week 3 of notes
week 3 of notes 01402-1
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chiara Davis on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 01402-1 at Rowan University taught by Keith M. Brand in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see ST: Queer Film & Television in Journalism and Mass Communications at Rowan University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Western Civilization Notes week 3 0 Negative liberty war bed quotSolitary poor nasty brutish amp shortquot What is Hobbes solution to this condition Desire for individual selfpreservation tampered by an indisputable government duty of sovereign to maintain rights of individuals preserve individual liberty through laws Why is Hobbes justi cations unique 0 in uence of quotsciencequot 0 appeal to reason 0 Search for rational solution practicalquot experience civil war 0 What is missing from Hobbes argument 0 The Leviathan Hobbes Negative Liberty government authority absolute Stable warchaos reduce individual will consent greater authority 0 Post Restoration and the Glorious Revolution 1688 Charles II succeeded by brotherJames ll r 168588 0 James II neoCatholicism o resurgence of fears especially concerning Catholicism popery fear a worldwide catholic conspiracy to overturn government tense relations with parliament increase in Catholicoriented legislation close relationship with Louis XIV of France Nov 5 1605 Gunpowder plot Guy Fawks Day Locke and Human Nature An essay concerning human understanding 1690 John Locke16321704 o educated at Oxford lives in exile abroad until 1688 How does man create ideas or relate to reality 0 simple experiences to complex tabla rasa Bacon empiricism Locke39s two treatises of government 1690 and the new English system What is the natural state of man 0 humans in natural state are equal What is the role of property in society How does it connect to liberty 0 quotThrough the earth and all inferior creatures be common to all men yet every man has a property in his own person his nobody has any right to but himselfquot 0 Government and positive liberty government exists to protect property of individual and punish violators Where does sovereignty rest 0 the commonwealth receives power to set down what punishment shall t the various crimes committed by the member of that society Hobbes and Locke Science in politics what are similarities between Locke and Hobbes o justi cations through reason and experience scienti c method material conditions importance of self preservation o systematic approach to humanity and government 0 secular foundation of society any mention of God 0 government and society as association of peoples What are differences 0 human natures 0 negative liberty vs positive liberty o enforcecoerce vs protectensured Absolutism politicalsociety o Domat 0 Louis XIV Versailles o Enlightenment Scienti c Revolution Secular popular sovereignty consent OrderGod Absolutism justi ed jean Domat jean Domat 16251696 0 French jurist and legal scholar during reign of Louis XIV o De nes absolutism as a necessary political and social order ordained by God why is society based on hierarchy quotThese sorts of duties are nothing else but the functions appropriate to the place each person holds according to his rank in societyfor it I39d through the place of god has assigned each person in the body of society that he by calling him to it prescribes all his functions and dutiesquot What distinguishes individuals quotBecause all men add equal by nature that is to say by their basic humanity nature does not make anyone subject to otherspeope are differentiated by factors that make their status unequalquot Why is government necessary Why should anyone obey the authority of government Absolutism theory and practice based on three concepts 0 Sovereignty in the hands of one body typically a monarch o Sovereign possesses authority in all areas need for obedience o theory of divine right power of sovereign is granted by God Preeminent example King Louis xiv of France r16431715 through practiced in various forms throughout continental France 0 Prussia Russia Austria 0 Le roi soleil o L tat c39est moi Louis xiv and assertion of authority 0 Centered display of power Embodied in palace of Versailles Hunting lodge during reign of Louis xiii Expanded and transformed by louis xiv Become official seat of power got French monarchy in 1682 quotRoyal cult of powerquot Ostentatious display of power wealth Ritualscustoms to impress relegate Patronage Court quotsurveillancequotintrigue Smash cut to the enlightenment 16871789 Intellectual movement product of changing worldview Aufklarung lumieres illuminismo Complete de nition difficult for both historians and for members of quotenlightenmentquot Enlightenment writersthinkers set precedent for further studydebate especially into modern period For our sake three interrelated concepts that loosely de ne a heterogeneous group Use of scienti c method reason to solve problems 0 Critical thinking coupled with observation Discovery of universal laws to structure societyhumanity quotLaws of existencequot social sciences 0 Various interpretations of freedomLiberty role of toleration Progress 0 Ideas conclusions laws can recreateimprove society Possibility of perfection
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