Introductory Sociology SOC 1010
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ruben Schowalter on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1010 at University of Virginia taught by James Hunter in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/209565/soc-1010-university-of-virginia in Sociology at University of Virginia.
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Sociology 1282010 30900 AM 2 facts o human beings are social beings o human behavior follows a frequent pattern o these 2 facts cannot be dividedseparated stereotypes o are examples of extreme patterns sociology examines human tribes that complex hole which includes knowledge belief customsquot culture totality of human symbolic value c invisible c all aspects are learned or shared humans o adaptable highly unstable don t have instincts world makers create stability institutions o normative patterns of human 0 thinking 0 behavior 0 relating o replace instincts Background gt o Taken for granted Foreground I o Human thinkingindividualism Arts sciences discipline o Interpretive discipline o Gives a fit for freedom formation Freedom o Realities with little control o Says no to society o Act contrary Philosophy of liberal arts 2 knowledges denigrated o poetic o substantive o engement celebrated o performative o instrumental 0 distance Systematic view Humans input meaning into the world Things are not what they seem Location defines us 0 0 Society Religiously o How we raise our families 0 Marriage Health Life Political parties How we think Defense Forces Has boundaries if crossed a punishment will occur 0 Forcing people to cooperate Has power 0 Making it easy to bear It becomes part of us Has rules Our identity is part of our social nature Stability Culture 1282010 30900 AM Culture Institutions 0 Malleable o Changeable o Invariable Invariable Moral nature 0 Normative patterns institutions Culture surrounds us Biological necessities trapped by culture 0 What is becomes what should be c The descriptive becomes the ethical Patterns of behavior become 0 Rules 0 Expectations 0 Norms normal O culture 2 below 98 there is a relationship between 0 folkways not strict o mores explicit moral sanction o customs sanctioned by tradition gt Inverse o laws enacted by those with political power l elat iOHShip power of culture 0 Emile Durkheim 0 Social facts patterns External Coersive o All social groups have social control which is o self imposed internal 0 external violence a inefficient economic pressure a strikes a walkouts a bankruptcy informal u ridicule a gossip u excluding o Garfunkel s experiment Deliberate violation of a norm Brings into relief all the unspoken norms Maintains moral order Life in culture 0 Boundaries 0 Walls within Everyone has to interact amongst each other Humans lack instincts Humans manipulate biology We have reflexes not instincts We learn norms o Socialization Process of social interaction u Acquire personality a Way of life The world belongs to humans Bio drives 0 Society controls Freud Skinner Pioget o GH Mead o Brilliant sociologist o LANGUAGE Mediym 1 mechanism a interaction identification 7 D 1 medium i 71219913171711 r 0 significant other being with which one interacts emotional relationship 0 2 stages r I generalized other gt society socialization 0 multiple social world 0 self 0 is produced 0 I Real spontaneous 0 Me society molded o W M James 0 Multiple selves social self a takes the attitude and the role society wants it to take one s identity 0 CH Cooley 0 looking glass self we see what society wants us to see c biologically humans being a real man 0 We are molded 0 Primary socialization 0 Meet expectations of others 0 Secondary socialization 0 We take the role of a specific social world 0 True Identity 0 Will only be found when all the layers are pealed 0 Social recognition leads to stability Stability occurs with social permission which influences memory Self Society 0 We are integrated into society 0 In that process identity is formed 0 We are bounded 0 Everything we do is bound by nature of this process social factors over which we have no choice 0 Culture 0 Trialectic identities cannot exist without ideas and institutions 0 Ervinh Goffman 1959 o The presentation of self in everyday life 0 Analogical thinking 0 Social interaction is a theatrical performance 0 Plays off Mead Extends to furthest degree 0 Front stage vs back stage 0 Adornment For others not self Status difference tribal affiliation sexual information personality If you play a role you must wear a costume a Natural to us but not really natural u Nonconformists are conforming to a role o Helps us see that our taken for granted social world is full of rules hidden powerful Foreground of choice of roles with predetermined rules We are just actors People with masks Social interaction is a competition for attention 0 Infant need for attention is similar to need for food Distribution of attention scarce follows distribution of wealth privilege power Derber Goffman both looking for hidden social rules both talking about power of culture on identities O O Bounda es Norms Internally I is in the micro level and the Me in the macro level Externally Boundaries are set to Fit in Socialization o Humans don t have instincts just reflxes 0 There