Criminology Week 3 Notes
Criminology Week 3 Notes Soc 307
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Kowalski on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 307 at University at Buffalo taught by Watoii Rabii in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Monday September 14 2015 Criminological Perspectives Classical Positivism and Constructionism CRI MINOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE Classicism Positivism biological psychological sociological Constructionism Critical CLASSICAL CRIMINOLOGY Enlightenment Human nature Hedonism people motivated by pleasure and pain Rational choice Deterrence increase cost of crime to deter crime Utilitarianism Hedonism THE POSITIVE PERSPECTIVE Positivism Biology born with it genetics and physical signs Psychology born with it over stimulation of ig and antisocial personality Sociology Not born with it exposed to situations social disorganization social structure THE POSITIVE PERSPECTIVE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION PROGRESSIVE ERA Monday September 14 2015 The positivist perspective on crime consists of 3 basic assumptions 1 Crime is absolutely real distinctions 2 Crime is an observable object observable 3 Crime is a determined behavior forces beyond one s control Doesn39t take into consideration of free will no free will with early positivist perspective Assumes crime is absolute or intrinsically real absolutism Focuses on criminals Focus on causes Weaknesses failure to discover bio or psych traits that distinguish criminals from non criminals Does not recognize changing and relative nature of criminal statuses variation of definition of crime Today positivists recognize social factors as determining criminal status Changes in status across time space and culture Emphasize objectivity of crime Crime is observable object has objective nature that can be studied Sociologists believed they could study human behavior like natural scientists Determined behavior is belief that crime is caused by environment Social and Physical Humans have some free choice later on in history influenced by social environmental features such as broken homes and social class Monday September 14 2015 Constructionist Perspective THE CONSTRUCTIONIST PERSPECTIVE PROGRESSIVE ERA Emerged in the 19603 to challenge positivistic perspective Assumes deviance is a label a subjective experience and a voluntary act Deviance does not have intrinsic value but rather comes from people s minds Act is criminal only because people think it is Police and others have role in labeling process Acts can be labeled as a criminal by one group and not by another Crime is in the eye of the beholder Deviant people are feeling thinking and elective subjects of worth and dignity It is crucial to understand how a deviant sees himherself and society Avoids stats and surface appearance takes subjective approach Seeks to understand lived experiences Sees crime as a voluntary act because humans have free will Seeks to analyze how social control agencies define some people as criminal And carry out sanctions against them Wednesday September 16 2015 AN INTEGRATED VIEW Difference between perspectives are based on emphasis Both a real act and a label CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE Distinct from consensus perspectives Conservatives vs critical Radical Influenced by Marxism Class conflict is basis of society Crime is an expression of class inequalities Different groups with different values and interests Social conflict Cultural conflict THE CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE Feminist criminology Liberal Marxist Radical Patriarchy Critical of gender blind criminology generalizability problem add women and stir how women are constructed through legal discourse how women s lives influence their responses to problems Critical Race Theory Racism is ordinary Racism is systemic Interest convergence Law as tool of subordination Friday September 18 2015 Classical Criminology Key Themes Human rights Punishment reform more humane practices in punishment of crime Hedonism pain v pleasure Rational choice Free will Deterrence rational choice hedonism Social contract WHERE ARE WE HISTORICALLY Supernatural Era crime was anything that opposed the word of god demonic possession caused crime Renaissance Advances in art literature music and philosophy beginnings of science Enlightenment Human dignity science and mathematics Reform of European criminal justice system CLASSICAL CR1 MINOLOGY Origins in enlightenment philosophy Opposed to religious explanations and legal practices Social contract The Calculating Criminal Friday September 18 2015 CLASSICAL CRIMINOLOGY BECCARIA Father of classical criminology Of Crimes and Punishments Utilitarianism Proposed reforms include 1 Punishment should be based on law not context 2 Eliminate unjust practices ex secret accusations 3 Eliminate unjust forms of punishment 4 Punishment should be tried by citizens CLASSICAL CRIMINOLOGY BECCARIA S 3 KEY ELEMENTS OF PUNISHMENT 3 elements of a good punishment Certainty Swiftness Severity Goal of punishment should be deterrence of criminal behavior 2 types of deterrence specific and general Equal punishment despite person ex 13 yr old vs 40 yr old same punishment CLASSICAL CR1 MINOLOGY BENTHAM Was inspired by Beccaria Brought Enlightenment Philosophy to Britain Introduction to the Principles of Moral Legislation Hedonism Hedonistic Calculus
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