum so it has only four speci c layers of the epidermis Think skin contains hair follicles sebaceous glands and sweat glands The epidermis ranges between 0075 mm to 0150 mm thick Dermis o Dermal Papillae interlocks with the epidermal ridges o Papillary layer The super cial region of the dermis that is deep to the epidermis composed of areolar tissue 0 Reticular layer Forms the deeper major portion of the dermis that extends from the papillary layer to the underlying subcutaneous layer consists primarily of dense irregular connective tissue through which large bundles of collagen bers project in all directions Hypodermis also called the subcutaneous layer not considered part of the integument consists of bother areolar and adipose connective tissue Appendages of the skin nails hair sweat glands and sebaceous oil glands o Epidermal derivatives 0 Hair shaft root hair bulb hair follicle Hair follicle an oblique tube that surrounds the hair root Hair bulb consists of epithelial cells and is swelling at the base where the hair originates in the dermis Root the zone of the hair extending from the bulb to the skin surface not visible Shaft the third portion of the hair that extends beyond the skin surface visible 0 Nails free edge nail body root cuticle Free edge the white part at the end of a nail French tip Nail body the pinkish park between the free edge and cuticle Cuticle eponychium a narrow band of epidermis at the back part of the nail Root the proximal part embedded in the skin 0 Glands Eccrine merocrine the most numerous and widely distributed sweat gland the adult integument contain between three and four million merocrine sweat glands simple coiled tubular glands that discharge their secretions directly onto the surface of the skin major function is thermoregulation which is the regulation of body temperature by evaporation of uid from the skin Apocrine sweat glands that are coiled tubular glands that release their secretion into hair follicles in the axilla around the nipples in the pubic region and in the anal region Ceruminous modi ed apocrine sweat glands located only in the external acoustic meatus outer ear canal their secretion forms a waterproof earwax called cerumen Sebaceous holocrine glands that produce an oily waxy secretion called sebum that is usually discharged into a hair follicle and onto the hair itself Structures in the dermis Blood vessels Arrector pili muscles thin ribbons of smooth muscle that extend from the hair follicle to the dermal papillae o Corpuscles amp Nerves o Meissner39s o Pacinian 0 Free nerve endings 0 Root hair plexus
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