Introduction to Eastern Religious Traditions
Introduction to Eastern Religious Traditions RELG 1040
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alejandrin White on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RELG 1040 at University of Virginia taught by John Nemec in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/209568/relg-1040-university-of-virginia in Religious Studies at University of Virginia.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Indus valley civilization prehistory Wednesday January 14 2009 1259 PM Boundary between Europe and Asia is a mountain range called u The Indus Valley Civilization 2500 1500 BC I The Indus River is where the largest civilization were located at the time 2500 1500 BC 0 2 main cities Harappa and MohenjoDaro 0 Located in Contemporary Pakistan I They found a large number of seals stamps in waxclay look reading They can39t figure out the script no Rosetta stone and not enough script to internally decipher Important terms I Indus Valley Civilization Indus Valley Seals Indus Writing System I The Aryans vs the Dasas Warriors Pastoralists Poets The Aryan Invasion I Vedas 4 Vedic Hymnals or Samhitas Rg Yajur Sama Atharva I Vedic Gods and henotheisim Indra I Surya I Agni Varuna Soma I look on toolkit No clear evidence that it is linked to present day Hinduism No solid historical linkages Importa nt Terms Wednesday January 14 2009 716 PM 1mm m 2wquot abgun nunmun 1mm m We 1 mm v mm mm Vuku14mzll1wigt5mlmix ni y 5 Avan Vam M m Mann Mu cm My b 5mm r Stveen hvwnq takm lMzuug 7 15 pm Arya ns Wednesday January 14 2009 135 PM Arya quotNoblequot they started a long trek because they were nomads They would use IndoAryans Aryans that went to India Khyber Pass the major trade route between Pakistan and Afghanistan and central Asia Aryans came in a conquered famous for weapons and the chariot I Were in India around 1500 BC They brought a language called Sanskrit Because of the discovery of India Comparative linguistics Comparative religion R Otto and indianist and a sanskritist Wrote a book saying their religion is equal to ours I Hitler used the history of the Aryans because they had a strong history and a strong civilization that is well documented in history Recap Aryans Wednesday January 21 2009 108 PM Indus valley civilization Invasion of the Aryans They brought a language sanskrit and religion Aryans were nomadic people They called themselves quotaryaquot noble I Aryans vs the Dasas O Dasas slaves I Warriors Pastoralists Poets 0 Could kick your ass and yet were also very interested in languages I They brought with them Veda Veda comes from the verbal route of quotvidquot knowledge 0 4 Vedic hymnals Rg Yajur Sama Atharva O R g Veda is the oldest Veda I If your not in the Aryan clan then you don t have access to the language The language had power hence why they had to know it exactly perfectly Soma plant juice A plant was pressed for a juice it was intoxicating The Aryans had it memorized phoneme for phoneme Ritual O The language is the template the map to the universe The gods are the various powers The hymns are to the gods and are in some cases the power of the gods The hymns mantra Mantric causation If you say the mantra in the right way you will have an affect on what the gods will do You can get the forces of nature the gods to do what you want them to do The mantras are the gods modern day example the ritual of the inauguration he didn39t say the oath the right way but he still became president because this is a ceremony Also in the eyes of the church you can39t be married without quotI doquot and quotI now pronounce you man and wifequot this is a ritual These words have power Mantric causation is similar to magic Rta the order of the world You can affect rta with a ritual Apauruseya not of human design Veda is the language of the universe It is timeless The language matches the structure of the universe It is the map of the universe because it was created at the beginning of the universe Apurva not before the eyes The results are not shown to you right before the eyes The ultimate goal is heaven The Aryans believed in heaven If you say your mantras the right way you will go to heaven Caste levels of society I Priest access to the Veda Warrior kings Merchanttraderbusinessman I Servant When Aryans get to India they mix today in India caste is illegal In India today caste is