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Week 2 Lecture Notes - Intro to Clinical Psychology

by: Jessica Twehous

Week 2 Lecture Notes - Intro to Clinical Psychology PSYCH 3510 - 01

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Psychlogy > PSYCH 3510 - 01 > Week 2 Lecture Notes Intro to Clinical Psychology
Jessica Twehous
GPA 3.8
Intro to Clinical Psychology
Erika Waller

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About this Document

These lecture notes are straight from the class!
Intro to Clinical Psychology
Erika Waller
Class Notes
clinical psychology, clinical psych, Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Twehous on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3510 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Erika Waller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Intro to Clinical Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
Intro to Clinical Psychology week 2 Chapter 2 Brief Historical Overview of Clinical Psychology Diagnosis and Assessment 0 Assessment of Individual Differences by Galton amp Cattell in the late 180039s 0 Galton practicing in England Cattell practicing in US 0 Intervention Charcot treats quothysteriaquot with hypnosis o Hysteria used to described a time when a person was experiencing a physical symptom without a known medical cause usually a woman 0 1895 Freud and Breuner publish quotStudies on Hysteriaquot 0 during hypnosis the clients would talk with Freud and he attributed that to their improvement Freud most imporant event in clinical psych39s history his publishes launched others to do further investigations Research 0 First psychological laboratory founded by Wilhelm Wundt 1879 0 Principles of Psychology published by William James 1890 The Profession O Founding of the American Pyschological Association APA in 1892 Lightner Witmer establishes first psychological clinic in 1896 considered the founder of clinical psychology 0 his clinical for children with mental health problems was considered the first clinical psychology clinic Chapter 3 Current Issues in Clinical Psychology Models of Training in Clinical Psychology 1 The ScientistPractitioner Model 0 Also known as the Boulder Model 1949 0 Practice with skill while being able to conduct and review research 0 MOST balanced between clinical and researcher X Clinical S P o The ScientistPracticioner Model 0 Pros Research I Balance of theoretical and practical I Rooted in academia and research 0 Cons I May polarize into camps I Excuse to deemphasize research 2 The Doctor of Psychology PsyD Degree 0 Emphasis on the developmental of clinical skills and less on research competence Higher acceptance rate 0 More PsyD39s awarded than PhD39s X Clinical PsyD Research o The Doctor of Psychology PsyD Degree 0 Lower who get financial assistance 0 Lower get internship 3 Professional Schools 0 Many have no affiliation with a university 0 Most offer PsyD 0 Award most of the doctoral degrees 0 Often accept 100 students per year 0 Majority not APA accredited 0 May employ parttime professors X Clinical Research Prof Schools 4 Clinical Scientist Model 0 1991 McFall39s quotManifesto for a Science of Clincal Psychologyquot 0 Academy of Psychological Clinical Science I 50 doctoral programs 10 internships o Evidencebased assessments and interventions X Clinical Research Clinical Scientist Graduate Programs Future Trends 0 Practiceoriented program graduates harder time with internship placement and jobs Professional Regulation 0 Licensure o restricts use of psychologist title and professional activities 0 Missouri requirements I 1 yr of supervised postdoctoral experience AFTER graduate school and internship I Passing score on the national EPPP Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology I Passing score on the state jurisprudence exam and oral examination by state committee members The Costs of Health Care 0 From 2007 to 2017 it is predicted that the proportion of the US GDP devoted to health care costs will rise to 195 Evidencebased treatments will be crucial Switch from feeforservice plans to Managed Care Challenges psycholgists may face 0 Need to be quotin networkquot 0 Some servicesdiagnoses not covered or need preapproval 0 Limits on number of sessions 0 Submit treatment plans for additional sessions Prescription Privileges 0 Pros 0 Can provide wider variety of treatments to a wider range of clients 0 Increase in efficiency and costeffectiveness of care 0 Will give clinical psychologists a competitive advantage in the health care marketplace 0 May lead to ca deemphasis of quotpsychologicalquot forms of treatment 0 May also damage clinical psychology39s relationship with psychiatry and general medicine 0 Lead to increases in malpractice liability costs Technological Innovations o Telehealth o Ambulatory Assessment being assessed throughout the day 0 Computerassisted treatments Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Services 0 Be aware of one39s own cultural perspective 0 Be knowledgeable about others39 cultural backgrounds 0 Take cultural issues into account in training assessment treatment and research 0 Avoid stereotyping individuals Ethical Standards 0 APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct 0 5 general principles and then enforceable standards 0 Privacy and Confidentiality 0 Keep client information confidential 0 Be clear about limits to conidentiality o Tarasoff case 0 Established a duty to warn 0 Legal precedents vary by state 0 Human Relations 0 Sexual harassment and sexual intimacies 0 Dual relationships Chapter 4 Purposes of Research 0 Allows individuals to discover things for themselves rather than relying solely on the knowledge of others Helps avoid speculation and misconception Provides a way for researchers to extend and modify existing theories 0 rheumenatingcoreheumenating List How do selfies influence self esteem How does environment and personality affect your music choices Research Methods 0 Types of Observation 0 Unsystematic Observation basic and casual o Naturalistic Observation reallife carefully planned but observer is not in control 0 Controlled Observation may be in real ife but observer has control over situation 0 Case Studies I lntensive individualized I Prelude to scientific investigation I Describe rare circumstances eg DID new term for multiple personality disorder I Lacks universal scope o Epidemiological Methods 0 Epidemiology study of the incidence prevalence amp distribution of disease in a given population Survey and interview based Eg ASD O O 0 Incidence I The rate of new cases of a disease or disorder that develop within a given time period Prevalence I The overall rate of cases new or old within a given period of time Risk Factors I A variable that increases a person39s risk of experiencing a particular disease or disorder over his lifetime Correlational Methods 0 O 0 Correlation coeffecient I A statistic that describes the relationship between two variables Causality I The relationship between two events cause and effect I 3rd variable problem Factor analysis I A statistical method for examining the interrelationships among a number of variables at the same time CrossSectional vs Longitudinal Approaches O O O Crosssectional a research design that compares different groups of individuals at one point in time I Correlational I No manipulation I Subjectfocused observe differences between groups Longitudinal a research design that compares the same group of individuals at two or more points in time I Timefocused observe changes over time Complications I Crosssectional I Causation I Longitudinal I Cost I Loss of participants The Experimental Method 0 Independent manipulated vs dependent measured variables I Experiment determines how the independent variable affects the dependent variable Causeeffect Random assignment participants are placed randomly into experimental and control groups Experimental control group or variable that is not manipulated BetweenGroup Design I Separate sets of participants I Experimental group vs control group Study how results differ between the two Ideally participants randomly assigned to groups 0 SingleCase Design 0 ABAB design Singlecase designs that observe systematic changes in the participant39s behavior as the treatment and notreatment conditions alternate A no treatment B treatment A no treatment B treatment ABAB Effectiveness of treatment Baselineinterventionbaselineintervention Ethics of withdrawing treatment 0 Multiple baseline design 0 Mixed Designs Two or more baselines for two or more behaviors Treatment is introduced for the first behavior then the second No reversal Effect of different interventions on different behaviors 0 Research designs that combine both experimental and correlational methods 0 Groups from a specific population are assigned to different experimental groups 0 Reveals best interventions for each subgroup 0 Research and Ethics 0 APA Standards Informed consent researchers must inform participants of basic detailspurpose of the study so subjects can knowingly consent Confidentiality Deception sometimes needed to study particular variables without compromsing experiment Debriefing requirement that researchers explain importance and results of experiment reasons for deception can be revealed here Fraudulent data


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