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Materials That Shape Our Civilization

by: Jamison Kirlin

Materials That Shape Our Civilization MSE 2010

Marketplace > University of Virginia > Materials Science Engineering > MSE 2010 > Materials That Shape Our Civilization
Jamison Kirlin
GPA 3.77


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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamison Kirlin on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MSE 2010 at University of Virginia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see /class/209595/mse-2010-university-of-virginia in Materials Science Engineering at University of Virginia.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Virginia Electrons and Bonding p l Lecturer Leonid V Zhigilei some things can be the one with other coupled and held linked by hooks and eyes as 39twere and this seems more the fact with iron and this stone Lucretius 9555 BC A E aramid r fibebrs 39 car on a x 2 fibers 6 n 0 o A gt compOSItes 1 I I an 1 C on E wood h stone oI 0 L U V V 1800 1900 2000 Year It was understanding of atomiclevel structure and interatomic bonding in materials that induced an explosive progress in properties of materials Introduction Why the individual atoms coalesce into larger structures and take on the characteristics and properties of many different materials People were trying to answer this question for well over two millennia since the time of the atomic hypothesis of Democritus 440 BC Roman poet Lucretius wrote in De Rerum Natura On the Nature of Things What seems to us the hardened and condensed Must be of atoms among themselves more hooked Be held compacted deep within as 39twere By branchlike atoms of which sort the chief Are diamond stones despisers of all blows And stalwart int and strength of solid iron John Dalton 17661844 found the evidence of those quothooks in his quantitative chemical measurements making the foundation of modern atomic theory of matter In this lecture we will discuss the nature of the hooks that keep atoms together in materials and see how the diversity of the existing types of hooks or types of the interatomic bonding leads to the diverse properties of materials that surround us The bonding mechanisms between atoms are closely related to the structure of the atoms themselves Therefore we will begin our discussion of bonding with a short review of atomic structure We will review what the quantum theory says on how electrons fill atomic orbitals and how the electron configurations in atoms are represented in the periodic table This review will give us the necessary background for discussion of different different types of bonding in materials We will also consider how the bonding defines the atomic arrangements and the physical properties of the resulting materials actually the idea that everything is made of distinct atoms has been a subject of skeptical discussions as recently as the beginning of the twentieth century before Einstein s observation of Brownian motion in 1905 and Max von Laue s observation of the diffraction of Xrays by crystals in 1912 provided strong support for the atomistic theory DepumemanatszsSmmedengxmenng EIEckunsandEundmg p z Umvem yanym mm mde mm WWW mmmm w mmm W ma mmmw Mm ymtnmandnzlmnmlamn nucleus mgethzx Wm wk Nuku fumes ma m lzctmsmc fumes hnld m elastmns amnnd m mlcluls c as unmmmmmgmmwmms M mm mm 6 x Wycth mmwmmwm pmmm m mamass 1 57mm mnh m hu ndmm m have 5 MM W Massafanelzcrmmsmwh mallzx911gtltl kg and mum mu snub mglectedmcdc amnahmmc mass comm yves chzmlcal mmmmmmg 212mm 5mm xepxesenmmnafthz Eahumm pxumn mm nulnhuZ mum dz ms 15am number afelzmzms m dzmmmzdbythzudnnuniz magmanu 12th mm I a I M 7 2 m amm wnhelzcrmns mm mts hanks m 5 mm plamtnrysyslem Em quantum mcmcs39 an 5 mm ths y a v u mnmsbm amycansaywhansthz pmbabmiyaf ndmg n Msamz mm fmmthz mule mm ax shz can accammndme Duly maxme number afelectmns thh 15 dztznnmzd by qunmm mamas In bnef m masl mm mm can accammndam Duly m elecmns sand 7 gnumm and pinned upwards um um um 11 mm mu dump ghzmuu m Ispumhk uxhurding shims Thls transferenceshaan afelzcrmns result masrmng bandmg swung Mums as we w seebelnw M q 1 y w k h v m afammsandelectmns mm Lam rcawny 5mm Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Virginia Electrons and Bonding p 3 Lecturer Leonid V Zhigilei nd 4 All 1 an M 22quot 215 wilw39w o iwze 671 41 T 49444421904 WW 4 may E11 724quot 441 212 2 1129 r W39 5 4113 A n 4 Ar M Wm 21 m r werWM 2 i 31 m 1451 132 43 maMW39 39 39 14th my Draft of the periodic table Mendeleev 1869 w The first accepted periodic table of elements was published in 1869 by Mendeleev In the same year a German