hereditary You are born with it But you are not supposed to use it Back then you were in the caste you were in because of your job Kind of like today You could change your place in society I Samsara to turn around I Is the cycle To turn in a circle I The cycle of rebirth I Where you are reborn Intro to Buddhism Monday January 26 2009 100 PM 1262009 Intro to Buddhism Hindus resort to the unseen only under duress they wanted to know the results of the ritualsmantras wanted to guaranteee those results I Uncomfortable with results that can t be tested can t be seen can t be guaranteed question of heaven If the result doesn t come at all even if the ritual was done perfectly yields REBIRTH I In the next life he will get a son Reborn into heaven but get old and die I O uncomfortable with this uncertainity I 0 led to the notion of rebirth and doubting that heaven doesn t last forever I How do you know when you gained salvation What would be the one sure way 9Experience is the only way Buddha grew up in Hindu India Notion existed that people are reborn again and again Samsara I Constant rebirth is problematic Samsara has a suffering quality to it despite how beautiful it is constant rebirth could lead to the death of the atman Moksa is the solution liberation from this world and the cycle of rebirth I With the idea of rebirth comes the idea that one has done the most basic things a thousand times and no longer wants to do it turn toward something more important Dharma is 1st goal of each life moral legal social obligations laws duties I Artha wealth is the 2nd goal of human life legitimate goal as worldembracing religion so long as the rules are followed thus Dharma is first Kama sensual or asthetic pleasure 9 legitimate goal as long as Dharma is still first first within marriage the second refers to becoming a playwrite novelist artist I Moksa religious awareness the quest for your true self only achieved through liberation from the cycle of rebirth How to Become Liberated from the Cycle of Rebirth I Human is the ultimate form really good in previous life I Possibility of knowing your atman 9 knowing that you were reborn many times one unchanging eternal permanent part of you true nature atman not your body thoughts feelings intentions preferences experiences breath all change I can know it experience it see it directly Moksa is an experience a direct experience of your atman I Hindus want to know so this is a perfect theory for them I If you know your atman you don t know the suffering of Samsara you move beyond it you transcend it Brahman is God the one that created it and everything in it is him everything is the same thing just in different forms makes everything out of himself and can retract it into himself as wellcompared to spider casts out the web of the universe from his body beyond everything at the same time though I Atman is your little piece of Brahman that is unchanging I Dharma depends on varna and asrama stage of life renunciant out of order Terms to Know I Apauruseya llnot of human origin refers to the Vedas I Apurva llnot in front of you resuts that you don t see immediatel Samsara cycle of rebirth in this world Moksa liberation a goal of Hindus I Dharma law duty obligation moral code 9 1st goal of human life Artha wealth material gain prosperity success power 9 2quotd goal of human life Kama pleasure I Atman unchanging permanent self your existence as such I Brahman God all of existence all of the universe the Creator God everything is made out of him but he is beyond the universe Pastedfrom leIlFU 39 can 0 39 rlnr Buddhism beginnings Wednesday January 28 2009 RELG 104 1282009 Buddhism Beginnings I Buddhists don t accept Hindu ideals reject them I Yet the two religions are heavily intwined woudn t be what they are today without the other there I Willing to argue about the topic open debate from the beginning I No religious war in the area for thousands of years real history of tolerance in the area willing to debate without violence Worse thing to do was outlaw some cult or culture I The Argumentative India institutions in India precolonization that were real supportive of democracy Ascetism Extremes quotpunishquot their bodies because their bodies block their view of their atman selfmortifying I Light their own funeral pyres when starting on their path I Sramanas generallyjust meditate Buddha I Offended by extreme ascetism