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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOEE 1540 at Cornell University taught by Bruce C. Monger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Week 12 Monday Aug 26TH Friday Sept 4TH Summary of UniverseGalaxyStar Formation 1 Big Bang happened about 15 billion years ago all mass contained in a single point explodes outward 2 Mass cools and collapses gravitationally o Temperatures in the core of large masses increase due to compressional heating 10 million degrees Kelvin nuclear fusion of H into He is ignited thermonuclearfusion reaction to form heat and visible light among other types of radiation 3 Inside stars only place in the universe that elements heavier than hydrogen can be created 0 Where nuclear fusion of lighter elements creates heavier elements carbon iron 0 Elements heavier than iron are only formed when the star expodes 0 Every carbon nitrogen and phosphorous atom making up our body today was at one point sitting in the center of a boiling hot star We are made of star dust Summary of Solar SystemEarth Formation o 46 billion years ago rockforming elements condensed into small solid grains as the nebula cooled o Grains l Panetesimas asteroids and comets l form the Earth Formation of the Moon The moon formed when earth was hit by a Marsized object Earth s Atmosphere Week 12 1 Early atmosphere consisted of hydrogen and helium 2Vocano releases H20 C02 502 N2 H2 CL2 into Atmosphere 3Water vapor condensed and precipitated l form oceans then anaerobic life develops l Anaerobic Life live in zero oxygen environment 4Photosynthetic life evolves and this produces a modern Ozrich atmosphere Evidence that suggested much of the water that lls our modern oceans was delivered to earth over time by the steady shower of small comets ie dirty ice balls BUT that idea changed in 2014scientists sent a probe to a comet and reported that its water was isotopically different from our own ocean water Basic Physiography of Modern Oceans Of cially 5 named oceans Paci c Atlantic lndian Arctic and Southern Average depth 4 km 34 of atmosphere s mass is within 12 km of the planet s surface The earth and Sun are middle aged in 4 billion more years the sun and earth will ABSOLUTELY not be here anymore BUT the atoms that were once the sun the earth and us will eventually contract back to make new stars and planets Latitude Longitude and Contour Plots Latitude Horizontal Longitude Vertical 0 M Contour Plots 3 Angela39s quot Globeoenler lPrlme Meridian Wempan t globe Bathymetry Maps Meridonial and Zonial Sections Ocean Se oor C ntour Pot r iwmi wm mm W Basic Morphology of the Sea oor 1 Bathymetry l measuring topography of ocean surface 2 Main Sea Floor Features a Continental Shelf highest oor surface b Abyssal Plain lowest oor surface Plate Tectonic Theory Development 0 Main points Week 12 0 Alfred Wegener s proposal of the Theory of Continental Drift in 1915 was not well accepted because his proposed forcing mechanism tidal action of the moon was incorrect 0 Plate Tectonic Theory was accepted after SeaFloor Spreading and SeaFloor Subduction were discovered postWWII Part Continental Drift 11 Fit of Continents 0 There was noticeably a n apparent t of the continents 12 Paleobiology o 1915 l Alfred Wegner the distribution of fossils and mineral belts was good evidence regarding the t of the continents in the past 0 Compared to pieces of torn newspaper placed back together where the letters lined up Part II Sea oor Spreading Evidence of Sea oor Spreading was provided by magnetic anomaly patterns in ocean crust along the ridge 21 MidOcean Ridges o Discovered with WWII Sonar 22 Extensional Faulting o Indication of sea oor spreading at midocean ridges was inferred based on observed morphology of the faulting patterns along ridge axis 0 Faulting movement which produces displacement of adjacent rock masses along a fracture in the rock 23 Magnetic Anomalies that are Symmetric Across the Midocean Ridge 0 Magnetic anomalies are a substitute measure of geologic time each anomaly can be assigned a Week 12 speci c date 0 Observing symmetric magnetic banding is a roundabout way of observing the rock getting older as you move away from the ridge axis 0 This is strong evidence that the ridge is slowly spreading away from the ridge axis in opposite directions Age of Ocean Crust is youngest at ridges and symmetrically older off axis Part III Sea oor Subduction 31 Discovery of deepsea trenches and seismic activity 0 This helped to explain the eventual loss of ocean crust that was formed originally at midocean ridges Finally Seismic Activity explains plate boundaries Week 12 Details of Plate Boundaries 1 The driving mechanism Convection in the mantle amp slab pull Molten rock rises to surface at divergent boundaries l spreads l cools l gets more dense l sinks l pulled back into mantle at subduction boundaries 2 Plate Tectonic Movement Earth s crust composed of individual crustal plates tectonic plates that move to one another Plates can be composed of ocean crust and continental crust When plates move the continent moves as well Original supercontinent Pangaea l split to form current continents Plate DivergenceCon vergence Oceanic Crust is thin with a higher density mostly consists of basah Continental Crust is thicker with lower density mostly granite Divergent Boundary l where plates are moving APART Mostly midridges 0 New East Africa Rift Zone ContinentContinent OceanOcean Convergent Boundary l where plates are moving TOGETHER OceanContinent Ocean crust subducted under continental more dense Creates deep ocean trench forms explosive volcanoes EX Andes Mountains in Chile Week 12 OceanOcean Older plate is pulled under colder and more dense ContinentContinent Neither wants to go under the other Mountainbuilding Week 12 Transform Boundary l Plates slide laterally relative to one another San Andreas Fault Mantle Hot Spots Hawaiian hotspots Marine Sediments Sediment Accumulation 1 Wide range of material raining down 0 Continental dust biological material riverborn sediments 2 Sediment thickness is high near coast 0 Due to river runoff of terrigenous sediment and high productivity that leads to high rain rate of biological material 3 Red Clays found in openocean Slow rain of continental dust and very low biological addition creates red clays 4 Calcareous or Siliceous Sediments found In high biological productivity regions and in absence of river out ows containing terrigenous material Downward rain of biological material cause red clays to be oodeddiluted by biologicallyderived calcareous or siliceous material 5 Rate of accumulation very slow and a 10m sediment core can represent a record of up to a million years of earth history
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