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Introduction to Media Studies

by: Geovanni Spinka PhD

Introduction to Media Studies MDST 2000

Marketplace > University of Virginia > Media Studies > MDST 2000 > Introduction to Media Studies
Geovanni Spinka PhD
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This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geovanni Spinka PhD on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MDST 2000 at University of Virginia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/209604/mdst-2000-university-of-virginia in Media Studies at University of Virginia.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
Media and Identity Tuesday October 21 2008 1121 AM Who am the answer is identity Also asking who I39m not and how I39m different from them The question of Identity became really important in 195039s Had just gone through the great depression economy exploded major conflicts Question of quotwho I amquot began with young ppl Why because there was fear of regimentation and loss of identity Men began working for big companies American individualism went against conformity Henry Ford thought that if I can pay my workers enough money they can buy the cars they make Fordism if you pay them a decent wage they39ll buy the stuff they are making Mass consumption only works if everyone wants the same things But if we all want the same thing how can we be individuals today we still have the same fears working in an office cubicle Mass media is essential in supplying the templates in how we can conform Mass media has the ability to produce people39s social identities in terms of both a sense of unity and difference see Mediamaking page 220 Media plays an important role in our identities as consumers o The idea of an audience for mass media is not natural 0 Print media can get an idea of how many consumers they had 0 Electronic media had no way of measuring the number of consumers and their audience 0 There are taste cultures ppl who like the same kind of products 0 Life style cultures are understood as a mixture of demographic categories and taste and styles 0 In the US we use the same advertising that we use for toothpaste as we do for the presidential race 0 quotWhy do we sell candidates the way we sell productsquot 0 Voting is another form of consumption Thinking about ourselves as consumers is unnatural 0 We are what we consume 0 We judge other ppl by what they consume 0 Media plays an important role in cultural identity Cultural identities Tuesday October 28 2008 1105 AM quotOne of the things that every university tries to accomplish is to bind students together into a common identity with common loyaltiesquot MediaMaking page 232 0 Sporting events for example are one of the things that binds and brings ppl together as a single group When a country goes to war the country has to convince the citizens that their primary Identification is being from that country 0 we are Americans We have that in commonid Media and behavior Tuesday October 28 2008 1131 AM Does watching a commercial want you to buys things you don39t need Does watching violent movies or listening to violent music make you more violent Does media cause changes in behavior Columbine did the media make them do it Society was changing Family and friends and personal connections kept society together Now you don39t need that Now there are fears of quotmass societyquot Mass communication and social control look at Nazi Germany and Soviet Union Panic from the war of the worlds radio broadcast The effect of media is not uniform It depends on the background of each person Impact of media on children Findings are almost always the same the impact on each child depends its depends on the different variables of how and when they watch it Election talk Wednesday October 29 2008 1212 PM How many times did Franklin D Roosevelt run for president 4 times FDR ran against Wendell Wilkie 1940 election EC 3 other ppl FDR ran against the other times gt Herbert Hoover Alf Flandan Thomas Dewey David Buckingham said page 334 in text book quotthe debate about children and media violence is really a debate about other thins many of which have very little to do with the media It isquot Media has an impact on the way we run campaigns and elections The radio was feared to cause mass media followings and a lot of fear came with it Fear for it to be an instrument of propaganda Like what happened in Nazi Germany FDR first to use mass communication radio They studied the effect of the media by asking ppl before FDR started campaigning and then looked to see if that persons39 opinion changed only 54 switched to Hypodermic or quotMagic bulletquot Model of mass communication Lazarsfeld et al The People39s Choice 1944 o quotFor while people hesitate and meditate and imagine that they decide rationally on the better road to take it would often have been possible to predict at the outset what they would decide to do in the end Knowing a few of their personal characteristics we can tell with fair certainty how they will finally vote they join the fold to which they belongquot What Role Do Media Play in Elections 0 Activation active ppl 0 Reinforcement reinforce prior beliefs 0 Conversion don39t convert ppl 0 quotReal Doubtersquot very rare Early childhood socialization 0 You pick early political beliefs from parents church teachers early on in childhood quotProfessors39 Liberalism Contagious Maybe notquot 0 New York Times November 3 2008 there is a fear that the professors at college are transforming students into liberals 0 Three sets of researchers recently concluded that professors have virtually no impact on the political views and ideology of their students 0 When it comes to shaping a young person39s political views quotit is really hard to change the mind of anyone over 15quot said Mr Mayer who did extensive research on faculty and students Now media is beginning to socialize ppl because of younger and younger TV exposure Elections as Plebiscites on the Economy Washington Post October 26 2008 52 now call the economy their top voting concern Among quoteconomy votersquot Obama continues to hold a substantial lead 61 to 36 o Those who believe the Media activates ppl and reinforce preexisting predispositions Media activates and then reinforces Conversion the changing of minds never really happens Media and Politics Tuesday November 11 2008 1103 AM Bring midterm exam to section possibly a question graded wrong Elections are rituals Changing election rituals 0 Early 20th century is when secret ballots were introduced And there used to be property requirements and race and gender restrictions Voting was a public act Elections were public acts there was no form of registration Hence why it would be a turn out of over 100 dead ppl voted Voting is like going to the toilet Don39t talk about what you are about to do The more secret we make voting the more it becomes like a transmission model And less it is a ritual 0 We conduct our election like we are doing a private act Candidates as commodities John Mccain lost becuz the economy was failing and republicans had been in power when this Does the media matter o You have to ask 39how do w find out how do we get out info Reporters followed candidates and write about them But they have very limited access 0 They tailor their campaigns based 0 The campaigns of each party are extremely important Globalization Tuesday December 02 2008 1104 AM final exam December 9 912pm 30 multiple choice Os 4 out of 5 essay quotGlobalization is about an awareness of the world as a whole and one39s place within it an awareness ultimately connected with global processes of economics politics and culturequot Mediamaking p423 o Media globalization is not new shellac records shellac flakes from India the tango Tango records from Argentina 0 The tango was the first world music o Britain was the lst record company because it had india to get shellac from to make records Communicating from one culture to another is not new world markets were kept and maintained by military power o Military force is still a significant aspect of globalization Cultural imperialism o quotcultural imperialism is the idea that empires can be maintained if not created by means other than military conquest and occupation It is the idea that if one could control the culture of another people their ideologies values styles and meanings then one could more easily control the people themselvesquot Mediamaking p 427 o Is developed to point at the US for exercising imperial control by exporting it39s media onto other countries 0 Disney cartoons and comics imposed cultural imperialism and imposed ideas Dutch cartoon of Donald Duck talks about downloading music 0 With McDonalds it39s very similar menus all over the world Customers have learned the ways of McDonalds all over the world consumers have become complicit to quotMcDonaldizationquot this is not limited to McDonlads They want