I Buddha means quotawakenedquot Classic Buddha Legend GautamaGotama Buddha a prince a Sakyamuni I Father a king gave him everything he could ever want a wonderfully opulent perfect life Buddha doesn t really see the real world gods see that he has a destiny amp decide to set him on the path I Buddha leaves the palace 4 times and sees 4 things his father never wanted him to see old age sickness death and an ascetic I Some of his story is constructed some historicallybased I Lesson in the story samsara became worthless to the Buddha because he realized it doesn t last forever and if it s not permanent what s the use Leaves the palace and tried a bunch of teachers ultimately decided that they don t know comes up with his own knowledge learns who he truly is in his own way very important that he did it himself His solution is nirvana quotblowing out I Once he achieved his Truth he could have left the world but due to his EXTREME compassion he stayed and taught others teaches with an quotopen palm doesn t hide anything I Buddhism allows for conversion whereas classical Hinduism doesn t the Buddha will teach anyone Most of his early disciples were Vaisya know this because most of the oldest Buddhist sites are on trade routes also how it spread so quickly Silk Road I QUESTION what was the effect of others not seeing the 4 sites and continuing to be happy Terms to Know I Vranaasramadharma caste was based on division of labor only over time it became hereditary born with it 4 castes 4 stages of life student householder recluse ascetic duty obligation etc I Samsara cycle of rebirth I Atman unchanging timeless part of you that is Brahman Brahman Creator God who created everything from himself can retract things into himself yet is beyond the universe everything is made from Brahman just in different forms I Sramana a striver someone who is striving to do something lights their own funeral pyre first when starting on their path Buddha quotawakenedquot in Sanskrit I The Historical Buddha he really existed I GautamaGotama Buddha a prince who renounces his way of life to quest for Truth Lumbini birthplace of the Buddha born out of his mother s side really adult from the beginning I Kapilavastu Sakyamuni of the Sakya clan Siddhartha another name for the Buddha quothe whose goal is accomplishedquot Bodhisattva I Jataka stories about the Buddha s many previous births I Nirvana nibbana 4 sites old age sickness death parivrajika ascetic I World renunciation I Bhiksu Bhikkhu Pasted from lellFU 39 39 39 39 rlnr Lectu re 020209 Monday February 02 2009 101 PM Items on toolkitcollab very important book what the budda taught READ IT the buddha was rich and had everything but left for what was really substantial in life He knew that it would be great for a while but then be over Buddha taught quot with an open hand Offers his knowledge to any one who wants it I He didn t use anything other than just himself going out and thinking about the world ls known as a doctor I The problem things don39t last forever if you don39t maintain it it will break Things break down Things die Nothing in the world that doesn39t have a limited life span Atman goal in hindu is too know that Atman Buddha says that it doesn39t exist Veda gt Atman Brahman Buddha although never denies it but infers that it39s not true and is a fiction 2 worlds of doctors fear and certainty The world of certainty is the science of medicine The world of fear is having to be right Budda has empirical knowledge that you can get on your own He says don t try it because it takes a long timeeons Atman doesn t exist because you cannot show what it does SEWhawsmnsmntwmangmz n quotma emmmsme msense Yhatghtsaresenmmns Yherexsnaan mlwunchangmz sensamn aueeung We mgr Decmseweareanamed HESWsm apena te nwwham anihmaws 3 a m avenencew am 5 hamdurunntnDswm ndlgwm mum mmmmammnnn m mnwmm am mmwnkmk m vumwmw mun munmnmndmn udnh rwuzmv m YAx mmrmu m mnmlml m away mum m mmmm WM 1n mumquot in m mm muavh w an m magnum m mm w my BMW V mmr mm mm mm 39 m m um mum mummm mm 1 mm 15me WW m m agumgnm m mm mm m m 5mm m I gammaquot Wm mm m mum 1 mm N 1 m m mum m a a Iqlwavmvuu39nnmmwlnmr run 5mm amp m mmn eulwnmaNLM w Wmmmw mme SuM n mm mm urnka m m mhkm mutka m nun Nnhk mm 1 Dukkha sanskrit duhkha the world is suffering There is pain in the world Pleasures ofthe world don t last forever In quot what the Buddha taughtquot On page 