History Of The Wind Band
History Of The Wind Band MUSI 162
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luisa Stoltenberg on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUSI 162 at University of Virginia taught by William Pease in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/209552/musi-162-university-of-virginia in Music at University of Virginia.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Ac ce nt The prominence given to a note or notes in performance by a perceptible alteration usually increase in volume dynamic accent a lengthening of duration or a brief preceding silence of articulation agogic accent an added ornament or pitch in ection of a melodic note pitch accent or by any combination of these The term is also used for any of the notational signs used to indicate that such prominence is required On instruments capable of immediate dynamic nuance including the voice and most strings wind and percussion an increase of volume is usually the chief element in this prominence commonly at the start with a more assertive effect but alternatively just after the start with a more insinuating effect for which one speci c term is Sforzando On instruments not capable of much if any dynamic nuance such as the harpsichord and the organ prominence of this type can be given and an effect of dynamic accentuation simulated by agogic accents In principle any quality that distinguishes notes from their predecessors and successors can produce a subjective or perceptible accent American Bandmasters Association The American Bandmasters Association was formed in 1929 by Edwin Franko Goldman 1878 1956 to promote concert band music The Association s Constitution March 8 1998 states that the organization shall honor outstanding achievement by invitation to membership work for progress toward an international band instrumentation encourage prominent composers of all countries to write for the concert band by example and leadership further enhance the concert band and its music within our cultural heritage Arra n ge me nt The word arrangement might be applied to any piece of music based on or incorporating pre existing material In the sense in which it is commonly used among musicians however the word may be taken to mean the elaboration or simpli cation of a piece with or without a change of medium In either case some degree of recomposition is usually involved and the result may vary from a straightforward almost literal transcription to a paraphrase which is more the work of the arranger than of the original composer It should be added though that the distinction implicit here between an arrangement and a Transcription is by no means universally accepted Ba nd maste r The master leader or director of a band Earlier titles included Music Master Music Major and Leader of the Band Bandmasters normally hold of cer s rank in the armed forces in the 18th and 19th centuries they were often civilians Army bandsmen in Britain have been formally trained as bandmasters since 1857 at Kneller Hall Royal Military School of Music Bato n 1 A slender wooden stick or rod used by a conductor to direct an orchestra or band 2 A hollow metal rod with a heavy rubber tip or tips that is wielded and twirled by a drum major or drum majorette Brass Band This type of combination is found all over Europe and in countries settled by Europeans but the highest standard of performance is possibly reached in Northern England especially Lancashire and Yorkshire where its popularity is great Usual constitution in Brit is comets ugelhom sax horns euphoniums trombones and basses previously called bombardons with percussion saxes not strictly a brass instrument used to be included The brass band movement in Britain has a history almost a folklore stretching back to the start of the 19th cent It derived partly from the old city waits and partly from the military wind bands of which there were many during the Napoleonic Wars After Waterloo 1815 men left the army but the musicians continued playing in civilian life Brass instruments were comparatively cheap and the bands ourished as hobbies among the working class population in the manufacturing towns of Lancs and Yorks Brass band competitions began circa 1818 but developed llly circa 1840 Among the most celebrated championships are the British Open formerly held at Belle Vue Manchester and the National held in London Bands are frequently named after an industrial firm or colliery as well as after a place CBDNA The College Band Directors National Association CBDNA began its existence as a committee of the Music Educators National Conference MENC The Committee on College and University Music was so dominated by band directors in the mid1930s that it soon became known as the Committee on College and University Bands In the fall of 1938 that committee under the leadership of William Revelli met independently in Chicago The group met again in December 1941 and formed the University and College Band Conductors Conference The name of the organization was changed to the College Band Directors National Association in 1947 C ha c o n ne 1 A slow stately dance of the 18th century or the music for it 2 A form consisting of variations based on a reiterated harmonic pattern 3 A musical form consisting of a set of variations on a repeated melodic bass line 4 Generally in a triple meter French from Spanish chacona a kind