us to behave certain was as customers And without thinking comply to what they want their customers to do Deskilling workers workers no longer need to read or crunch numbers touch screen cash registers Last Lecture notes globalization Thursday December 04 2008 1103 AM Telecommunication mcdonald39s uses this to monitor product consumption Amusing ourselves to death agaai RFID how clothes and prouducts are tagged and tracked in stores But in the future it could be possible that they could track us and know everything we do Also companies could The future of media are not yet written gt but possibly contraints and a lot Chapter 8 Producing Identities 0 Introduction 0 Sense of identity OOO Politically citizens of a public Socially expemplars of social rolesfathers children teachers Culturally semiotic systems of differences BlackWhite malefemale Economically consumers and members of an audience Audience market for media Audience fans and members of subculture How notions of audience and of identity actually involve an image of the entire process of communication 0 Constructing the Audience as Market 0 The Audience as Market Consumers A market identifies a subset of the population as potential consumers of a particular identifiable product or set of products Markets vary according to size duration market for latest hit film vs films in general stability and flexibility market for television is more stable and flexible than market for network television Market identities heavy metal teenage boys soap operas adult women Market type media consumermedia producer has in mind the type of person who will purchase or tune in to that product Part of identity defined by participation in market How to describe market types 0 DEMOGRAPHICS 0 Quantitative description of a population according to a set of social or sociological variables 0 Age race gender income level education level employment category place of residence geographic region type of residence 0 TASTE CU LTU RE 0 Importance continuing commitment of a group of people to some type of product Science fiction fans who always want something new Hard to define music consumers by demographics but can define by classical music market or country westernern market 0 How radio stations operatecontemporary hits station rap pop music etc o LIFESTYLE CLUSTERS o A mixture of demographic categories and consumption habits or tastes o Represents a segment of the population that tends to purchase and use certain kinds of products or to make certain kinds of decisions 0 Yuppie OO O O I Young urban professional with a disposable income 0 Groups in population whose members have several characteristics in commonspend money at same time in similar ways Major effect of media in twentieth century is people think of themselves as consumers I Creates a consumer society by encouraging people to locate their identity in their leisure tastes and consumer practices rather than other roles like jobs or church membership I Ideological message is that what we buy says more about who we are than other factsredefinition of selfidentity 0 MEDIA ARE PART OF A LIFESTYLE AND ONE OF THE WAYS THE LIFESTYLES ARE PRODUCED AND PROMOTED 0 MEDIA REINFORCE THE POWER OF THE MARKET OVER IDENTITY AND PRODUCE THE DENTTES O Origins of American consumer society Social changes that were the product of economic development between 1880 and 1920 Economic political and cultural questions were transformed into bureaucratic decisions for experts Assembly line mass production Advertising and marketing research were introduced to maximize and rationalize the consumer habits of the new consumers Had to make them think of themselves as consumers Labor protests immgration red scares advertising mass media consumer society are placed into crisis as new source of social control and harmony 0 Gave people sense that having access to commodities would improve their lifestyle and social status 0 Social problems could be solved by working on self The Audience as Market Commodity Commodity is an object produced in order to be sold for a product Media produce an audience for their products Audiences created specifically for ads why heavy metal and rap are underrepresented on radiobecause audiences of that music aren t as attractive to advertisers Part of reason audiences are so easily commodified is beacause of audience loyalty to certain media celebrities and products Cultural Identities Introduction Cultural identity 0 Individuals are members of one or more social groups that define their identity I Social identity 0 Three questions role of media implicit in all three 0 Where do such categories of identity come from and what do they signify o What does it mean to belong to or be a member of a particular social group How is such membership determined Biologically assigned Socially positioned Culturally interpellated o What is the content or meaning of the categories and how are these meanings themselves determined 0 Two theories of identity that respond to the questions 0 ESSENTIALIST VIEW I Assumes that the categories of identity are natural necessary and universal Assumes that every category exists naturally in and of itself I Blackness exists whether or not any other racial category exists I Meaning of category is determined ahead of time I Could be determined by genes anatomy of body determining history common roots in Africa Representation is a matter of accuracy versus stereotyping Struggle over representation is in offering one fully constituted separate and distinct identity in place of another 0 ANTIESSENTIALISTVIEW I Rejects assumptions of the first I No single physical trait or genetic marker to separate the human population into quotracesquot I Greater genetic differences within races than between them I Denies the existence of authentic identities based in a universally shared origin or experience I Argues that categories of identity are culturally constructed and can be understood relationally I ldentity is unstable and temporary I Recognizes that there are differences in people but that they become important and visible because of the communicative codes of society 0 Representation as Stereotypes I Stereotypes pictures in our heads of the identity of groups of people 0 We deal with the diversity of the world by categorizing the world into types and learning how to respond to types rather than individuals Media are a major source of these pictures The Celluloid Closet 0 Portrayal of gays and lesbiansreflected a mainstream sensibility 0 Presented as tortured and selfhating and later as tragic figures 0 Nowadays gay and lesbian characters are more successful integrated but still framed for the comfort of mainstream audiences Changing role of Blacks in media when present at all 0 1920s quotmammyquot and llBlack fool I 0 Doors open for Hollywood stars in 1960sSidney Poitier 0 1960s and 1970s still had quotblaxploitationquot films Shaft racist and stereotypical 0 1980s Black filmmakers Spike Lee show challenging alternative portrait of Black life in America and racist currents o Understood along with the real struggles over civil rights in American society 0 Part of success in civil rights movement was from footage of peaceful marches as well as racist violence in South shown on television 0 Pressure groups demanded positive representation 0 Black professionals rose up into creative and economic control in media industries Other stereotypes still exist Hispanics women Arabs Can effect selfesteem of those being stereotypes help determine the way some people think of and behave to that group images become reality Complaints over how AIDS is portrayed in media THINKING ABOUT STEREOTYPES MAKES US ASK WHETHER A STEREOTYPE IS AN ACCURATE PORTRAYALOF A PARTICULAR GROUPBUT THIS QU ESTION ALREADY ASSU MES THAT THIS GROU PING OF PEOPLE IS INEVITABLE AND NATURAL THAT ITS IDENTITY IS STABLE AND EXISTS INDEPENDENTLY OF HOW IT IS REPRESENTED IN CULTURAL CODES AND IN THE MEDIA 0 Asking about image of Blacks on television assumes that all quotBlacks I have the same identity 0 Are P Diddy Clarence Thomas Bill Cosby and Tiger Woods essnetially the same because they are Black Representation as Cultural Construction What is read as sex and race are signs on the surface of the bodygenetic diversity is more complex Gender identity certain characteristics come to be thought of as masculine or feminine Categories of identity are products of cultural codessome aspects of body are turned into signifiersreations of difference Conclusion EXNOMINATED o The norm is treated as if it were neutral 0 Does not appear to be an identity at all 0 Black measured against an assumed neutral Whitness that is rarely marked as race INTERPELLATION o The process by which individual are given identities by being placed into one of a binary pair SU BJECTIVITY o The sense of existing both at the center of and apart from any particular experience Lets people reflect on their experience and their place in the world You