3 types of pain You want things to stay and they don39t 2 Samudaya that there is a source to suffering an arising The source of suffering is desire When you want something and can39t get it 3 Nirodha cessation a stop end to suffering You can stop suffering You can stop it within your life time 4 Magga quot a pathquot 0 quot roadquot you follow the path the 8 fold noble path 8 elements Follow Buddha39s path These 5 things change over time We exist but we don39t exist in a permanent way We are made up of forms 39 mental and 39 r r I mental 39 are 39 r 39 r are made very slowly and also can be made very quickly EX the stone has water trickled on it and eventually it will erode The perception and the awareness of the perception are 2 different things Buddha says there is nothing in the world that doesn39t change Lecture 020409 Wednesday February 04 2009 104 PM mmmm u Iiimom Allyn Tradmnm uammunu ham 31x hamuh nmluuw39 m m m m um nmmm mva w 11 mm mm ww FJH Samm 4 Blank m mamWm e ma LIQ 12 4INI mm m unmer m e man 4quot mm 1 11cm Mm a we quotmm m wmm mu 3 mummy mun W u hmurm mammummm eh WWW umNIvgwhrmm 7 mm hummer uhml mmmmWmm mum mum m x mm mmmn 39 ammnnmxmenm 3amp5 v me p mum hum Mvp l wdcm new n We mum Me quotmmmmmee mm me A mmvmm m u v u m plume marmmm mu and FILM plurmmmumnwnn m nu lw4rgu5 ind W W s ihnnwwmewrpm mmmmm mun wL M m mm c we M we mm mm wrung aha wwsdumrcun dence wnhthefear part he knuwscumpzssmn Thetwu wmgs ufthe Euddhwst we Kzrunz wmmpassmh Przjnz uw sdum lsltmngthe Buddha deswhen he curves mm a ruumtu teach sszy quesuuns u T achthem whanhey needtu knuw Arethere any ub e Path 7 swhzt the 41h nub etruth math abuut The aghuum N u Rg underizndm nuw edgeufthwrgszsthey2rewe4nubetruths huught t ht u ngh huughtsuf renunmztmn detachmem uve Een rHWEI EHCE u mght speech ehahfmm yhg ham speechfuuhsh guss p etc a mght 261mm mura huhurame aha peacem ECUDH mgnt hvehhuud thejubyuu du mgnt emn the energeuc w m prevent evH pruduce guud deve up guud mmd mgnt mmdm ness dmgem awarenessuf une sbudyfeehngs mmdthuughts mgnt cunnentratmn awareness uf unes breathmg yugm prawns p48ufthu z cm gt runans b uwmgum US resuf anger greed and de usmn rzrgergreedznd de uaun arethesuurcesuf smenng makng mn ufBrahmzns u Therezhzatmnthztyuu have nu 52V emuans dhz never cumesuuttu szythe Vedas arerubbwsh He duem t needtu He mmawmespukesjukeszt n n Buddha sthuught uf rezhty nothing lastslovzvzv smgenen utufnuthmg Nmnng Emlst tse f Nuthmg estlswwthuut 2 causa swan Everythmg sdependent upun utnennngsm em Przutyzszmutpzdz wmuependent manang ethere are 12 phases a thmgscume mm m Estlencem 2 cyde n M mnemmm Buddha the wand srez m u s cunazntw cnzrgng semen hvwnq takm 242uu91 41PM Rerezd thmz wnen yuu seesurnetnng en 52 genes uf events aggregates see zfurm Fee 2 sensater raght Suqu etc Recugmze senszuunwun 2 percemmn Create 2 rnentzwunnztmn urgenerzhzatmn ufthefurmswtuztmn Lecture 209 Mandav new us me J nu w gt nirvana the goal of Buddhism The goal is to end suffering Samsara a cycle of rebirth a cycle of suffering The answer to escape samsara is to achieve nirvana Nirvana a blowing out Significant consequences for your own salvation India had pure philosophy Thought is rarely linked to an end Except for an end being happiness Buddha says you won39t ask where the arrow came from when you get shot you39ll ask how to remove the arrow The Buddha is a man Which means we can be like him We are made up of parts and not one eternal soul You don t care where the parts came from Don t waste your time on the origin of the cosmos You don t need to know that Everything arises codependantly with something else Anatman no self No unchanging The parts that make u up are the parts that change Separate out the parts Tathagata Thus Gonequot EARLY BUDDHISM The streams separate And then the stream stops nirvana When 5 schumddas run out 4 noble truths Suffering Arising thirst DESIRE Cessation Path PWN A thought attached to desire is wising for the world to be something it39s not Whatever Pali similat to sansrikt sanskrit with marbles in mouth Is a language open to all people Buddist material written in Pali Pali quotbookquot Funny because brahamans don t write down anything P 115 116 SOIT and pg 80 of WTBT 10 precepts 5 for everybody 5 for monks Not killing Not steal No lust adutery No lying No drinking Lectu re notes 211 Wednesday February 11 2009 1258 PM review part of lecture Tathagata