are external forces that look over everyone in the world 3 sociologists o Derber People are constantly looking for attention Attention Power 0 William James We have multiple selves We act according to our reputation n The way people see us 0 George H Mead I I a real me Me a social me Interaction Identification n Acknowledge existence we take the attitude of the other a significant other Deviance 1282010 30900 AM Earliest theories biological deviants are born not made o Cesare Lambroso Italian physician 19th century 0 Measured skull sizes 0 Deviance recognizable physical features Shift eyes Reading hairline Wispy beards Long arms Strong jaw Red hair 0 Evolutionary atabis throwbacks to previous type c William Sheldon 3 body types related to deviance o Endomorph fat no flexibility o Ectomorph skinny weak 0 Mesomorph leanmean deviants o Revival of biology deviant personalities are genetically based Psychological theories o Freud psycho analytic 0 I d impulses Ego conscious Superego conscience Deviance form Internal id superego conflict Underdeveloped superego o Social learning theory bad socialization Sociological theories o No presupposed moral rightness in social order 0 Way things are not necessarily right o Deviance comes from social realm 0 Nothing is inherently deviant o Peopleactions only become deviant when label successfully appHed o Most of culture cannot be seen lines can t be seen but we know when people cross them Labeling theory 2 types of deviance 0 Primary temporarypasses unnoticed O O O 0 Secondary publically recognized breaking of rules deviant Deviant accepts label Develops new self concept around label Selffulfilling 0 Label reinforced by Others with that identity Outsiders Ex Rosen Han experiment Power of publically recognized label Insideroutsider language 0 Each social realm has its own language of inclusionexclusion o Creates norms deviance Deviance is relative to 0 Social context 0 Historical period 0 Cui bono says who What group What interests Deviance is a matter of social definition still powerful WI Thomas a situation is not so much real in itself but is real in its consequences In every culture there are deviances which Give labels Create grief Interferes with society Is it destructive There are punishments to deviants These are rituals that help fix and unify society Deviants Are out of order Help strengthen and unify society 0 Creates solidarity amongst the group Dominant groups in society unify and oppose deviants o This creates solidarity identity brings moral authority o are independent of will 0 have power 0 against conspiracy c not passive 0 occur in all social orders 0 Dysfunctional o NO 0 Depends on the group they affect Emile Durkheim o Founder of functionalism o Talked about social facts which are 0 External 7 Punish o Coercive Power over individuals institutions 0 social control 0 external 0 gives power defines deviances 0 internal 0 functions of deviance 0 Identity 0 Solidarity o Moral defense 0 society needs deviants Rassaham 0 Labels power 0 Ruin life 0 Deviance 0 Primary Do NOT embrace label 0 Secondary Embrace label 0 In order to destroy deviance a ritual has to occur which unites society against the deviant Transformation of society 1282010 30900 AM Modernity 0 Problem Rationality CO nseq uences o we only see the world in 1 dimension 0 internal conflicts functional increase in reasoning appeals to u traditions a God Cultural pluralism Multiplicity of different cultures in 1 same place 0 Institutions weaken 0 Increase in consciousness 0 People are becoming more individualistic Structural Pluralism a Division between lt 0 Public sphere Includes mega structures 0 Private sphere Space of life leftover Intimate 0 Public divided from private sphere Work family divided 2 worlds instead of 1 modernization 0 creation of more ideas transformation of society is the story of how 2 mayor civilizations met 0 Athens and Jerusalem religious thinking 0 Athens o Thinkers o Jerusalem 0 Religious o History was linear now it is progress Post modernity o Collapse of the grand narrative progress o Liberates but oppresses o Increase in skepticism o EPIC movement 0 Lose trust Late modern o Identification 0 Cultural Pluralism Structural Pluralism All aspects of culture change o Rationality 0 Increase in rational control 0 Increase in individualityindependent thinking 0 Runs Institutions 0 Humans act a certain way Cultural pluralism o Multiplicity of cultures 0 Multiculture different thinking 0 Increase in religious diversity 0 Humans have different identities o Structural pluralism 0 Private and public spheres are divided o Structural pluralism cultural pluralism rationality more understanding of culture Deinstitutionalization 1282010 30900 AM Language c Humans are language animals o Everything depends on language o Trust l reality but humans trust language o If we don t trust language we have nothing left to believe Humans have no instincts Institutions Follow a coherent pattern Part of the background The foreground is increasing 0 Humans are becoming more individualistic o The power of institutions is declining Balance of societies Societies with very little foreground and a lot of background are totalitarian Extreme modern societies tend to have very little background and a lot of