of dance Circus Music Circus music is any sort of music that is played to accompany a circus as well as music written that emulates its general style The most common type of circus music is the circus march or screamer which are marches played at very fast tempos Popular music would also often get arranged for the circus band as well as waltzes foxtrots and other dances Such bands would accompany the acts as well as giving a B at chord as a stinger usually onomatopoeically rendered into English as quottadaaquot to signify a successful trick Concert Band A wind band also called concert band symphonic band or wind ensemble is a performing ensemble consisting of woodwind brass and percussion instruments and string bass Its various repertoire include original wind compositions arranged classical items light music and popular tunes Though the instrumentation is similar it is distinguished from the marching band in that its primary function is as a concert ensemble The repertoire for a concert band may however contain marches The group known generically as a mixed wind band can go by a variety of names wind band wind symphony wind ensemble chamber winds symphonic band symphonic winds wind orchestra concert band wind symphony Co m miss io n A contract or an understanding usually in writing by which a composer agrees to write a piece of music for a patron or an organization It usually specifies the genre the date of completion and the terms of recompense and rights Historically a commission related to a speci c work separate from a musician s more general longterm responsibilities to compose perform or teach for an individual a court or an institution Even if a musician was employed by or enjoyed the protection of a patron a commission might additionally be drawn up for a particular composition Mozart for example received commissions for his ute works of the 1770s the Paris Symphony and most famously the Requiem Countermelody A melodic line that is neither harmony nor primary melody Generally it plays a subordinate role to the main melodic theme and is introduced after the primary melody has been heard alone or with harmony Da rgas o n English folktune used from the 16th century onwards for a country dance or as a ballad tune Also used for the folksong It was a maid ofmy country Tune is 8Dbar circular melody lending itself easily to combination with others Holst in his Suite No2 for military band 1911 combines the Dargason with Greensleeves in the finale later transposing the movementt for strings in his St Paul39s Suite 1912 7 13 Name possibly derives from AngloSaxon word for dwarf or fairy Also known as Sedany meaning a woman dressed in silks Dyna m i cs The intensity of volume with which notes and sounds are expressed In the 20th century dynamics came to be seen as one of the fundamental parameters of composition which function interdependently to create musical meaning and structure Fa ntas ia It Sp Gen Eng Eng Fr Ger F antasie Fr Ger Phantasie Fr fantaisie fantasye phantaisie Eng Ger Phantasia Ger F antasey Eng fancie fancy fansye fantasy fantazia fantazie fantazy phansie phantasy phantazia A term adopted in the Renaissance for an instrumental composition whose form and invention spring solely from the fantasy and skill of the author who created it Luis de Milan 153576 From the 16th century to the 19th the fantasia tended to retain this subjective licence and its formal and stylistic characteristics may consequently vary widely from free improvisatory types to strictly contrapuntal and more or less standard sectional forms Folk Music Term covering folk songs and folk dances Folk songs are songs of unknown authorship passed orally from generation to generation sung without acc and often found in variants of words and tune in different parts of a country or in different countries Folk songs were generally found among the country dwellers but with the increase of urbanization and industrialization they spread to the towns and factories In the 19th and early 20th centuries the fear that with the advance of modern life the old customs were dying out led to a major campaign of song collection in English by Cecil Sharp Vaughan Williams Maud Karpeles Mrs Leather Anne Gilchrist Frank Kidson and many others in Hungary by Kodaly and Bartok and similarly in other countries Many composers have made use of folk songs in their compositions from Renaissance times to Haydn Grieg Dvorak Tchaikovsky Bartok Vaughan Williams and others Although folk songs enshrine the national characteristics of their country of origin they have international similarities Most of them are modal Like every generic term folk song is susceptible to many con icting interpretations and readers are referred to several important books on the subject It is also impossible to predict how folksong may develop in future centuries It may well be that the popular songs of the 20th century by named composers may become indeed already have become the folk songs of a new age Folk dance is a type of dance which has developed by itself without aid from choreography is connected with traditional life and is passed from one generation to the next Form The structure and design of a composition Whereas in the 16th and 17th cents Instrumental compositions were usually very brief e g a movement in a keyboard suite of Byrd or Purcell by the 19th century they were frequently long eg a sonata or