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PSYC 3082: Chapter 1

by: Meghan Davis

PSYC 3082: Chapter 1 3082

Meghan Davis
Developmental Psychology

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About this Document

Chapter 1: abnormal behavior in historical content
Developmental Psychology
One Day of Notes
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This 3 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Meghan Davis on Wednesday September 10, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 3082 at Louisiana State University taught by Gros in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/10/14
Chapter 1 Sunolay August 24 2 14 1122 AM Myths and misconceptions about abnormal behavior 0 No single definition of psychological abnormality o No single definition of psychological normality What is a Psychological Disorder 0 Psychological Dysfunction breakdown in cognitive emotional or behavioral functioning 0 Personal distress difficulty performing appropriate and expected roles impairment is set in the context of a person39s background 0 Atypical or not culturally expected response reaction is outside norms Abnormal behavior definition 0 A psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response 0 The diagnostic statistical manual DSMV o Psychotherapy is the scientific study of psychological disorders 0 The science of psychopathology 0 Mental health professionals I The PhD s Clinical and counseling psychologists I The PsyD s Clinical and counseling Doctors of Psychology I MD s Psychiatrists I MSW s Psychiatric and nonpsychiatric social workers I MNMSN s Psychiatric nurses 0 United by the ScientistPractitioner Framework 0 Difference between psychiatrists and psychologist I Psychiatrists need medical degree and can prescribe medicine 0 The scientist practitioner I Producers of research I Consumers of research I Evaluators of their work using empirical methods 0 Clinical description 0 Begins with the presenting problem 0 Description aims to I Distinguish clinically significant dysfunction from common human experience 0 Describe prevalence and incidence of disorders I Prevalence rate of the disorder at any given point in time I Incidence the yearly incidence of suicide 0 Describe onset of disorders start of disorder I Acute abrupt sudden I Insidious gradual 0 Describe course of disorders pattem of disorder I Episodic pattems come and go high then go into remission I Time limited symptoms are only present a certain number of weeks or months and then go away and retum a year later I Chronic always there I Causation treatment and outcome 0 What Factors Contribute to the Development of Psychopathology I Study of etiology what is at the root of the disorder or the casue 0 How Can We Best Improve the Lives of People Suffering From Psychopathology I Study of treatment development I Includes pharmacologic psychosocial andor combined treatments 0 How Do We Know That We Have Alleviated Psychological Suffering I Study of treatment outcome 0 Historical Conceptions of abnormal behavior 0 Major Psychological Disorders Have Existed I In all cultures I Across all time periods 0 The Causes and Treatment of Abnormal Behavior Varied Widely I Across cultures I Across time periods I As particularly as a function of prevailing paradigms or world views 0 Three Dominant Traditions Include Supernatural Biological and Psychological I The supernatural tradition 0 Deviant Behavior as a Battle of Good vs Evil I Deviant behavior was believed to be caused by demonic possession witchcraft sorcery I Treatments included exorcism torture beatings and crude surgeries 0 The Moon and the Stars I Paracelsus and lunacy Psychology 3082 Page 1 I The biological tradition O Hippocrates Abnormal Behavior as a Physical Disease I Hysteria The Wander Uterus o Galen Extends Hippocrates Work I Treatments remained crude I Humeral theory the brain function according to four body uids where they had to much or to little of one El El El El blood from the heart black vial came from the spleen yellow vial came from the liver em came from brain 0 GalenicHippocratic Tradition I Foreshadowed modern views linking abnormality with brain chemical imbalances 0 The 19th century 0 General Paresis Syphilis and the Biological Link With Madness I Associated with several unusual psychological and behavioral symptoms I Pasteur discovered the cause A bacterial microorganism I Led to penicillin as a successful treatment I Bolstered the view that mental illness physical illness and should be treated as such 0 O 0 John Grey and the Reformers mental illness is always a function of a physical disease People with dementia and syphilis had same symptoms Phillip Pinel I 5 forms of insanity El El El El El 0 Mania Melancholy with delirium Melancholy without delirium Dementia Idiotism Amelia Karapplim I Father of the modem classification system of mental illness I Mid to late 19th century came up with distinct symptoms I Wrote 2500 page book of the first classification scheme I Two majors groups of mental illness El CI The manit suppressive psychoses Dementia praecox I Further grouped these into 18 mental disorders I Distinguished psychology from neurology 0 The Psychological Tradition o The rise of moral therapy I Involved more humane treatment of institutionalized patients I Encourage and reinforced social interaction o Proponents of moral therapy I Dorothea Dix I Philippe Pinel and J ean Baptiste Pussin I William Tuke followed Pineal39s lead in England 0 Emergence of competing alternative psychological models I Psychoanalytic theory 0 Freudian Theory of the Structure and Function of the Mind o The Structure of the Mind I Id pleasure principle illogical emotional irrational I Ego reality principle logical and rational I Superego moral principles keeps Id and Ego in balance 0 Defense Mechanisms When the Ego Loses the Battle with the Id and Superego I Displacement amp denial I Rationalization amp reaction formation I Projection repression and sublimation o Psychosexual Stages of Development I Oral anal phallic latency and genital stages 0 Psychology 3082 Page 2 L a I A Moral K Conscience princimes I f quot I nugpgycmc Ego Logical Reality 0 gonmgu g Miator rational principle lt7 4 Illogical V emotional P39ea quotre pnnciple irrational I Humanistic theory o Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers 0 Major Themes I That people are basically good I Humans strive toward selfactualization o Humanistic Therapy I Therapist conveys empathy and unconditional positive regard I Minimal therapist interpretation I The behavioral model 0 Derived from a Scientific Approach to the Study of Psychopathology 0 Ivan Pavlov John B Watson and Classical Conditioning I Classical conditioning is a ubiquitous form of learning I Conditioning involves a contingency between neutral and unconditioned stimuli I Conditioning was extended to the acquisition of fear I The beginnings of behavior therapy 0 Reactionary Movement Against Psychoanalysis and NonScientific Approaches o Early Pioneers I Joseph Wolpe Systematic desensitization 0 Edward Thorndike B F Skinner and Operant Conditioning I Another ubiquitous form of leaming I Most voluntary behavior is controlled by the consequences that follow behavior 0 Leaming Traditions Greatly In uenced the Development of Behavior Therapy I Behavior therapy tends to be timelimited and direct I Strong evidence supporting the efficacy of behavior therapies I The present an integrative approach 0 Psychopathology Is Multiply Determined 0 Unidimensional Accounts of Psychopathology Are Incomplete 0 Must Consider Reciprocal Relations Between I Biological psychological social and experiential factors I BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL Psychology 3082 Page 3


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