Introductory Sociology SOC 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ruben Schowalter on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1010 at University of Virginia taught by Sarah Corse in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/209564/soc-1010-university-of-virginia in Sociology at University of Virginia.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Chapter 11 Notes Pp 161 180 Deviance and Social Control I Covers alcoholism mental illness gambling murder adultery crime drug use stripping pimping prostitution bulimia suicide etc o The Relativity of Deviance What We Already Know I We know that norms vary across societies 0 So we also know what is considered to be deviant varies across societies 0 It s against the law to spank children in Sweden an act many parents perform on younger children in the US I We know that norms change over time even within a particular culture 0 So we also know that what is considered to be deviant to be deviant at time 1 may be considered normative at time I Finally we know that norms vary within a particular society that different subgroups have different norms 0 So we also know that what is considered deviant will vary from subgroup to subgroup within a particular society 0 Nonsociological Theories of Deviance I First attempts at scientifically explaining deviance focused on biological factors I William Sheldon contended that a person s body shape plays a role in criminality o Distinguished three body types 0 Ectomorphs tall thin fragile o Endomorphs short and fat 0 Mesomorphs muscular and athletic o Sheldon linked criminality to meomorphs o Sociological Theories of Deviance Emile Durkheim and Suicide I The Collective Conscience and Structural Strain o Emile Durkheim was one of the first to look for the causes of deviance in terms of social rather than individual factors 0 Durkheim s primary concern was the nature of society and social order 0 In some societies the social machine was maintained in smooth working order because of the strength ofwhat he called the collective conscience o quotThe totality of beliefs and sentiments common to the average members of the same society Collective conscience was made up of the values beliefs norms and goals shared by people in a particular society When society changed in the past it was seen us undermining the very nature ofwhat held society together 0 Lead to many prophets ofdoom When people started committing suicide more Durkheim looked at what it was about society that caused the increase in the suicide rate rather than the single person 0 Found that rate of suicide was higher in industrializing societies and led Durkheim to suspect that suicide rates were manifestations of the amount of structural strain in a social system I Egoism and Anomie Two of the several sources Durkheim identified with suicide 0 Each is a manifestation of a different kind of structural strain Egoism occurs when people are not well integrated into society 0 People lack ties to their social groups 0 People who lack these ties to their social groups simply have less to live for that is less reason not to kill themselves Increases in suicide rates also linked to social change which resulted in a state of social confusion Durkheim called anomie 0 Taken from Greek word for lawlessness or normlessness o Situation in which people don t experience the constraint of social norms either because there are no norms or because they don t know the norms o Anomie is a state wherein society fails to exercise adequate regulation ofthe goals and desires of individual members Durkheim argued when people lived in a state of anomie when the collective conscience was not powerful enough to regulate their behavior or egoism when people were not well enough integrated they were more likely to kill themselves o More Structural Strain Robert Merton and Anomie I Anomie and Modern Social Structure 0 Merton said anomie is built into the structure ofmodern society 0 Anomie occurs when the norms ofa society do not match its social structure 0 Merton began his analysis by noticing that all social systems have two characteristics 0 First they have commonly accept goals for their members I Simply socially valued things worth striving for 0 Second each society establishes what it considers to be legitimate ways or mean to reach these valued goals I Responses to Anomie 0 Some people in society may not experience any disjuncture between goals and means 0 For some people hard work may indeed lead to success 0 Even when they keep running into obstacles people may ignore the disjuncture and keep trying 0 They may continue to accept the goals of success and achievement and the means of hard work even when it isn t getting them anywhere I Merton called this adaptation conformity o Merton called the first mode ofadaptation that is obviously deviant innovation 0 Innovators accept and pursue the accepted goals of society but when confronted with a lack of legitimate means devise new ones 0 Some reject culturally approved goals but continue to pursue the means 0 This is called ritualism o Ritualists follow legitimate means without caring about goals 0 Retreatists are noticeably different in that they reject both the goals and the legitimate means to them 0 People who went and lived in huts in the mountains 0 Fifth mode of adaptation was reheIIion 0 Rebels are deviant in that they reject both cultural goals and means and then substitute new ones
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