ARH 870 ARH 870
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bell Jacobson on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 870 at University of Virginia taught by Cammy Brothers in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/209559/arh-870-university-of-virginia in Architectural Engineering at University of Virginia.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Building as Social Histotjy the Fonduco dei T urchi Nicole M Emmons 12 December 2004 Professor Cammy Brothers ARH 870 we mum mm a 2 22 w Wm wmn mmumm only 2 2224 my Mow b um am my m w New 2 2 phynahtpkknmon ohm 1111qu 90km m m Awlg w Mans 02 w mm m Vancuom msdmvamoxwdh pm m 0222 2w 242nm of km x Mm 122m m2m m Wampum m m mmw aw wanonwsydmahnd ohm 2222 am kyuMIc 2 2 snow a gamma madam may m w m2 3w 2 221292 quotmush In 1601 after The deaTh ofThe lasT Duke of Ferrara in 1597 and four years of disputes NEIL L r EL n u A ATumhi IA 39n39r7 Priuli leased The palazzo in 1621 To serve as The fondaco for merchanTs and Their wares OTToman Empirex IT is aT This poinT in The hisTory of The building ThaT one mighT once again consider iT as an objecT The social hisTory ofThe embassy did noT add measured drawings surveyor 39 of Cesare Torello Franco a sTonemason archiTecT and r A D u as A r r The ciTy in 1500 gure 3 As Juergen Schulz noTes however These drawings are in r n mu u U wiTh Napoleon image ofThe Fondaco as iT exisTed for The use of The Turkish merchanTs gure 5 s cadasTral map of The early nineTeenTh cenTury provide The objecTive 7 Tuergen Schulz Early Plans ofthe Fondaco dei Turchi p 151 152 These disputes involved pe Clement VJII his nephew CardinalAldobrandini the heir Cesare d Este and his sisters 39 nnn A xSchulz 152 9 Schulz 153 gure 3 r gure A V ToreIIo Imp with Q shadow ofcorrect footprint gure Cadasrralmap detail 1808 1811 tracing In J Schulz a I b J V E i 7 3 x x 2 I i 39 43 r E 39 i 1 7 F 92 The fondaco as an institution in Venice is inextricably linked to the geographical position ofthe city As the major port of e Northern Adriatic a role carved out by the city via strategic reerouting of the Po and Brenta Rivers as well as naval force the err an uq was established in the Islamic states as lodging for travelers and their goods including merchants pilgrims and families The use ofthe European translation ofthe Word fondaco describing the r cmlate and ecrre ate the European 39 iii ii acted to 9 Christian merchant community within Muslim authority eventually displaced the use of the Word funduq and even the typology of the funduq used by Muslims within Muslim c Pr ofessor Olivia Constable follows the origin ofthe funduq to its position in Medieval merchant in the Muslim World is the unique position of the Venetian merc t In keeping W pu i of the ondaco s an anded Venetian republic meant a proliferation of fondacos which suggests fondacos were th co ercial n Sultans The presence ofa hom reign land Where one might speak one s native language practice one s religion prepare one s cultural diet and so forth as 39 L D 39 during times ofvvar S Constable states The presence of Christian fondacos in the crusader states would leave its mark on Muslim commercial facilities istian merchant traded extensively within the Muslim world because of the presence fondacos while the lack of such infrastructure discouraged the presence of Muslim merchants in Western Europe gure 7 the outside They and their goods were protected 20 of The 39 39 within u the fondaco He existed within an autonomous state subject to its own rules but also subject to the authority of the Muslim state Each night and during Friday prayers the Christians were locked in the fondaco from even as the Muslim daily life was protected rrnation from the twel h century when the Venetians 9 O transfo speci c goods not people 2 The exceptions included Venice whose politics and geography encouraged the continued control of certain merchant groups as well as their goods 9 The rst fondaco example in the early thirteenth century Venice was the Fondaco dei Tedeschi an acknowledged transplant of form regulations and purpose from a Muslim into a Christian context gure 8 0 Olivia Constable Housing the Stranger in the Mediterranean World p 329 Constable p11 The use of the Greek word pandocheion dates to 5quot century before the common era bce u Constable p8 The Venetian Merchant s Sense of Place p 96 15 Constable p 110 16 Constable p233 W Documentation suggests women did not travel with their merchant husbands m Constable p 7 10 w Constable p 308 309 Constable p 315 This was particu1ar1y me post Reformation when the Protestant religion of the Germans differed from the CaL39h 39 e c olic Venice Controlling th German mer hants meant controlling the prices and goods of Northern Europe with tax revenue bene ting the city t L musmmmmwonmmw hmo zpumm mmmsssm so mad w mm s sm goods w mas muchan s w my smms Acmdmg m 2 4mm and ssAsv Samo39lan 1 m mass um w 1 w mam