sym movement of the later Beethoven Bruckner and Mahler This implies an enormous growth in the understanding of the principles of form and in mastery of the application of those principles In general however despite continuous experimentation the musical forms so far devised can be classified into no more than 6 categories all of them exploiting the idea of contrast plus variety both in the domain of content Thematic Material and in that of Key combinations of these are of course possible eg in Simple Ternary Form each section can be in Binary Form and so on Ha rm 0 ny The combining of notes simultaneously to produce chords and successively to produce chord progressions The term is used descriptively to denote notes and chords so combined Instrumentation The term instrumentation refers to the prescribed group of instruments needed to perform a musical work Not all compositions are composed for full band instrumentation Composers may choose to omit or add instruments to achieve a desired sound or effect In te rmezzo l A comic play with music performed between the acts popular in the 16th and 17th centuries in France and Italy 2 An instrumental interlude between the acts of a performance 3 A short lyric composition often for the piano 4 In the old dance suite this term refers to two to four short dance movements between the sarabande and the gigue Libretto It small book Fr livret Ger T extbuch A printed or manuscript book giving the literary text both sung and spoken of an opera or other musical work The word has also come to mean the text itself for discussion of the literary text see GroveO Libretto ii March Music with strong repetitive rhythms and an uncomplicated style usually used to accompany orderly military movements and processions Since the 16th century functional march music has existed alongside stylized representations of the march which were often incorporated for programmatic purposes into art music The distinction between the functional and the stylized march is often blurred however in the 18th century functional marches were frequently imported virtually unchanged into windband music often forming integral movements of serenades or divertimentos During the 19th century the functional military march declined and the stylized march became popular in its own right reaching its height in the works of the later Romantic composers After World War I the idea of using an orchestral or choral march as a vehicle for paying homage to rulers and celebrating nations and ideals which had prevailed since the time of Lully fell into decline and the march came to be seen principally as an artmusic genre Marziale It Martial M e ody Melody de ned as pitched sounds arranged in musical time in accordance with given cultural conventions and constraints represents a universal human phenomenon traceable to prehistoric times in some cultures however rhythmic considerations may always have taken precedence over melodic expression as in parts of Africa where percussive sounds of undetermined pitch are employed in lieu of semantic communication or as pacemakers for systematic forms of physical effort whether in daily work or ritual dance or both Primary concerns with melody appear to have been related more speci cally to verbal in some instances preverbal modes of social intercourse While the exact causal relationships between melody and language remain to be established the broad cultural bases of logogenic melody are no longer in question Nor are some of its widely shared characteristics Certain universal manifestations of the melodic impulse for example appear to be centred intervallically on the descending minor 3rd Children s singsongs are a case in point as are the calls and responses of Alpine shepherds The most universal instance of pitch modi cation is needless to say the infant s rst cry and research in infant behavior has shown to what extent pitchdifferentiated preverbal utterances are employed systematically and effectively by infants to communicate physiological needs as well as affective states If natural phenomena such as birdsong and other forms of animal communication are any indication at all it should be possible in time to arrive at meaningful concepts concerning an evolutionary continuum from pathogenic to logogenic forms of pitched vocal behavior Military Band In America the term Military Band refers literally to bands that are employed by the services They represent the United States at events functions rallies and serve an educational purpose for the nation Strangely the term is used in Britain to describe either an actual army or naval or airforce band or for one on the same model ie comprising both brass and woodwind instrument The composition of such bands varies widely in different countries and even in different regimental or other units of the same country Military Band and Corps of Drums Wind and percussion ensembles not necessarily belonging to the armed forces though civilian ensembles usually prefer to be called concert bands or wind orchestras The instrumentation of the military band is similar to that of the symphony orchestra minus the strings but with the addition of cornets and saxophones and a multiplicity of utes and clarinets of various sizes Although wind instruments have accompanied armies from earliest times formal European military bands began only in the 15th century with fes and drums for the