Week 1 and 2 Lecture Notes
Week 1 and 2 Lecture Notes HIS 101 Cr.3
UW - L
Popular in Global Origins of the Modern World
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Hansen on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 101 Cr.3 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by Dr. Gerald Iguchi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see Global Origins of the Modern World in History at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.
Reviews for Week 1 and 2 Lecture Notes
I had to miss class because of a doctors appointment and these notes were a LIFESAVER
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/21/15
Ancient Lecture Early Eurasian and African civilizations Discussion Point 1 Surplus 101 Anatolia and Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia 10000 BCE exact dates unknown for most of this lecture Indus Valley Civilization and horse domestication in Central Asia first dynasty and hieroglyphic script Egypt Minoan civilization in Crete 4500 BCE Bronze Age civilization spreads as far as British Isles with metal working peak of Indus Civilization 2500 BCE 2000 BCE Shang in China Decline of Indus Civilization 1500 BCE Mycenaean civilization and quotAryan Invasionquot 1000 BCE Phoenicians Semitic seafaring people spread across Mediterranean Sea from the Levant have an alphabetic script Western Zhou in China and Solomon in Israel 500 BCE Cyrus the Great out of Persia and end of Etruscans in Italy The Greeks Were US Greek city states 6th and 5th Centuries Athens and Greek quotDemocracyquot 0 Pericles 495429 BCE and his age courts with juries and a council but only for male citizens no women noncitizens or slaves and slaves were economically important because no river no other way for surplus Importance of Trade Importance of Colonization o Crete Supposedly high age with Socrates 469 BCE 399 BCEand Plato 428 BCE 347 BCE and his student Aristotle 384 BCE 322 BCE see The School of Athens Raphael 15091510 Apostolic Palace Rome Vatican City Greek contributions to knowledge Ancient Greeks as the masters of ABSTRACTION root of scientific but also bureaucratic thinking and perhaps racist thinking too 0 Theories anticipating physics theory of atom o Speculation on change infinity existence verses nonexistence etc o Supposedly Greek Spirit of rational thinking at root of the West Most practical contributions mathematical geometry study of relative position size form of objects including earth and arithmetic study of numbers Pythagoras philosopher 580500 BCE 0 Suggested that EVERYTHING is numbers o Fascinated by mathematical relationships between EVERYTHING such as musical notes End of Athens and Classical Greek City States Alexander the Great 356323 BCE and his Macedonian Empire supplant power of Greek Cities then Romans take over Historically Roaming from Rome to Medieval Europe Rome from republic to empire Hellenistic period after Alexander the Great39s death in 323 BCE Society of mud huts and agricultural lineages with income derived from trade advantageous position at point on Tiber River with lowest crossing ford and navigable up to that point Under Etruscan royal lineage Kingdom of Rome in 509 BCE establishment of Republic Republic res publica concern of the people but the people the wealthy and powerful Over 400 years military expansion and establishment of league of Latin speaking cities Conquest of central Italy Wars with Carthage over southern Italy and Carthaginian Phoenician area of northern Africa Conquest of northern Italy Greece and ultimately all Europe north to Rhine and Danube rivers adding GreekAlexandrian colonies in western Asia and Egypt Expansion made possible by infantry legions of conscripted landed peasantry these legions at first from Rome then from Italian territories Where men had become Roman citizens Class conflict in a slavebased economy 2 million slaves to 35 free people at height of republic between ruling Patricians aristocrats who controlled the republic Plebians propertied peasants who served in legions and Proletarii the propertyless led to military dictatorship of general named Julius Caesar in 49 BCE and end of the republicbeginning of empire ruled by emperors named Caesar The Ends of Rome Pax Romana following Caesar Augustus 27 BCE18O CE Fall began in 3rd century Barbarian raids 258 decentralization with empire broken into three Gallic Roman and Palmyrene 274 empire reunited but rule by military strongmen had become standard because of fight against outsiders and fight to keep insiders in line Hyperinflation because of need to pay troops with cut silver coins contributed to breakdown of tradetowns or cities and insularity of what were becoming manors Time of multiple emperors usually two at once splitting eastwest power Emperor Constantine 306371 became Christian and with unruliness of the empire in total moved his own capital to Byzantium Constantinople in the east Western capital moved around Beginnings of poor Latinspeaking