chemist Lothar Meyer independently published a very similar table but his contribution is generally ignored All elements in the periodic table have been classified according to the electron con guration Elements in the same column Elemental Group share similar properties Group number indicates the number of electrons available for bonding For example VIII Inert gases He Ne Ar have filled subshells chemically inactive l Alkali metals Li Na have one electron in outermost occupied s subshell eager to give up electron 7 chemically active VH Halogens F Br Cl missing one electron in outermost occupied p shell want to gain electron chemically active I VIII Period 1 4 H He K Shell 1 III IV V VI VII 2 7 9 11 12 14 1s 19 20 Penodz Li Be B c N o F Ne L Shell 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 23 24 27 23 31 32 35 40 Perl d3 Na Mg A1 S1 P s 1 Ar NIShell 11 13 14 15 16 17 1s peri d4 39 40 4s 48 51 52 55 56 59 59 64 as 70 73 75 79 0 84 N Sh K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 39 e 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 23 29 30 31 32 33 34 5 36 Periods 85 88 89 91 93 95 98 101 103 105 ms 112 115 119 122 123 127 131 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag d 1 Sn Sb Te I Xe O39Shell 37 38 39 4o 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 4s 49 50 51 52 55 56 Pe ad 133 137 139 178 181 181 186 190 192 195 197 201 204 207 209 210 210 222 P Sb 1 C5 Ba La Hf Ta Re s Ir P1 Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 39 e 55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 7s 79 30 a1 32 83 34 85 86 Perm 223 2226 27 21151 262 Iquot a C u a Q39Shem 87 as 89 104 105 Depamnent ofMaten39als Science and Enginccn39ng University ofVirginia Electrons and Bonding p 4 Lecturer Leonid v zhigilci ionic bond between Na and Cl atoms Ionic bonding in NaCl crystal Tyges ofBonding ture of atoms de nes the character of Filled outer shells le tr ea Strong prim bonding rcsults from electron sharing or transfcr Below we will discuss thrcc 39 39 39 coval nt andm talli r r Ionic Bonding typical for clcmcnts that arc situatcd at thc horizontal cxtrcmitics of thc periodic tablc oms from thc 1ctt metals are ready to give up thcir walcncc clcctrons to thc nonmetallic atoms from thc right that ctrons b an Oppositely chargcd aoms strong coulombic intcraction Let us considcr tablc salt NaC Y are attracted by 1 as an example ofionic matcrial Na has 11 electrons 1 more than needed for a full outer shc11 e 11 Protons amp 152 252216 351 donates e39 11 Protonst 1522522 10 W Cl has 17 electron 1 less than needed for a full outer shc11 Argon 17 Protonsg ls2 252736 352315 gt rccciycs c 17 Protons c1 ls2 zs2 216 3523 18 e39 A strong electIostatic attraction between positively chargcd Na ions and ncgativcly chargcd c1 atoms along with Na Na and c1 c1 rcpulsion rcsult in thc NaCl structurc which is anangcd so that cach sodium n is surroun e 39 Ions and cach Na ion is d d on d y 1 ions see sunoun e by c1 thc gure on thc 1ctt Any mcchanical force that tries to disturb thc elec 39cal balancc in an ionic crystal meets strong rcsistancc ionic matenals ar ong and brittlc howcycr signi cant plastic deformation c cg NaCl singlc crystals can bc bcnt by hand in watcr Electrons andBondlng p 5 Lecturer LeonldV Zhlgllel De artment ofMaterrals Serenee and Englneenng Unwersrty of Vlrglnla A n r K Q o t u y no 39 r J gave V W Senemaue representauon othe formauon of eovalent bondln c12 moleeule quot I Dlamond eaen c atom has four eovalentbonds s wrtn four other earbon atom Eleetxon eloud from valenee eleetxons Metallre bondlng s type o sa ar Cnvalent Banding In tlu e atom Th of bondlng eleetrons e shared between Lh turate tlne valeney e es t em ost ofthe ume ln example o leetrons an eovalent on s Dlamond nas tlne threerddmenslonal rntereonneetrng strueture ln wlnreln eaen earbo forms 4 eovalent bonds wrtln otlner earbon atoms gure on tlne le eleetrons tlnat spend m between Let us eonsrder dlamond as an materlal Carbon has 4 valenee e n ao see the spaghetulrke strueture of solld polyetln Four ov alent yl ene bonds for eaen earbon atom hnndin Metallic g enee eleetrons ln a metal eombrne to form a or as a g ls pe ofbondmgls none nsrtwe to strueture As a ave a n etrlrty ofmetals e tlne b quot do quot en at ms are rearrange ean enpenenee a slgnlflcant degree ofplasnc luequot onal s ratner lnse result we n lgh du onds ot e etals deformauon Examples of metals wrtln typreal metallre bondlng Cu Au Ag ete Transrtron metals Fe Nr ete form alent bonds lnvolvlng Lhelr 3 relectxons As a result tlne transrtron metals are more bnttle less dueule tlnatAu or O


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