occupy the center of your own field of vision and experienceseem natural and true Process works to produce people s sense of themselves as human subjects and to put them in the various culturally constructed categories of identity Cultural codes and the media articulate the meanings of the various positions people occupy Media actively constructs the meanings and expectations associated with particular social identites 0 Meaning of llyoung Black man linked to a host of threatening associations Women have different hormones but can t contribute their identity in culture to this 0 Nothing inherent in being a woman that determines the connotations of identity as weak emotional illogical etc o Influences people s actions Images of women for example aren t portratyed in a simple homogenous message 0 Media is becoming increasingly important in constructing people s identities 0 People begin to develop more fragmented and fluid sense of their own identites o People s identities are less stable and unified than they were in previous generations 0 People have less commitment to any single identity than previous generations Chapter 11 Media and Politics A Thumbnail History of the News Historian Mitchell Stephens impossible to find any society past or present wo a thirst for news From the American colonial period through the first third of C20 h newspapers main means for news delivery but people had limited access to newspapers and newsp had limited accesses to information News was opinion Most important were notices of availability of goods on ships docking in river or harbor Mostly commerce trade and politics C 19 h transformed from class media to mass media higher production more literacy Popular democracy is the valued form of govt and individuals and press have right to preserve and extend it Content more focused on crime human interests and sensational content and more llup to date ie news is more recent When things came into their own Newspapers w attack on Fort Sumter at beginning of Civil war Radio at FDR s address where he asked for congress to declare war on Japan TV at death of JFK when regular broadcasting was preempted Cable TV when US etc bomb Baghdad during Persian Gulf War lnternet landing of Mars Pathfinder Media became more neutral and news became less politically colored News became facts and opinions were labeled as such Progressive era era of pop reform where many historians popularized and glorified science scientific management and the importance of the expert News Today Webster defn news information about anything previously unknown recent happenings esp those broadcasted over radio etc Melvin Maencher 7 factors that determine newsworthiness impact timeliness prominence proximity the bizarre conflict and currency British journalist anything with royalty sex or religion Reporters have a hard time defining news themselves Categories soft and hard Hard is breaking news soft is less timebound Further categories spot news that develops unexpectedly and suddenlydeveloping and continuing Origins for stories gt Naturally occurring events that are not predictable and journalists must respond after the fact gt Created and subsidized news that occurs when a person group or organization does something news worthy gt Enterprise news when journalist act rather than react Beat coverage and investigative journalism Beat system reporters assigned to particular topic or specialty and most are geographic 23rds of stories in NY Times and Wash Post originate in news releases handouts and docs provided by news sources Journalists often turn to sources who are in a position to know what is going on or who have valuable insight into current events 20 of stories newspapers have on hand will appear 5 for Wash Post and NY Times etc 1 for network news Large majority of stories come from wire such as AP Intermediate agenda setting follow cues provided by news suppliers or opinion leaders w in the news industry Standardization of news front page of newspaper is not that different from news on TV or radio newsmen are constrained by values they share each works for organ that determines what news is each organ operates is larger news environment in which organizations are influencing their own news decisions many news outlets owned by same people 0 News is a report Raw occurrences must be made into news Political Behavior 0 On average about V of Americans vote in pres elections in primaries 15 where campaign buttons 19 worked in political campaign 0 A person who is high on one variable is likely to be high on others and vice versa 0 The information rich get richer and the information poor get poorer 0 Level of educations predicts how much we know about a topic and how much we are motivated to learn 0 Predicts quality and quantity of media attention we pay it to and how able we are to learn new information ED Hirsch cutura literacy 0 Solid majority of voters have made up their mind on who to vote for before candidate was officially nominated The Opinion Leader Concept 0 Two step model of Elihu Katz and Paul Lazasfeld ideas flow from radio print etc to opinion leaders and from opinion leaders to followers 0 Opinion leaders gather information from the media to craft persuasive arguments o The flow can actually be multistep or even one step When the Voters decide 0 Early deciders those who make up their mind earlier identify with major party partisan pay close attention to political media well informed about politics 0 Campaign deciders less partisan somewhat less interested in politics pay less attention etc more likely to follow during campaigns 0 Late or last minute deciders least partisan and least likely to follow politics in general Most susceptible to media influence Endorsements and Advertising 0 Endorsements have impact that is modest in size esp at presidential level 0 In John Robinson s study endorsements in presidential elections had biggest impact in landslide 0 Make more of an impact and more local level elections 0 Being sold a candidate and behavior sought is a vote 0 Political advertising tends to be comparative and frequently negative Daisy ad and Willie Horton commercial 0 Works best in two candidate race The Agenda Setting Model 0 The Media tells us the issues that are important for debate 0 Media features some issues prominently some less prominently some not at all Give sense of issues salience public or political importance issue possesses 0 Cross lagged correlation measures of the public and media agenda are taken at two points and the impact of the public media is correlated with the public agenda at second point and vice versa 0 Limitations Individual differences some people pay attention to media and others don t Strongest agenda setting effects on those who don t usually follow news closely media differences not all media present precisely same agenda at same time and people s agenda depend on which media they pay attention to Issue differences some issues concern certain people or society some affect everybody and some only certain people Greatest on remote issues and smallest on obtrusive ones salience difference social salience issues importance on society interpersonal salience important to other people Priming o The more prominent in issues is in the national information stream the greater the weight that is put on it in making political judgments o Blurs the line on what to think and what to think about Third Person effects 0 Formulated by W Phillips Davison We calculate how we are affected by something then how our friends and acquaintances are affected and then how others we don t know are affected 0 Usually we believe we are not affected but people we don t know are affected 0 We can either underestimate the effect on us or overestimate the effect on others Spiral of Silence 0 Introduced by Elisabeth NoelleNeumann 0 Fear of isolation is important and we dread placing ourselves in a position where others will shun us We try to assess what others think about something before we let them know what we think 0 We are endowed with a sense that allows us to figure out the dominant public opinion 0 The dominant becomes so dominant that the minority is expressed less and less and is silence 0 Individual differences some people are very outspoken o Perception of Predominance If we are uncertain about others opinions model does not work Either looking glass perception where everyone shares our opinion or believe it to controversial and everyone has more conservative views 0 Perception of others most of people s public opinion is not to a generalized mass audience Challenging the agenda 0 Citizen s media enacting its citizenship by actively intervening and transforming established landscape contesting legitimate social codes legitimatized identities and institutionalized social relations quotHow to Think About Information Open Questions about China Information and the World Economy By Dan Schiller Changes 1 global communication and info industry