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Week 2 Notes

by: Alessandra Piccone

Week 2 Notes CHEM 2070

Alessandra Piccone
General Chemistry I
Crane, B; Wolczanski, P

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About this Document

Notes From Ch. 10 in the textbook, General Chemistry along with notes from lectures 5, 6, and 7.
General Chemistry I
Crane, B; Wolczanski, P
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alessandra Piccone on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 2070 at Cornell University taught by Crane, B; Wolczanski, P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Cornell University.

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Date Created: 09/21/15
1011010 A Combination Reaction is the reaction of two substances to form a single product Combination reaction reactants combine to form a single product 0 can occur between compounds Volatile more readily vaporized than ionic solids and consequently tend to have lower melting and boiling points 0 covalent compounds tend to be more volatile Combustion Reactions one in which a substance or fuel is burned in oxygen or some other oxidizer 0 can be used to remove carbon dioxide or sulfur trioxide from the air Polyatomic lons Remain lntact in Aqueous Solution polyatomic ion a charged species consisting of to or more atoms held together by covalent bonds 0 constituents of many ionic substances oxyanions anions involving nonmetals combined with oxygen 0 Rules If a nonmetal forms two possible anions with oxygen the one with the fewer number of oxygen atoms has the suffix ite and the greater number of oxygen atoms has the suffix ate attached to the root of the nonmetals name ex nitrite and nitrate If the nonmetal forms three possible anions with oxygen the prefix hypo and the suffix ite are attitude to the root of the nonmetal s name with the fewest number of Then follow rule one and add the prefix per and the suffix ate to the io with the greatest number of oxygen atoms ex oxychloro atoms oxyanions that contain hydrogen are named by placing the word hydrogen before the name of the anion When there is more than one hydrogen atom the number is designated by a greek prefix di tri and so on Some Metal Oxides Yield Bases and Some hydrogencontaining compounds yield acids when combined with water hydroxide ions OH Base a compound that yields hydroxide ions when dissolves in water inert unreactive 0 many metal oxides do no react in water so they do not form basic solutions acid a compound that yields hydrogen ions when dissolved in water Hydrogen ion H aq o H ions exist in water in various forms Hydronium ion H30 is the most common form Acidic Hydrogen atoms aka acidic protons the hydrogen atoms in the chemical formula of acids that yield H monoprotic acid it has one acidic proton nitric acid HN03 aq Diprotic acid two cidic protons sulfuric acid H2804 aq triprotic acid three acidic protons polyprotic acids acids that have more than one acidic proton oxyacids because their chemical formulas contain oxygen atoms 0 if the name of the anion ends in ite then the corresponding acid name ends in ous acid 0 if the name of the of the anion ends in ate then the corresponding acid name ends in ic acid binary acids consist of only two elements organic acids soluble organic substances with a lewis formula that contains the fictional group COOH carboxylic acids gt formic acid and acetic acid acidic solution 0 tastes sour o produce hydrogen ions when dissolved in water 0 neutralized bases to produce salts and water 0 solutions turn blue litmus paper red 0 react with metals to produce hydrogen basic solution taste botter feel slippery to touch 0 O o produce hydroxide ion when dissolved in water 0 neutralize acids to produce salts in water 0 solutions turn red litmus blue litmus paper provides us with the means to perform a quick test to see whether a solution is acidic or basic In a decomposition reaction a substance is broken down into two or more less complex substances decomposition reaction opposite of a combination reaction because it involves the breaking apart of a substance into simpler substances Hydrates Result from a combination reaction between water and an anhydrous salt hydrates water containing compounds the waters of hydration the water molecules in a hydrate anhydrous salt the resulting salt when the waters of a hydration are removed hygroscopic strongly absorb water even from the atmosphere desiccants drying agents 0 hygroscopic salts can be used as desiccants for other substances see table 107 for a list pg 323 106 In a SingleReplacement Reaction One element in a compound is Replaced by Another single replacement aka substitution reaction a reaction in which an element in a compound is replaced by another element 0 ex 2Mg l TiCl4 g gt 2MgCl2 s Ti s active metals metals that react with acids 0 an acid can attack active metals and produce hydrogen 107 Metals can be ordered in terms of relative activity based on single replacement reactions activity series see table 108 page 325 0 metal of greater activity will displace an aqueous metal ion of less active metal smelting the production of metals from their ores which are often metal oxides or compounds such as sulfides that are readily convertible to oxides 0 ex 3C s 2Fe203 s gt 4 Fe 3C02 g 108 The Relative Activity of the Halogens ls F2 gt Cl2gt Br2gt l2 109 In a double replacement reaction the cations and anions of two ionic compounds exchange to form new compounds Precipitate an insoluble product of a reaction that occurs in solution doublereplacement reaction 0 ex NaCI AgNO3 gt NaNO3 AgCI precipitation reaction a double replacement reaction involving the formation of a precipitate driving force 0 the formation of an insoluble precipitate drives a precipitation reaction toward the product side of the reaction see table 109 for the solubility rules net ionic equation used to describe doublereplacement reactions that occur in solution by not including the spectator ions in the chemical equation 0 spectator ions ions initially in the solution that remain unchanged in the product solution complete ionic equation chemical equation where all of the ions are involved 1010 An acid base reaction is an example 0 a double replacement reaction neutralized neutralization reaction chemical reaction between and acid and a base salt the ionic compound formed along with water in a neutralization reaction 30863 PVG rbn QCLCPmrS I produca hqdmxwe OH m oxide on LS a sfrongbascu x a O L0C w has M 3 Lacy W 439 HZOUL W acid kl q0 quot 3 WV quotquot quot add m 3 m 5mm on O H cqm W W 0 95 MV Ittmq 4 Ochmgww w Wquot M AM ab W kecmm c5 Isa ex Acid 4505 Cxchanac 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