the hyphen is important gone thusly Buddha quotThathaquot thus quotgataquot gone Buddha has thus gone on to nirvana Macron is the horizontal line over letters What did the people do with the teachings of the Buddha after the Buddha left The Three Refuges 1 Buddha 2 Dharma Dhamma 3 Sangha the community of monks Bhikkhu bhiksu Skt gt term for quotmonkquot Arhat are ones that are enlightened They followed the path and became enlightened Letting woman become monks would increase the speed of the destruction of the dharma because women distract men in time the dharma the Buddha39s teachings will eventually fade away the monks ask for food from the laymen Lay vs clergy in Buddhism is similar to a university and community Lay commoners 5 additional precepts for monks Eat only before noon No singing and dancing No fancy clothes No soft high bed 10 No possessionsvaluable property 5000 The Three Baskets Tipitaka 1 Vinaya monstic rules 2 Sutta dicourses of the Buddha 3 Abhidhamma natureif the work How they sorted out what the Buddha taught Budda Born in Lumbini Enlightened in Bodhgaya Died in Kushinagara gt All of the important things were along the Ganges river because it had good farming good money good schooling and learning and a lot of ppl A lot teachings and schooling and important stuff along that river After enlightenment the Buddha walked to Saranath because that is where all of the intellectual Brahaman scholars are They built relics and stupas to worship They started the idea of worshiping relics During this period Buddhism is picking up because of and increase in trade Buddhism travels with the money and the trades Many relics at the crossroads of major trade routes lt spreads with global trade A Mauryan Emperor Ashoka 273 232BC the first Buddhist king Charkravartin quota turner of the whee Buddha is the 1st turner of the wheel Ashoka is the 2nd turner of the wheel He conquered almost all of India then converted to Buddhism and then had his empire converted to Buddhism A good king Spreads Buddhism through his governance Ashokan inscriptions he wrote about Buddhism On pillars and they are legible and the 1st written down He put these really tall pillars showing the boundaries of his kingdom and his governance Lectu re 216 Monday February 16 2009 102 PM For exam READ RAHULAl quotRAHULA IS THE KEY TO THE FIRST EXAMquot read the conza lifelegend of the Buddha toolkit KNOW ALL THE TERMS DISCUSSED IN LECTURE AND BE COMFORTABLE WITH THE IDEAS NOT A MULTIPLE CHOICE EXAM Lecture Terms 021609 Mahayana quotGreat Vehiclequot Hinayana quotLesser Vehiclequot Theravada quotDoctrine of the Eldersquot The Middle Way what the Buddha was said to practice A medium between two extremes Why his eyes are half opened half closed he sees everything and the world going around him but he s not attached to it His eyes aren t wide open in amazement but his eyes aren t closed denying it How does the Buddha legend tell us a story that illustrates Buddhist thought he almost starves himself but then says it s a waste of time doesn t want to go back to his palace and be pampered the rest of his life DY do it yourself Enlightenment is DY Early buddhism says buddha was here but now he39s gone All that is left is his teachings and your will to DY Arahant enightened people 3 refuges Refuge in the buddha Refuge in the darhma Refuge in the sanga Bodhisattva buddha39s other lives Prajna quotwisdomquot and karuna quotCompassionquot there was the idea that he is so passionate that he will return out of compassion to help others and guide them towards nirvana the desire to become enlightened Isn39t that a desire but that39s a good desire to have It39s a pure desire but there39s still that paradox to be true buddha is to even give up the desire for enlightenment and help everyone else inn achieving their enlightenment The forgo their path to enlightenment until others have achieved theirs that39s the bodhisattva vows what the path to enlightenment became The buddha himself was a bodhisattva Some vow to return back into the world again and again to help others So the idea the there is only one Buddha per age Now there are many bodhisattva Reincarnated enlightened ones Modern Buddhism sees authority in the bodhisattva In early buddhism any way to enlightenment is the dharma Tathaagata the term is ambiguous Gam gone Agam come back So It can be interpreted as the thus come