infantry surviving today as the corps of drums with bugles or bagpipes sometimes used as alternatives to fes The cavalry used trumpets and kettledrums instead Other instruments were added in the 18th century the Harmonie or Harmoniemusik consisted of pairs of oboes Clarinets horns and bassoons to which the Turkish or janissary music of bass drum cymbals and triangle was added Serpents bass horns and keyed bugles were used until valved brass instruments arrived on the scene As well as providing music for ceremonies and on the march military bands play on bandstands in concert halls and for all manner of social purposes As a result the repertory has always included arrangements of the popular concert operatic and other theatre music of the day MENC Organization of music teachers and college students in the USA with members engaged in teaching at all educational levels Founded in 1907 as a group of school music supervisors it adopted its present name in 1934 and became af liated with the National Education Association in 1940 The federation of MENC includes eight associated organizations representing band and choral directors string wind and percussion instructors jazz educators band and orchestra associations and black American music Its program includes conferences commissions and projects to further music education It sponsors the Historical Research Center at the University of Maryland publishes a wide range of books videotapes and other material about music education and produces the quarterly Journal of Research in Music Education 19537 and its of cial monthly magazine Music Educators Journal 1914 In 1999 the MENC had about 88000 members Motif motive A short musical idea melodic harmonic rhythmic or any combination of these three A motif may be of any size and is most commonly regarded as the shortest subdivision of a theme or phrase that still maintains its identity as an idea It is most often thought of in melodic terms and it is this aspect of motif that is connoted by the term gure Movement A term for a section usually selfcontained and separated by silence from other sections within a larger musical work It originates in the idea of work consisting of sections de ned by their difference in tempo or movement hence the use of mouvement in French and movimento in Italian to denote tempo and of the Italian term tempo for a movement The term came into use in English during the 18th century the Encyclopedia Britannica 1770 edition uses it in the sense of motion in music and Burney General History 1776 wrote of the first movement of a larger work A multimovement work is sometimes described as Cyclic form Neoclassicism A movement of style in the works of certain 20thcentury composers who particularly during the period between the two world wars revived the balanced forms and clearly perceptible thematic processes of earlier styles to replace what were to them the increasingly exaggerated gestures and formlessness of late Romanticism The history and evolution of the term in all its aspects have been traced by Messing Since a neoclassicist is more likely to employ some kind of extended tonality modality or even atonality than to reproduce the hierarchically structured tonal system of true Viennese Classicism the prefix neo often carries the implication of parody or distortion of truly Classical traits The advent of postmodern sensibilities since the 1970s has made it possible to see neoclassicism not as regressive or nostalgic but as expressing a distinctly contemporary multiplicity of awareness It is therefore difficult and even artificial to regard neoclassicism and postmodernism as separate except in historical sequence with the former the preferred term for the period from World War I to the 1950s 0 pe ra Opera is a drama set to music to be sung with instrumental accompaniment by singers usually in costume Recitative or spoken dialogue may separate the numbers but the essence of opera is that the music is integral and is not incidental as in a musical or play with music 0 pe re tta A light opera with spoken dialogue songs and dances Emphasizing music rich in melody and based on 19thcentury operatic styles the form ourished during the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th During the 20th century it evolved into and was largely superseded by the musical comedy The term operetta was originally applied in a more general way to describe works that were short or otherwise less ambitious derivatives of opera 0 p us Lat Work Word used followed by a number eg Opus 50 for the numbering ofa composer39s works This numbering gives a rough idea of the order in which works were composed but can be misleading Sometimes the Opus no is allotted by the composer sometimes by the publisher Some composers eg Mozart Haydn did not number their works some eg Elgar gave some works Opus nos and not others some e g R Strauss did likewise but also reallotted Opus nos so that much confusion arises in his case Dvorak allowed early works to be given late Opus nos by his publisher In many cases an Opus no covers a group of works in which case the numbering is subdivided eg Op59 No3 or in a style often used Op 59 3 In other cases 2 versions of the same work exist and the composer uses letters after the number to differentiate them eg Op49a Op49b Although the Latin plural of Opus is Opera it has become customary to write opuses to avoid confusion