foreground Traditional societies are closer to totalitarian societies Background is what we take for granted while the foreground is what we deliberately do Current modern societies are closer to the extreme modern societies than totalitarian societies Modern societies negate trust they have developed more skepticism The main purpose of the crusades was to find certainty but instead they found skepticism Nitchev o 1St skeptic o neonism nothingness Trialectic Pluralism o Juxtaposes cultures 0 Different ways in which we see words o Undermines trust 0 Authority confidence words Media o Affect human consciousness deeply Molds the 0 539 c Almost disappear o Compartmentalize world s reality a Blends together o Significant insignificant o Allusion of intimacy 0 Attention getting Words l meaning o There s no source of authority Law and culture are inversely related o Increase in laws decrease in culture 0 Modern societies o Decrease in laws increase in culture Identity 1282010 30900 AM Arnold Gehlen o Institutions change Law is inversely related to culture o Increasing laws dissolving culture One s identity is a public issue Identity created relationship o Humans society appropriate identity Identity is a socially manufactured product Objective vs subjective Types o Different from traditional o homogeneous o human integrated cohesive 0 clear symmetry with objective vs subjective roots o family o geographical space o religion o social world human identity is seen through glass o it is constantly moving our background influences defines who we are W E 7 l lt 7 l gt V V 8 public sphere is constantly changing which affects the private sphere which is in charge of integrating the roots coherently identity has been deinstitutionalized o human thought is ascribed o sexual identity 0 is being questioned foreground increasing Subjectivization o shift inward o permanent reflectiveness 0 human crisis increase in multiple thoughts realization identity is malleable solution o life plans o if one wants liberation 0 it s a double sided knife Marriage 1282010 30900 AM does true love exist c There are conditions Humans are free agents o Intimate c We have a fluid atmosphere Costs and benefits o Babies Marriage is a pattern o life s course Marriage Life m 10 8 8 6 E 4 2 I 0 0 Duration O o women that work outside of the house have a higher happiness level 0 husbands have a lower happiness level o cohabitation o 2 people living together 0 doesn t last long 0 either they marry or they breakup divorce o rare in the 1950 s 0 divorce rate has been increasing since then o divorce rate is 45 now o younger couples have higher divorce rates o wealthy people have lower divorce rates o usually having a child before marriage increases the changes of getting a divorce o social class is a factor o parents 0 children from divorced parents to have a 90 higher chance of getting a divorce than those whose parents stayed together o consequences 0 women tend to loose lower social mobility 0 kids from divorced parents have a higher chance of dropping out of school andor going to prison o increase in foreground unstable institution o decreased in power o higher burden has been placed on it o economical expectations have been added to the equation o the institutions that used to support marriage have decline in power 0 the church uses of marriage o friendship l marriage o survival social economic o sexual outlet o best friend romance o procreation is now optional it s rotten due to the increase in divorce rates weaker than ever pressure has been increasing over this institution once found suicide rates decrease and happiness increase mutually dependent o to meet romantic emotional and economic needs is it becoming less important than before o It s actually more important than ever 0 People are looking for their perfect match Usually people that get a divorce tend to remarry Having children o Since the foreground has increased people are having more children Religion 1282010 30900 AM Symbolic representation o Marx o Denied under capitalism o Father figure Freud c We are constantly looking for a father figure Fatherless people tend to become atheist Socially constructed world We create God o Humans need a higher being or something that makes sense in order to survive o Gives us a sense of protection Ordered world c We guard it to stay how it is Marginal expectations o Threaten them gt death o Deviance causes 0 Disorder senselessness madness Leads us to loose our sense of protection and safety Makes the world o Meaningful o Safe Furthest hand Locate human phenomenon Sacred canopy 0 Brings o structure into our married life o protection repairs any deviant secularization decrease in religion o privatized 0 public wars 0 domesticated o pluratization o no monopoly on meaning 0 needs marketing 0 plausibility divided by structure doubt grows o preference o deinstitutionalized 0 decrease in background increase in foreground o heresy to choose 0 crisis of credibility CC o weakening humans experience marginality o raises doubt in modernity 0 increase in CC Lipman o Assets of modernity eroded capacity to believe but not to need Durkheim o 4 elementary forms 0 clan o totem o sacredness o legends o GodSymbol Secularism functionalism until sacred value is imposed on the totem