back one Mahayana and the Hinayana Theravada never fight or argue or get into a war about each other They can live under the same roof with different ideas Sanghabheda splitting of the monastic community Division of the monastic community Problems come when they want to separate Think what you like but don39t break up the order Lectu re 218 Wednesday February 18 2009 103 PM beginning of lecture showing a picture of a statue of gt Buddha a series of images EXAM 1 ID questions explain terms What it means and why it matters quotwhat and so whatquot Short Essay no bullet points use complete sentences there will be a passage from one of the readings probably Lopez need to know what is the significance of the passage and explain it with Buddhist philosophy Best way to study practice Might be 2 passages to choose from 3 Long Essay will be a fundamental question about early Buddhism Make sure you put in everything you can think of The more terms correctly included Error on the side of adding stuff This is the most important part Try to fit as much as you can into it b Do include intro and conclusion paragraphs N gt BRING A BLUE BOOK lt TRY TO FILL THE BLUE BOOK WITH WRITING Mahayana Arahant vs Bodhisattva Arahant someone who gains enlightenment from the Buddhas39 teachings After they obtain enlightenment they39re done They have obtained their goal They don39t become teachers Bodhisattva they try to teach as many people as they can Desiring enlightenment before others is selfish To answer is to be interested in knowledge and awakening others They vow to help others before they themselves achieve it Bodhisattvas come back into the world they come back to Samsara Samsara nirvana quotthe world is what you think of itquot Samsara is only a world of suffering depending how you look at it The world is only as it appears Nagarjuna c 150 CE a famous Mahayana thinker Applies the idea that nothing is permanent to samsara and nirvana For it to be totally different they would not be constantly changing Svabhava essence Neither samsara nor nirvana have an essence Nothing exists interdependently so nirvana must rely on something quotThe problem is in the mind Not in the worldquot gtal about thoughts THIS IS VERY CONFUSING DEFINITELY REVIEW discussion Friday February 20 2009 106 PM Exam Don t need to know accents Can use the English translations Email TA if questions arise Some bodhisattva39s are enlightened some are not They are trying to give up the desire to achieve enlightenment An enlightened bodhisattva returns even though they are enlightened in order to help others Upaya skillful means if we use in exam we get extra credit 5 points the buddha is enlightened and he teaches in different means in order to help others He is being skillful in his practice in order He teaches in a way that is not obvious to us but is known to him It is easiest to achieve enlightenment as a human Because you are kind of in the middle and see both sides The end goal in Therevada is enlightenment in yourself The end goal in Mahayana is enlightenment for the world Lecture 22309 Monday February 23 2009 102 PM Nagarjuna created a way to analyze reality it39s real Its not real Its not not real lts both real and not real It is neither real nor not real brings you to a mind set to see the word in a particular way just see the world for what it is Samsara and Nirvana are here equally It is out mind set and how we see the world that determines Mahayana greater vehicle Hinayana lesser vehicle what they are called But they call them selves Theravada doctrine of the elders Bodhisattva Desire for enlightenment is desire Vows are a type of tapasya bodhisattva vow that they will not obtain nirvana until every other being does they are reborn out of compassion They are reborn quotherequot this world the world of Samsara bodhisattva also make the claim that Samsara Nirvana They are not the same but they are equal They exist in relation to each other Nirvana exists in relation to Samsara You only know the world in which you don39t suffer because you know the world in which you do suffer Svabhava quotnaturequot or quotnaturequot everything that exists has a cause of its existence Everything has a source Everything exists in relation to everything else anatman no self Sunyata quotEmptinessquot the world Hinduism 4 castes brahmana ksatriya s
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