just as in Italian opera has become a singular noun with the plural opera Orchestration The art of combining the sounds of a complex of instruments an orchestra or other ensemble to form a satisfactory blend and balance The term orchestration is often used to denote the craft of writing idiomatically for these instruments To orchestrate has also come to mean to score for orchestra a work written for a solo instrument or small ensemble There have been many attempts to differentiate the terms orchestration and instrumentation In this context the two terms should be considered as inseparable aspects of a single musical concept Instrumentation by itself is a more general term denoting the selection of instruments for a musical composition either as part of the composer s art or by the performers for a particular performance Pia no Roll A roll of paper containing perforations such that air passing through them actuates the keys of a player piano P re u de Fr pr lude Ger Vorspiel lt Sp preludio Lat praeludium praeambulum A term of varied application that in its original usage indicated a piece that preceded other music whose mode or key it was designed to introduce was instrumental the roots ludus and Spiel mean played as opposed to sung and was improvised hence the French pr luder and the German prc iludieren meaning to improvise The term praeambulum preamble adds the rhetorical function of attracting the attention of an audience and introducing a topic The earliest notated preludes are for organ and were used to introduce vocal music in church Slightly later ones for other chordal instruments such as the lute grew out of improvisation and were a means of checking the tuning of the instrument and the quality of its tone and of loosening the player s fingers as was the Tastar de corde The purpose of notating improvisation was generally to provide models for students so an instructive intention often concerned with a particular aspect of instrumental technique remained an important part of the prelude Because improvisation may embrace a wide range of manners styles and techniques the term was later applied to a variety of formal prototypes and to pieces of otherwise indeterminate genre Ragtime A style of popular music chie y American that ourished from about 1896 to 1918 Its main identifying trait is its ragged or syncopated rhythm While today it is most commonly thought of as a piano style during the ragtime period the term also referred to other instrumental music to vocal music and to dance The best instrumental ragtime pieces manifested sophisticated musical thought and demanded considerable technical facility of a performer for their fullest realization Ragtime songs on the other hand were generally less concerned with musical values designed as they were to reach a large and undiscriminating audience Royal College of Music London music college successor to National Training School for Music Founded by Prince of Wales later Edward VII in 1882 and opened 1883 when it received Royal charter S c he rzo It joke A term applied to a number of types of piece since the early 17th century The Italian word scherzo and its derivatives came from the German Scherz and scherzen to joke in the late Middle Ages Since Beethoven s time it has been applied generically to any movement that takes the place of a minuet in a sonata cycle whether or not specifically labelled scherzo and it has also been used to indicate a comic or ironically comic composition usually fastmoving and often one movement within a larger work Suite In a general sense any ordered set of instrumental pieces meant to be performed at a single sitting during the Baroque period an instrumental genre consisting of several movements in the same key some or all of which were based on the forms and styles of dance music then and later a group of pieces extracted from a larger work especially an opera or ballet such as Carmen Suite or Nutcracker Suite The term from the French meaning those that follow or succession did not come into common use until the last quarter of the 17th century but the kinds of set to which it was eventually applied had a long history and pairing of dances may be found as early as the 14th century The suite served not only as a form for newly composed pieces but also as a convenient way to arrange existing pieces in groups for publication and especially performance After about 1750 the classical form of the Baroque suite which included allemande courante sarabande and gigue became obsolete along with the term The idea of the suite however taken in its more general sense continued to ourish under various guises and the term itself has since been revived Sym phony A term now normally taken to signify an extended work for orchestra The symphony became the chief vehicle of orchestral music in the late 18th century and from the time of Beethoven came to be regarded as its highest and most exalted form The adjective symphonic applied to a work implies that it is extended and thoroughly developed The word symphony derives from the Greek syn together and phone sounding through the Latin Symphonia a term used during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance It is essentially in this derivation that the term was used by Giovanni Gabrieli Sacrae symphoniae 1597 Heinrich Schlitz Symphoniae sacrae 1629 and others for concerted motets usually for voices and