west versus richer Greekspeaking east Huns on the move from 370 setting Germanic peoples and others in motion and into Roman areas Romans work with barbarians and against barbarians and use barbarians as mercenary soldiers to fight other barbarians Barbarians within the empire39s borders began to takeover in various ways With Ostrogoths in Italy and eventually others such as the Lombards Visigoths in Spain Franks in France and Vandals in North Africa and Angles and Saxons in Britain there were the foundations of what became countries of Western Europe In parts that became Italy France and Spain versions of Latin dominated while in parts that became England Germany and the Netherlands more Germanic languages developed Getting Medieval on Your Class Ends of Rome Huns under Atilla 434453 Romans work with barbarians and against barbarians and use barbarians to fight other barbarians Coalition of Vandals Suebi and Alans cross Rhine into Gaul in 406 moving from Spain into Africa Vandal kingdom in Africa Visigoths sack Rome in 410 and eventually settle in Spain making Visigoth kingdom this was same year that Romans give up settlements in Britain leaving vacuum that is filled by invaders from northern Europe Angles Saxons Jutes Vandals who are thoroughly Romanized and actually quite civilized by the time sack Rome in 455 Germans working for the Byzantine emperor take first General Odocacer and then General Theodoric leader of the Ostrogothsboth make themselves kings of Italy one after the other At this time Italy still Roman with senate in operation etc Eastern emperor Zeno worried about power of Odoacer and sent Theodoric his Germanic general and leader of the Ostrogoths to attack Odoacer39s Italy By 493 Theodoric the Ostrogoth is king of Italy with his capital at Ravenna With Ostrogoths in Italy and eventually others such as the Lombards Visigoths in Spain Franks in France and Vandals in North Africa and Angles and Saxons in Britain there were the foundations of what became countries of Western Europe 1066 William the Conqueror William the I In parts that became Italy France and Spain versions of Latin dominated while in parts that became England Germany and the Netherlands more Germanic languages developed Middle Ages and Beginnings of the West Unity of West as Catholic stems from decision of Clovis a leader of Germanic tribe called Franks to become Catholic instead of Arian Arians believed in greater difference between God and Christ than did Catholics This led to RomanoGermanic synthesis ie feudalism As Rome fell rich Romans in provinces lost connection with Rome and other urban centers They also lost supply of slaves and converted to dependence on labor of coloni free people often attracted away from decaying cities who in exchange for land rights and protection bound themselves to service on particular estates or Iatifundia With Germanic war bands loyalty to the person of chief or king was primary not abstract loyalty to a state When these war bands conquered and settled the leader would parcel out land to his underlings in exchange for their loyalty The bandleaders became knights lords barons counts dukes or kings and those under them at whichever level became noble vassals As the Germanic nobility accepted the authority of the Bishop of Rome the pope which had become the religious orthodoxy within the Western Roman Empire they intermarried and mixed with the remnants of Roman elites synthesizing themselves economically socially and politically with the system of Roman estates 0 Midlevel view of feudalism France early 11th century with counties comte and duchies duche notice that Burgundy and Navarre Spain are separate kingdoms while Cordoba Spain is a Muslim caliphate also notice that the royal domains around Paris are relatively very small o In the mature feudal manor system there were three groupings or estates of society clergy nobility warrior elite and peasants who were commonly serfs which were not exactly slaves but who were not allowed to leave the land they cultivated Relationship between peasants and nobleswarriors that built upon Roman estates protection racket Protection was seemingly necessitated by Dark Ages incursions of further barbarians from Scandinavia Vikings from 8th to 11th centuries wide variety of horse riding nomads from Central Asia and Islamic peoples from 7th century Surplusproducing population of peasants was seemingly necessitated by fact that knights39 maintenance of castles and horses and weaponsarmor and skills was expensive Relationship between lower order nobleswarriors and superiors vassalage that was based upon organization of Germanic war bands for example count provides military support for king in time of war The system of peasantsnoblesclergy as a whole immutable in theory and the Church sanctified the system as God39s plan Holy Roman Empire 8001806 Charlemange Nobles Protection Clergy To sanctify God s willplan ideology
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'