continue to fxn as a fountainhead of economic transformation 2 China has become quotfastest growing large economy in the world Chinese Initiative media content and hardware industries media advertisers are est transnational affiliations and rapidly growing ex AOL Time Warner and News Corp 2004 policy makers lifted ban on foreign investment in domestic TV programming TV sets world s largest producers 33 million in 2002 Bejing Olympics9transformed China into the world s 2nd largest advertising market over Japan telecommunications largest market complications with WTO domestic market 2quotd largest to US 2004 Lenovo Group overtook IBM s PC unit growing internet market 4th in world private investment in schools and colleges 40 billion outofpocket China a Threat to US power nowhere near upending US polieco power China becoming quotmercantilist economic superpowerquot George J Gilboy BUT beyond a zerosum game encompassing a transnational capitalism Telecommunications and China s Reintegration into Transnationalizing Capitalism China detached itself from US dominated international telecomm following 1949 revolution telecomm boom in 1990s led to buildup of international links to China and the world continued struggles over the terms of China s accession into the WTO reasons 1 plane for advantage bw particular industrial interests and states 2plane that signifies programmatic expansion of linkages bw China s domestic political economy and the transnational capitalism into which it is reintegrating strategy China not the first country to try to leverage state control over the terms of entry into its domestic market BUT endeavor to expand Chinese companies outward foreign investment is novel Chinese Communist Party s efforts to put eco development and scitech primary attention as productive force of the country 80 of Chinese tech imexports controlled by foreignowned firms BUT Chinese domestic enterprises predominate in the low tech sector China running trade deficits with many Asian countries China s total debt in 2003 160 of its eco output problem of mobile farmers 710 population living in countryside Virgins forJesus The Gender Politics of Therapeutic Christian Fundamentalist Media Heather Hendershot Breakaway for boys and Brio for girls are Christian based magazines that offer advice to Christian boys and girls Advice columns make girls feel connected to other girls Both Christian and nonChristian magazines are similar in the sense that they recognize proper femininity These Christian based quotmagazines videos advice books and music all function as therapeutic sites that strive to cure teens of sexual desire and other teen problems The authors of the Christian magazines are labeling sex as taboo and equating it to incest because to Christians we are all brothers and sisters of Christ The media ways of Christians encourages teens to remain abstinent and explains the advantages of abstinence and construct it as empowering Today it is harder for boys and girls to remain abstinent because of the pressures of the media and peers So quotprophylactic Christian media hope to ease the pressures of the chaste Christian lifestyle by offering pleasurable alternatives to sinful secular culture 93 There s chastity jewelry clothing music videos and books Fundamentalists often blame much of society s problems on the secular world and believe that any problems can be fixed by religion 99 They believe the media has a lot to do with the ways girls think they should be quotsecular notions of the ideal female body have a negative effect on girls selfesteem 98 The article basically talks about how sex before marriage is a sinful act and that too much of any earthly object is ungodly like eating too much or working out too much Fundamentalists blame this problem on teens moving away from religion However we should not quotsee teens as passive victims of religion just as their parents see them as victims of their own sexually maturing bodies 102 Media Making Chapter 12 p378395 What is the Public Ways to think of the public The notprivate open and accessible to others Public interest public opinion Public as communal example public television public utilities Public implies openness community citizenship discussion debate Publicity media bringing information and issues out into the open llPeople s right to know Public an idea concept about how people act together as a whole Publics are created they do not arise Rise and Decline of the Public Mid1700s to today gradual shift toward democracy Bourgeois gained political status Developed and transformed the public sphere However in the 1700s the public was still a small segment of the whole population Classical and modern period divide Classical Expansion of public was ideal Public debates competing viewpoints LincolnDouglas Modern Today the public has become disenfranchised Citizens CAN vote but fewer actually DO vote TV politics broken up into sound bites Problem of the Public Public is flexible constantly being reinvented LincolnDouglas debates to presentday sound bites Voters used to vote to voters now Political expression is changing Representing the Public Public as individuals The choices we make via mass media are us as individuals Audience marketcommodity As part of the public we don t think individually but what is best for the public what is right and fair public selves social selves The public expresses itself in a private form Talking to small groups of people Only 1 in 5 Americans have written or called any mass medium to express an opinioninterestcomplaint Public as aggregates Judgment of public opinion is based on some aggregated or accumulated evidence Difference in individual response and aggregated individual responses Individual responses are lost while aggregated responses are gained What the public thinks is determined by individual survey participants are asked and by the particular media texts they consume Public is inclined to be favorable toward the media Majority of public finds the media reasonably fair reasonably accurate reasonably believable But when it comes to news media people are more skeptical and scrutinizing especially regarding the government People fault the media for invading people s privacy Ex shouldn t report the results of electionday exit polls before polling places close People say the bias is toward special interests big business government and advertisers Public wants media to be truthful and impartial but they hold higher standards to their own media the news channels they watch the newspapers they read than they do for the national media The public as publics Publics as likeminded individuals concerned with and communicating with each other about a common interest or problem Example interest groups voluntary organizations nformation subsidy groups feed info via news releases videos reports press conferences to the news media and to talk shows info supporting the grou p s point of view Lobbying and persuasion directly and indirectly through the media in attempts to influence public policy Virtua communities uses the internet to bring people with similar interests but in diverse locales together to interact in a virtual environment Majority public opinion should translate into public policy and law Problem is that government frustrates people Media Response to Public Media respond to pressure from lots of groups Government regulation always looms Pressure is brought on the media Public view of media reveals our assumptions as a society about how the media ought to act Media educates shapes and controls the public Media acts as an instrument of the state The Media Violence Myth By Richard Rhodes Lt Col Dave Grossman quotbefore children learn to read they can t tell the difference between fantasy and realityquot for children it is all real television is traumatizing and brutalizing children at a horrendously young age left the army to dedicate himself to saving America from the quottoxic wastesquot of quotmedia Violence that is being pumped into children Many prestigious institutions have all endorsed the theory that Violent media make kids Violent It is a solid cultural consensus he claims that people are trying to kill people ten times as often as they used to back when there was no police and no common access to courts of law but that modern technology is masking the increase There is no evidence that mock violence makes people violent The 1998 US murder rate was well below the murder rate of 13th century England 15th century Sweden and 15th century Amsterdam Very few studies have looked at media effects in the real world and even fewer have followed the development of children eXposed to media violence overall a period of years The typical eXperimental arrangement is not exactly neutral Brandon Centerwall best known real world study of the effect of television viewing on violent behavior in two control populations Canadian and US white homicide rates doubled following the introduction