m n was m m 1521 um um mm a Mums 51 n m a W a m mmxmmpmmmmw musk mm WWW Mus m mhsnmms M s wuss mmwfondzwquot Hum w blow m w sass was Alma m Wu m mans 2nd M goods us mm wss summd wryHm mums mmy m ssssss Is mm was mmhkd wantde am no mam ssmsss am am Dru mum 50 ms anywzndmwdmw my Myasswm Rank of was usums sm m knlc a smash w 14mm or w 1mm machzms s m ms mm m 2 may mssxss Wm M kw cmtsmzl m m on ssxmwss mekmmwmm xnsssnss mswwmmsmsm 2nd sssmwa kmconb mama and Ala w W us as has 22a nanm 2w quotMaw Thzmummdmzfmamau mnh U My WWW unnqu mm Wrnllmm Imde mm me There is also documentation dating to communication with the Senate in a letter dated 16 August 1575 of the scheme for an institute casa della nazion turchesca yet the location was not determined for another fty years during which time there were disputes25 It seems that a variety of sites were discussed as were the options of building new or reusing existing structures Most options seemingly endorsed by the Turkish were in prominent locations either near the Rialto palazzo dei Camerlenghi palazzo Cirran San Mattio di Rialto a Grand Canal site in a symmetrical position to the Fondaco dei Tedeschi or San Marco Ca Priuli in Santa Maria Formosa and peripheral options included one near the Fondamente Nuove26 n the end the site chosen was in some respect between the Rialto and San Marco in a position akin to the Jewish Ghetto Nuovo which was prohibitive of growth27 gure 10 25 Concina p 223 25 Concina pp 226 229 27 Concina p 232 Jewish Ghetto Fondaco dei Turchi The lack of information about the daily life of the Turkish merchant as well as the nal decision concerning the location of the fondaco suggests the accommodation was not very accommodating The fondaco fronts the Grand Canal in a position of prominence but its position along a rio and within Santa Croce makes it dif cult to access in large numbers As a private residence itwas ideal having both the seclusion of its position within Santa Croce and a prominent public front along the Grand Canal with a double height portico giving the illusion of accessibility Unlike the nearby Fondaco del Megio there was not a lion on the facade marking the city s ownership The history of the building marked the jurisdiction of the city but perhaps without the lion the building was more acceptable to the merchants whose laws and religions governed the interior of the building The location is redeemed somewhat in its proximity to a series of public spaces in the North South and immediate West gure 11 These were not the commercial centers of the city therefore the merchants within the F ondaco dei Turchi must have been crippled in a way by their location Though letters and diaries depict the lives of Venetians in the Islamic ports and fondacos this author has not discovered similar evidence of the life of the Turkish merchant in the Venetian fondaco The painting entitled Il Fondaco dei Turchi by Mario de Maria depicts the Turkish merchants enjoying a lavish rich and indulgent lifestyle over owing from the portico of the fondaco gure 12 The exotic imagery is as much a gment of the imagination of the painter as the facade is in the painting and as it exists today The painting was executed either during or after the restoration of the building and certainly postinhabitation by the Turkish merchants The state of the fondaco during the time it served the merchants was one of disrepair as previously mentioned in the passage from Schulz Images of the fondaco during this time also correspond to Schulz s depiction and not to the paintings gure 13 Thus the restoration of the fondaco which took place after twothirds of the building had been destroyed and included gross liberties by Berchet represents the time of the Turkish inhabitants only in name and not in form The building we see today on the Grand Canal presents itself as the former palazzo though here as well the form is a misrepresentation The restoration included a new court whose motifs are somewhat medievalized but it is neither true to the time of the merchants nor to the time of the Pesaro or Este families Instead the renovation embodies the power of the city the city over the Austrians who had forbid renovation the city over the Dukes of Ferrara the city over the Pesaro family s wish not to have the building sold the city over the trading world of the Mediterranean and the Christian city over the Islamic nations 28 Gruyer pp 394 396 This position and facade became a set piece for the eight day ceremony of the restitution of the palace to Alfonso II in 1562 For the ceremony the palace was decorated the arms ofSt Mark and the seals ofthe house ofEste and throughout the portico tapestries were hung representing Ferrara and its properties The rst oor lo ggia was decorated as well gure 11 localpublic space c gure 12 l I Fondaco dei Turchi 39F quot J 1 Mario de Maria painted post 192 c renovation I last Turkish merchant expelled at least 35 years before 7 391