sacred canopy o sheltersprotects us USA is individualistic Religion is needed but it is absent Social Stratification 1282010 30900 AM Gender Ethnicity Race Nationality Social differentiation Ranking of social positions Classifying human beings o Location in hierarchy o Ranking of 0 life chances 0 gender 0 race ethnicity 0 age Social inequality leads to conflict which leads to change Marx o Key element was social class 0 Relationship of humans to the means of production Prolatarian 0 High class has control and ownership Economic power a Gives access to resources o The higher you are in the social stratification the more opportunities and resources are available to you c Power money o First one to make a connection between classes o Conflicts drive change o Economical approach Social classes are rooted deep in history with masters and slaves o The division is usually economic 0 Which gives power in politics Max Weber o Marx too simple o came up with a theory about 3 independent divisions engines of change 0 class relative similarity life chances Party 0 political power the capacity to carry ones intentions even against opposition power to change A i 0 status 0 social esteem prestige usually acquire by occupation culture also affects o exclusion from an elitist group can occur if one is not in the center but on the periphery 7 Center 7 Peripher y 0 Class O 0 took broader approach and defined social stratification into 3 categories a money financial capital 0 incentive politics 0 political capital 0 coercion for people to act manipulate people 0 culture 0 symbolic capital 0 status exclusivity o has the power of legitimate naming help us see other parts of the world money and job position defines our social ranking high class 0 strong sense of control defer gratification for greater reward a more ambiguous 0 see life grey instead of black and white higher political influence 0 tend to be 0 Episcopalian o Congressionalist o Presbyterian Lutheran Methodist Pentecostal o Fundamentalism Upper middle class o Secular Jews 0 Reform o Conservative o Orthodox 0 Modern 0 Old order o Higher IQ s o Higher Education o More job opportunities after universities o Better health low class o fatalism belief o take immediate gratification o lower health Romance o Love stays within social order o Marriage stability 0 Those that marry young tend to be in the lower parts of the social stratification Tend to follow traditional malefemale roles 0 Those that marry later tend to be part of the high class 0 O 0 Children o The lower class tends to have more children 0 They teach their children to follow rules o The upper class tends to have fewer children 0 They teach their children to follow principles rearing Men tend to die before women Changing in social stratification follows with all the characteristics of every class Classes are divided pluralistically amongst several groups o Each one of these groups has a specific division within Economics Race Gender Education 0 Sports Has 3 purposes o Conflict o Durkheim o Derber o Marx o Functionalism o Marx o Weber o Symbolic interaction 0 Goffman o Derber o Mead Davis Moore o Uneven distribution o Different positions 0 Rewards For those that are the best of the best which are at the top o Justify social stratification Uneven distribution of life chances Change the world o Must start from the top and go downwards o If it starts from the bottom it will probably be shortlived o Ideas 0 Resource Culture is a proxy Change love and mentalities Consequences Not at all Form of power Produced institution 0 O O O O O O O O Network 0 0 Key of change Loose Dense Catalysts of change People work closely together Culture 0 Has the power to name and define reality Overlapping networks 0 Bring leaders together Lower class tends to oppose PoliticsAmerican Democracy 1282010 30900 AM Different patterns of life Idea becomes theory Behavior o Formal institutions o Voting pattern Culture o Implicit within system Nonpolitical foundations Cluster of ideas implicit Healthy democracy healthy culture Ideas are stable E Pluribus Unum o from many one o pluribus many differences o it s a puzzle constantly being changed UNUM 0 thin consensus ideal a common belief substance a winning over rightness pluralism o differences in religion economic positions ethnicity etc politicized o Shared agreements l deinstitutionalization Debates are based in deeply rooted problems o Policy 0 Ex Abortion Meaning n Motherhood a Freedom o Real meaning purpose in America 0 Epistemic roots o Persuasioncoercion Michel Foucault o Good society Politics of language o Deinstitutionalized o Humans think functionally o Symbolic frame o Political Pluralism evolved o Words contested o Reflects shapes reality Not a political structure Presupposes culture Change in immigration laws o Increase in diversity Transcend differences Culture deinstitutionalized o Plurality fragmentation Mcintire o Not logical but Agreement o Rival premises 0 Come from illogical roots o No universal common good Durkheim o Laws pressure o Society unity o Solidarity Mechanical a Traditional n Solidarity of belief Organic a Modern n Interdependence Both of these 2 types of societies are have characteristics of each other Legitimization crisis o It s about the unum o Built over time