of television Saturation theory economic conditions affect the murder rate murder rates go up in good times and down in bad times Franklin Zimring and Gordon Hawkins How can television set ownership tell you anything about murder rates Isn t television content supposed to be the issue They tested Centerwall s theory In France Germany Italy and Japan they found that the incidence of murder in these countries either remained more or less level or actually declined with television eXposure The also questioned his theory that culture overrides television of it has a mechanism for dealing with physical aggression after 1975 despite the continuing and increasing eXposure to television the homicide rates leveled and dropped off Every popular art form starts out condemned as trash One generation s trash is the neXt generation s art form Centerwall s saturation theory is wrong just because two variables correlate does not mean that they are in uencing each other they may both be changing because of a third factor or the change may simply be coincidental Congress passed the Telecommunications Act of 1996 which requires all new television sets to be equipped with a Vchip enabling parents to block out programs they don t want their children to see Leonard D Eron and L Rowell Huesmann 1963 reported nding a correlation between aggressive behavior at school and violent television watching at home the correlation emerged only for boys and the kids that watched the most television overall turned out to be the least aggressive the psychologists found that a preference for viewing mock violence on television in the third grade might account for 10 percent of the childhood in uences that led the boys to become aggressive adults their data failed to support their theory If watching television is in uencing an eightyearold boy to be aggressive you would eXpect such in uence to be more intense at the time than ten years later But the correlation was only 4 percent They interviewed 198 male from the original sample of 436 when the boys were thirty years old they found a strong correlation between early television violence viewing and adult criminality Developmental Psychology early aggressiveness predicts later violence and that violence runs in the family they did NOT mention their ndings In reality only three of the 24 boys arrested for violent crimes had contributed TV violence data Jib Fowles Upper class has hostility because of their fear of losing social control Realized that entertainment media have come to satisfy many of the needs that religion used to ful ll giving people a common frame of reference a common community with which to identify a safe place within which to eXperience emotional release to become violent people have to have eXperience with violence mock violence can and does satisfy the considerable need to experience strong emotion that people build up from hour to hour and day to day while functioning in the compleX and frustrating independencies of modern civilization Seymour Feshbach controlled the television viewing of 400 boys in three private schools and four group homes for siX weeks no behavioral differences were reported for adolescents in the private school Among the poor semidelinquent youths those who had been watching the more violent shows were calmer than their peers who had to watch the blander shows Concluded that quoteXposure to aggressive content on television seems to reduce or control the eXpression of aggression in aggressive boys from relatively low socioeconomic backgroundsquot helped kids discharge pentup aggression Steven F Messner he took his list of quotviolentquot television shows collected their Nielsen ratings that determined their popularity in a number of cities then looked up FBI crime rates for those areas nal step was to match up crime rates of metropolitan areas against the popularity of quotviolentquot television shows in the same areas Concluded that large audiences that are attracted to violent programming tend to eXhibit low rates of violent crime when people are at home watching television they are not committing cr1me Gerhardt Wiebe proposed that the function of the entertainment media is to ease the stresses of socialization the administration of hospitals prisons and asylums realize that their charges can be highly volatile or depressed and that television is an efficient nonchemical means for easing their torments Three Kinds of Messages Directive messages come from authority gures and quotcommand eXhort instruct and persuadequot They seldom get through Maintenance messages are the routine communication which support the knowledge and beliefs people already have programs on specialized topics Restorative messages allow people to restore themselves quotfrom the strain of adapting the weariness of conformingquot They often feature crime violence disrespect for authority gures etc Their themes seem to be opposite of the values stressed in adult socialization Media performances serve to intensify and then resolve tension How to Think about Information Schiller China is an example of extreme economic transformation and is the fastest growing large economy in the world Is the transformation directly related to its economical size and power First off How is China Broadening their market Answer transnational affiliations Examples 1 exchanging television networks with America and agreeing to carry American networks in return for China carrying ours 2 exporting tv s around the world and tying it to foreign direct investment transnational sponsor system for marketing ex Reebok vs Nike and coupling them with increasing popularity of credit card style payment 4 telecommunicationsmonopolies for mobilephones 04 all of these influences help to quotshape domesticmarket development and expand on technological inventions now so they are renowned later as technology continues to improve and grow incusive Chinese market kept them out of economical turmoil that the USA Europe and Japan were involved in these three countries were paying their own debts and dealing with too much competition in home markets so they never invaded Chinese markets this explains why China has such a strong domestic position Internet Technology Strategy poicies crafted to link transnational market expansion to domestic growth and continuing corporate reorganization China established a new superministry to promote information industries as a new point of economic growth services to spur technological and economical growth ex 15 national software industrial parks Another lmportant Market private investment in China s schools and colleges ended in the late 1980s and changed to an expansion of educational services for middle to upper class children by 2005 filing same of patents annually as US for universities catching up to US educational standards basically s China a threat Answer China is still nowhere near the US now but they could be in the future Other Influences to China s Economical and Transnational Growth increased telephone circuits network growth private lines satelite network All of these telecommunication networks help us to distribute production chains news technology and it equates to the llbasic infrastructure to accelerate transnationalism Regional or Global Integration Economically China has become a key player in the last few decades but still has a more regional than global influence overall China still cannot compete against longestablished transnational corporations China has a selfcontained regional system under Japanese or Chinese control is even harder to achieve China still rank behind Japan in terms of national foreign exchange reserves but Chinese markets have become the second largest force in US gov t debt markets So What no unified national market yet exists on one hand China has communication and information to stop economical stagnation on the other hand China s reinsertion to transnational market system has increased overproduction rates Basically China s takeoff into stable growth helped from increases in communication and information to stop economical stagnation but the transnational market was hindered due to overproduction in China and the world economy at large so both sides cancel each other out and the cycle continues China remains a growing power but one that is not centralized or organized enough to be a threat to the US Anderson The Influence of Media Violence on Youth o llmedia violence increases the likelihood of aggressive and violent behavior in both immediate and longterm contexts o clearest results with television and film because they ve been studied more but llgrowing body of videogame research yields essentially the same conclusions 0 focuses on shortterm exposure 0 in the short run increases llphysically and verbally aggressive behavior aggressive thoughts and aggressive emotions cannot accurately measure the long run effects of llfrequent exposure to violent media because larger samples are needed