instruments In the 17th century the term symphony or more commonly sinfonia was applied to introductory movements to operas oratorios and cantatas see Overture 273 to the instrumental introductions and ritomellos of arias and ensembles see Ritomello and to ensemble works that could be classi ed as sonatas or concertos The common factor in this variety of usage was that sinfonias or symphonies were usually part of a larger framework such as another composition an academy or a church service The immediate antecedent of the modern symphony is commonly considered to be the opera sinfonia which by the early 18th century had a standard structure of three sections or movements fast slow and fast dancelike movement That form was eXtensively used by Alessandro Scarlatti and his contemporaries and was widely adopted outside Italy particularly in Germany and England less in France where the French overture held sway The terms overture and symphony or sinfonia were widely regarded as interchangeable for much of the 18th century Te m po Literally the time of a musical composition but more commonly used to describe musical speed or pacing Tempo may be indicated in a variety of ways Most familiar are metronomic designations that link a particular durational unit usually the beat unit of the notated metre with a particular duration in clock time eg crotchet 80 beatsminute Also familiar are conventionalized descriptions of speed and gestural character andante allegro langsam etc There are also looser associations between metric notations and tempo a vestige of earlier mensural practice where for example 32 is sign of relatively slow tempo 34 of moderate tempo and 38 of relatively quick tempo Similarly we retain a sense of the distinction between the halfcircle common time and the crossed halfcircle alla breve with the latter theoretically twice as fast While tempo necessarily involves a determination of the appropriate durations for the various rhythmic units given in score there is more to tempo than simply indeXing crotchets and quavers to some amount of clock time Epstein observed that tempo is a consequence of the sum of all factors within a piece the overall sense of a work s themes rhythms articulations breathing motion harmonic progressions tonal movement contrapuntal activity Tempo is a reduction of this compleX Gestalt into the element of speed per se a speed that allows the overall integrated bundle of musical elements to ow with a rightful sense Shaping Time Music the Brain and Performance New York 1995 p99 A true sense of tempo then is a product of more than the successive notetonote articulations it involves the perception of motion within rhythmic groups and across entire phrases Finding the right tempo within and between sections of a piece is one of the subtlest and most difficult tasks facing the performer Changes in surface durations do not necessarily give rise to a change of tempo as the augmentation or diminution of durational values may have little effect on the rate of the perceived pulse Bona de tempo changes may of course occur either abruptly or gradually via accelerando or ritardando over the course of a composition often rather dramatically But it is worth noting that even within passages that seem to be in stable tempo the beat rate is not mechanically constant save in performances that involve electronic or mechanical means of articulating beats and rhythms Rather in normal performances tempo systematically uctuates within the bar and the phrase Tempo is intertwined with our sense of pulse and metre for without a regular series of pulses it is difficult to imagine any sense of tempo whatsoever In a metric conteXt our sense of tempo is what allows us to distinguish subdivisions from beats and beats from downbeats The entire metric hierarchy from the shortest subdivisions to the broadest levels of hypermetre plays a pivotal role in establishing the compleX Gestalt of tempo ThroughComposed l A term applied to songs of which music is different for each statement of melody 2 A composition which has been fully worked out thoroughly composed as opposed to something that occurs in sections or episodes Toccata It from toccare to touch A piece intended primarily as a display of manual dexterity often free in form and almost always for a solo keyboard instrument The toccata principle is found in many works not so called and a large number of pieces labeled toccata incorporate other more rigorous styles such as fugue or forms such as sonata form In the 16th and 17th centuries the term was sometimes applied to fanfarelike pieces e g the opening fanfare of Monteverdi s Orfeo 1607 but the origin of this usage and its relationship to the current one are obscure Transcription In EuroAmerican classical studies transcription refers to the copying of a musical work from one instrumentation to a new instrumentation Transcriptions in the band world generally refer to compositions that were originally written for either orchestra or piano that are later reworked to be played by a wind band While closely related we generally consider a transcription to attempt to remain true to the original composition with no changes to form or musical line An arrangement requires that a change has been made to these elements generally to shorten the composition or make it easier for the musicians playing
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