short run effects occur because of llan automatic tendency to imitate observed behaviors in the long run reduces the llnormal negative emotional responses to violence the characteristics of viewers like their family life and social environment can llinfluence the degree to which media violence affects aggression Anderson thinks that llno one is wholly immune to the effects of media violence Lessening exposure to aggressive media will reduce aggressive behavior but how do you lessen exposure Research shows that llparentalmediation interventions are likely to yield beneficial effects but if the intervention only involves the media they are unsuccessful Large scale long term studies need to take place to understand more psychological effects llProviding children and youth with a much healthier media diet may prove to be more difficult and costly Ch 12 The Media the Public amp Normative Theory Notes Pg 395420 NORMATIVE THEORIES OF THE MEDIA Discussion of normative theories of media usually focus on authoritarian libertarian social responsibility amp what was Soviet communist mo e These theories are usually described from perspective of Western scholars working within assumptions of libertarian viewpoint so they emphasize problems of more authoritarian systems These theories are also usually constructed around media s relation with state amp ignore variations in cultural value Classical Liberalism The beginnings of modern Western press amp mass media are tied to political ferment of late 17005 philosophy of the Enlightenment amp foundations of the American Revolution Key concepts from the Enlightenment o The assumption that humans are rational creatures that are capable of setting aside base emotions amp choosing between right amp wrong false amp true 0 The concept of liberty as freedom from intrusion by government 0 The idea that there is such a thing as truth amp that it is discoverable by people through process of reasoning This overall philosophy is called classical liberalism or libertarianism 7 not to be confused with a classical liberal philosophy closer to modern conservatism that emphasizes individualism amp minimal government role in society Free marketplace of ideas 7 assumes equivalence between world of commerce amp world of ideas as products compete ideas do too good amp useful will drive out bad amp worthless Formal control government control of media amp is largely decreasin Between 18805 amp 19405 cracks began to appear in conceptual foundation of classical liberal capitalism both in notions of rationalism amp assumptions that marketplace is free 7 there was development of trusts combines cartels monopolies amp oligopolies Monopoly 7 one firm controls all of almost all of trade39 becomes wholly free to charge what it will amp treat workers as it will39 no competition amp any effort to establish competition will be suppressed can control necessary resources amp make cost of competing expensive Oligopoly 7 a small number of firms control a commercial sector can operate much in same way of a monopoly if companies agree to charge same prices amp otherwise limit competition In 1927 Congress passed Federal Radio Act to regulate broadcasting amp was refined in 1943 with Federal Communications Act 0 1t assigned particular frequencies amp power levels to individual license holders 0 Limited number of stations 0 Emphasized public interest convenience amp necessity of programming Two phenomena served to nationalize me ia o The rise of modern marketing amp advertising of national bramps o The development of transcontinental communications systems telegraph telephone Today we have 1500 daily newspapers 7400 weekly newspapers 13800 magazines almost 6900 radio stations almost 1900 TV stations 7 major motion picture studies 4 major broadcast television networks amp 2 small networks 7 UPN the WB 5 major recording companies amp countless other media Challenges to Classical Liberalism SocialResponsibility Theory Social Responsibility Theory is the mainstream counterpoint to liberal capitalism viewpoint In 1947 the Commission on the Freedom of the Press reported that o The press should be providing a forum for exchange of ideas presenting a variety of views 0 The press should avoid stereotyping amp provide a representative view of society 0 Practitioners should be better trained amp it should regulate itself The media should be a common carrier of ideas The Fairness Doctrine 0 Policy written by FCC in 1949 0 Required some degree of balance in presentation of controversial isseus 0 Was vigorously criticized by broadcast industry 0 1n Aug 1987 FCC voted to suspend doctrine Two variations of journalism 0 Public or civic journalism 7 attempt to reconnect media to communities that they serve39 journalists become active in their communities amp their issues 0 Development journalism 7 press should be positive advocate for development of society especially if country was economically less developed39 seeks change on national scale not local Problems with two variations 0 Neither is clearly defined39 no consistency or core set of criteria 0 Both are theories that tend not to work well in practice 0 Public is accused of being a marketing gimmick 0 Development is accused of being too easily turned into an instrument for state propagampa Marxist Critique Marxism is based on two majors sets of arguments 0 Interpretation of principles of capitalist econom o Emphasizes relations between economy politics amp various forms of communication amp culture 0 Critical point is that some sectors of society amp economy have so much access to resources to put forward their ideas that others have essentially none Variety suggest lots of material that is superficially but not basically different Diversity suggests fundamental difference The Political Economic Argument Counterargum ent is that economic structures foreclose true diversity of ideas Not only do a relatively small number of people head corporations but a very small number effectively control them Many dominant media firms are not just media firms but part of larger multinational corporations with diverse interests 7 to what extent can media perform other functions information amp entertainment if their major role is to make money This argument is driven by a logic of capitalism a pursuit of maximal profit The Cultural Argument Points to logicofcapitalism argument but focuses on ownership of means of production looking at programs messages produced Suggests a media system such as America s is a site of ideological struggle with each ideological code attempting to win people into seeing world in terms of its particular meanings This argument does not suggest that no space is left for alternative views just that they are likely to be clearly identified as controversial amp be crowded out by profitseeking producers who would rather avoid controversy Normative Solutions What Should Be Done Strict radical libertarian would argue that media should be free to publish amp broadcast what they wish government should have no role in media except perhaps to foster amp encourage economic success amp referee frequency allocations Strict radical Marxist either cultural or politicaleconomic would argue that media should be created amp owned by public with state amp government serving necessary function of allocating means to produce media to people Social responsibility theorists Ownership of media should remain private with both owners amp professionals who create amp distribute media message invested in a set of values emphasizing their responsibility for fair accurate amp complete presentations to amp about all constituent groups of society Prevent agrant abuses of me ia Correct marketplace s tendency toward ownership concentration amp foster competition Assure where marketplace cannot adequately serve underrepresented groups amp points of view All educational institutions have an obligation to teach media literacy The public has a role to assure that media know what the public thinks of them amp the jobs they are doing 0 00000 Media Home and Family Being Distinctive in a Mediated Environment The Ahmeds and the Paytons Lynn Scholfield Clark i Introduction a Ahmeds biracial family committed to maintaining Muslim practices in home b Paytons committed to ecology amp getting the most out of consumable goods to minimize ecological footprint c quotaccounts of the media describes how people reflect scripts and their fam s media use Introducing the Ahmeds A quotdifferentiatedquot Muslims eschew assimilationistaccommodationist stances of other Muslim immigrants choose to differentiate themselves from the roader US society bc of commitment toward maintaining amp propagating lslam B provide kids w lltwo world perspective C Discussing Media Representations of Islam 1 Media misrepresentations influence amp reflect prejudices amp stereotypes in North American culture 2 More often stereotypes in media Arab terrorist bad guy Muslim Arab 3 Children more interested in entertainment media a Different races are portrayed not so fairly Arabs are picked on now bc it s quotsafequot b For now enjoyment of seeing someone that looked like her kids racialethnic background gt discomfort D Household Rules for Media Use 1 Stated rules that governed use but also relied on the exhibition of discomfort with certain programming that they considered objectionable 2 Views related to their interpretations of the Qur an 3 Restrictions on both time amp content for media use had to do with their views on the Muslim commitment to living a purposeful amp moral life 4 Children equated media rules with family s religious guidelines a Rather than seeing media restrictions as punitive rules one aspect of the maintaining and nurturing a distinct religious identity b Would seem to make the strict media rules less consequential rational for inconsistencies bt rules amp practice hard to keep kids sheltered from all media E A llTwo World Identity 1 Family s visit to Libya media had surfaced in new ways for them 2 Knowledge of the music industry amp its celebrities seemed to take on a different role in Libyan context II The Paytons A In a month might fill up one sack of trash only contribution to landfills B Brenna daughter respected mother s choices except ones involving TV 1 Although lack of TV seemed to be a point of pride but opinion infused with indignation amp ambivalence C lifestyle choices undergirded by clear philosophical values lll Inconsistencies and Understanding A the inconsistencies bt parental rules amp practices surrounding media can sometimes result in confusion among children B kids in each household can articulate accounts of the media that were similar to those of their parents the restrictions amp can make own judgemts of media as they operated win religiousphilosophical frameworks represented in a consistent system When the Press Fails Bennett Lawrence and Livingston Chapter 1 Press Politics in America The Case of the Iraq War 0 Media contribute to their own credibility problem 0 Absence of agreement of what press should be doing makes it more difficult for news organizations to navigate an independent course through pressurized political situations 0 Can press offer viewpoints separate from the government I Fail to question government decisions I When sources outside the government provide information o WMD info from Iraqi informants whose credibility had come under debate 0 Too intent on rushing scoops into the paper no follow ups o Unaggressive challenges due to Bush administration s tactics and unwritten rules of media for selecting emphasizing and sustaining stories 16 0 News completing link in image creation process 17 0 Challenge Bush administration The Selling of the Iraq War 0 Press try to make administration s plan better than given evidence 0 War marketed as quotpolitical product 18 0 Sell war as political campaign passed onto public 0 Show more support than challenges 0 quotpublic was saturated with the sales pitch 19 0 Focus of story on power effectiveness of campaign to pressure Congress amp UN to support war not the truth or propriety of effort 19 0 Why allow vague allegations 21 o 1 VP journalists often show deference to him in matters of national security 0 2 Most dramatic story of millennium o 3 Media amp storytelling follow war story 0 Claims unopposed by powerful officialsdecision figures WMDs amp Al Qaeda Connection 0 quotwe report what officials say you decide if it is true 9 problem of balancing erroneous claims 0 Effective management of compliant press kept lid on the story 0 Repetition of dubious charge was part of quotstrategic coordination of administration s message 24 0 Wilson was going to publicly explain that nuclear weapons charge discredited White House leaked identity of Wilson s wife The Intelligence Fiasco 0 Faculty intelligence led to war 0 Highlevel administration officials may have pressured intelligence agencies for information to support a preordained war 25 I Came and went as sporadic news backdrop 0 Former officials 9 lacked storyadvancing mechanisms attached to their former offices 0 Administration convinced public that everyone believed that Iraq was imminent security threat 27 o quotthe absence of an institutional power platform from which to press their case left the Democrats in a defensive position of denying the administration s smear charges at least as the press chose to construct the story 27 0 Facts being fixed around policy 0 Importance of power calculations 0 Lack of coverage because journalists couldn t make story out of itscared 28 0 Implications of Downing St memo Unwritten Rules of Washington Reporting 0 Difficult for mainstream news to sustain credible challenges from sources outside spheres of power 0 Tendency of press to defer to bestpackaged officially advanced political story will continue 29 0 quotwhat carries a story isn t necessarily its truth or importance but whether it is driven by dominant officials within institutional decisionmaking arenas 29 0 quotAmerican mainstream news code favors those who wield the greatest power even when what they say is subject to serious challenge 30 even if claims not clearly true 0 Is it the responsibility of journalists to set the record straight 30 What about 911 0 Mainstream press safely stuck to what officials said 0 However unsuitable for political junkies and uninformative for citizens left on outside 31 0 Front pages 9 administration spin but other sides of story screened out by unwritten journalistic rule system 31 What about the Democrats 0 Democrats didn t offer another side 0 Couldn t gain control of news narrative 32 minority o Remained silent and were silenced about culpability of war and its conduct since they too bought the faulty intelligence 33 o Press should tell both sides of story but only tells one due to reluctance of leading institutionally placed sources to offer a counter story 33 0 Why does the press cling to set of rules that make it hard to report opposing stories 33 The SelfImposed Dilemma of American Journalism 0 News unable to disentangle themselves with power 0 Editors spun badly in their quest for scoops o In Washington Post journalists who dug up stories that challenged the ad ministration s rationales were discouraged 0 Point of telling both sides of story is to get closer to whole story rather than just part of it 35 0 News don t want to be considered quotcrusadersquot but would rather focus on the side of story with greatest political momentum 35 0 Content of news 9 news executives choose how to report stories 35 0 quotthis press problem with handling challenged to power results mainly from a set of unwritten rules of the press s own making 36 o How press works and when it fails quotabsence of credible and potentially decisive opposition from inside government itself leaves the mainstream press generally unable to build and sustain counterstories 36 o quotindexingquot range of news content to degree of institutional conflict noted by journalists 36 0 Implications of news system driven by perceptions of power than independent judgments about credibility of various stories 0 Sources available before Iraq war were more credible than administration 0 Dowd quotinvestigative reporting is not stenography o quotinstitution most in danger would be newspaper in your hands 37 0 Media follow consensus of Washington 0 quotinstrument of government s public opinion management than trying to hold government accountable 37 o No public reaction to doubts of war from Democrats in Congress so counterstory had little to keep it going 38 0 Government failed to feed other side of the story so press alone couldn t sustain it 38 0 quotpress becomes more a government mouthpiece than an accountability mechanism 39 0 quotnews not only report consensus but help to create it 39 o quotfailing watchdog press 39 o Selfimposed idea of what qualifies as legitimate political news 9 difficult for press to exercise its right independent of government at a time when democracy needs it most 39 When the Press Succeeds o Press system tends to do well when political system is already doing its job of debating and giving public scrutiny to policies that affect general welfare and security of its electorate 39 0 Showing different sides of story help citizens to simplify organize weigh and summarize information 40 o quotframingquot by journalists for citizens and decision makers Why Press Depends on Government Sources 0 Press with misleading information 9 deepen cynicism and distrust among public 0 Mainstream audiences suffered shortcircuiting due to high exposure to administration spins 43 0 News greatly impacts the perceived power and strategic positioning among Washington elites themselves 43 o Officials look to daily news as though it were the very mirror of public opinion and accountability 0 Absence of critical questions 0 Press channel images from high government offices out to citizens and back to other officials Chapter 2 The SemiIndependent Press ATheory of News and Democracy 0 Content of news is similar everyday rather than providing an unpredictablestartling array 46 o Reporters confronted by government more concerned with avoiding blame than figuring out its wrongdoing 46 0 Questions of accountability 0 Those with decisionmaking power have diminished sense of accountability to the law or to higher democratic values 47 0 Government control of one party to avoid selfinvestigation but no focus on issue long enough to cultivate informed public opinion or pressure for remedies ATheory for the Press and Politics 0 Powerful parties push others out of decisionmaking 48 0 Democratic accountability also embattled because ideological preferences bend the facts 0 Press is shut out from political accountability process and subject to manipulation 48 o Rely on government to selfcorrect o Mainstream news stays within sphere of official consensus and conflict in public arena 49 o Press focus on key policies in play and whether some action might change outcome 9 record spin 0 Press calibrates news decide what gets into news what prominence it receives how long covered and who gets voiced 49 I Indexing o Press as gatekeepers 0 Political power and spin capacity to shape the news 50 o Credibility of truth not as important as having powerful champions and whether they go unchallenged 50 0 News degenerates into examination of personal motives questioned credentials and personal innuendo 0 Lack political standing 9 can t serve as major news makers 51 Case in Point Tortured Path of Torture 0 News was framed as political contest between Congress and White House 0 2 realities as a result from indexingcalibration o 1 documented outside reality 0 2 Washington political reality 0 Press used Washington political reality to define documented outside reality 9 different and inaccurate 0 When Washington story set other sides of story excluded by mainstream press How Do We Know It Works Like This 0 Calibration of news content 9 shifts in content and sources that may seem arbitrary 53 o Favoritism from press due to deference of power not liberal bias 0 Agendasetting capacity of the press is so strong that public figures read news and drift in line with them 54 o Politicians respond to press rather than vice versa 0 News agenda set by those in power 0 Correlation between direction of congressional political sentiment and corresponding slant 55 o Uniformity of content separates mainstream from other news outlets and blocks form entering mainstream What about the alternative press Why mainstream press matters 0 1 mainstream as default reality option 56 o 2 serves as a wall to block alternative information and determine what is their version of reality 56 0 Stories are selectively branded according to sources and controversial angles 57 Defining the Mainstream Press o Constellation of news organizations 58 o Workings of core information apparatus integrated with government 0 Mainstream news network as single quotgoverningquot institution 0 Being first to get the story is more important than giving different side of the story competition 0 Irony US blessed with variety of media outlets but most are removed from process of shaping mass opinion or reinforcing policy agendas 58 o Symbiotic relationship of press and government 0 Mainstream press sets tone for public discourse 0 Institutional press matters most for governance because speaks with singular voice 59 0 Spin by influential elites 0 Look to same leading organization for top stories When is the Press more independent Expanding the Theory 0 At pivotal moments news may become a more active political agency in examining new voices and shaping consensus 60 0 Conventional direction government 9 news and society 0 Cascade secondary social and political sources and public opinion 9 government 0 Limits on news management 0 Journalists have leeway of narrating or challenging official claims Looking Critically at the Theory Other Factors Affecting News Gatekeeping 0 Some factors may make press moreless dependent under different circumstances 61 0 Government decision makersjournalists believe journalism has become more independent send people to event and report directly 0 New communication technology enable greater coverage of live events 0 Enterprising reporting 9 investigations use leaks may pressure government to operate within law 62 0 Package properly to give unlikely stories 0 Outsider sources can also package counterspin to enable journalists greater slope of reporting 62 1 TechnologyEnabled EventDriven Reporting 0 Photos from Abu Gharib produced stories that might never have been told 0 Official management took over and controlled framing 0 However photos may not stand apart from officials who seek to reshapedispense of them 0 Press use live event of Hurricane Katrina and pit inept officials to shape views 0 Rate no spin zone 0 Administration deliver prepackaged news rather than competent policy response in real situations 65 0 Turning point because usual rules suspended o Reveal government s policy gaps and failures 2 Investigative Reporting amp Leaks o Leaks fuel enterprise journalism 65 o Investigative reporting held in tension against the strong pull of official spin that moves the daily news flow 66 0 Story that might have been a major constitutional or presidential crisis in a different aligned government was allowed to take its official political course by mainstream press 67 o Diminishes force for political accountability 0 Unless governments react to stories the socalled agendasetting capacity of news is weak 67 3 Outsider Counterspin o Activists package themselves with journalistic values and offer wellprepared spokespeople 68 o Spin s the thing that make the news go round 0 From government or opponents to journalists 0 Reducing complex situations to simple plots based on highly personalized framing is a common news pattern 68 o Journalists become more receptive to stories form other news sources during quotslow news periods summer 69 0 Ability of outsiders to successfully counterspin the media depends on helpful political context 0 Political news as shortlived 70 Testing Our Expanded Theory 0 Pressgovernment relationships 9 varying degrees of press independence 0 Case of Abu Gharib when democracy needs it most the press is least capable of independent reporting 71 Anderson quotThe Influence of Media Violence on Youth This article was long with a ton of statistics so I will just give you the basic facts and main ideas 0 Discusses research on violent television films video games and music 0 Researchers believe that violence has the effect of increasing both short and longterm violent and aggressive behaviors 0 Questions asked 0 1 What does research say about the relation between violent media and short and longterm aggressive behaviors o 2 How does media violence produce these effects 0 3 What characteristics of media violence are most influential and who is the most susceptible to these influences o 4 How widespread is access to this violence 0 5 How can individuals and society counteract these influences o 1 Shortterm increases 0 Likelihood of physically and verbally aggressive behaviors o Aggressive thoughts 0 Aggressive emotions 0 Longterm o Frequent exposure to media violence at a young age is linked with aggression later in life 0 2 How the shortterm increases work 0 Priming existing aggressive scripts and conditions seeing or hearing something that reminds a child of an aggressive scene he saw on television may cause him to imitate behavior he saw on that show 0 Increasing physiological arousal o Triggering a tendency to imitate observed behaviors o How the longterm effects work 0 Punishment or lack thereof if children are rewarded or remain unpunished for their behavior it is more likely that this behavior will continue 0 Continuation of reactions to priming cues o Emotional desensitization o 3 How violence is presented has an effect on whether it triggers aggression or not o If the perpetrator has positive admirable qualities the violence doesn t seem as bad to viewers 0 When violence is portrayed as justified it doesn t seem as bad 0 When violence is rewardedthe perpetrator gets away with it it doesn t seem as bad o If the victim doesn t seem to be injured or in pain it doesn t seem as bad 0 Susceptibility o The youngest age group is the most susceptible 0 But no one is immune studies have show that adults can be affected negatively as well 0 Factors that make people more susceptible I Youth I Low socioeconomic standing I Ignorant parents I Cultural environments that reward violence 0 4 Access to violence in media 0 Extremely widespread and only increasing 0 Children likely to have multiple televisions video game systems access to the Internet etc o 5 Counteraction of violent images 0 Encouraged parental monitoring and guidance 0 Providing media education


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