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Practical Seminar

by: Mr. Wilton Marks

Practical Seminar ARCH 593

Mr. Wilton Marks
GPA 3.87


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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Wilton Marks on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 593 at University of Virginia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/209618/arch-593-university-of-virginia in Architecture at University of Virginia.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
Selections ARCH 593 Digital Image Media Handout 11 September 16 2004 To modify part of an image you first select the area you want to edit You can move copy paint or apply special effects just to the selected area without affecting the rest of your image You can choose from a variety of specialized tools for creating selections There are separate sets of tools to make selections of bitmap and vector data To select raster pixels you can use the marquee tools or the lasso tools to select vector data you can use the pen or shape tools which produce precise outlines called paths You can convert paths to selections or convert selections to paths Making Selections Using the Select Menu You can use commands in the Se lect menu to Select All pixels to Deselect or to Reselect Using the Marquee Tools The Marquee Tools let you se lect rectangles ellipses and 1pixel rows and columns By default a Selection border is dragged from its corner 1 Select the Marquee Tool you want to use rectangle el lipse single row or single column 2 In the options bar specify whether to make a new Selec tion add to a Selection subtract from a Selection or select an area intersected by other Selections 3 Specify a feathering setting in the options bar Turn anti aliasing on or off for the Elliptical Marquee Tool 4 Forthe rectangle or ellipse Selection tool choose a style in the options bar Normal to determine proportions by drag ging Fixed Aspect Ration to set a heighttowidth ratio or Fixed Size to specify set values for the marquee s height and width Do one ofthe following to make a Selection a With the rectangle or ellipse tool drag over the area you want to select Hold down Shift as you drag to con strain the marquee to a square or circle To drag a mar quee from its center hold down Alt win or Option mac after you begin dragging b With the single row or single column marquee click near the area you want to select and then drag the mar quee to the exact location If no marquee is visible in crease the magnification of your image view 01 Using the Lasso Tools The Lasso Tool and the Polygonal Lasso Tool let you draw both straightedged and freehand segments of a Selection border With the magnetic Lasso Tool the border snaps to the edges of defined areas in the image Using the Lasso Tool 1 Select the Lasso Tool and select options 2 Drag to draw a freehand Selection border 3 To draw a straightedged Selection border hold down Alt win or Option mac and click where segments should be gin and end You can switch between drawing freehand and straightedged segments 4 To erase recent segments hold down Delete until you ve erased the fastening points for the desired segments 5 To close the Selection border release the mouse without holding down Alt win or Option mac Using the Polygonal Lasso Tool 1 Select the Polygonal Lasso Tool and select options 2 Click in the image to select the starting point 3 Do one or more ofthe following a To draw a straight segment position the point where you want the first straight sement to end and click Con tinue clicking to set endpoints for subsequent segments b To draw a freehand segment hold down Alt win or Option mac and dragWhen finished release Alt or Op tion and the mouse button c To recent segments press Delete 4 Close the Selection border a Position the Polygonal Lasso Tool pointer over the starting point and click b lfthe pointer is not over the starting point doubleclick the Polygonal Lasso Tool pointer or Ctrlclick win or Commandclick mac Using the Magnetic Lasso Tool 1 Select the Magnetic Lasso Tool and select options 2 Click in the image to set the first fastening point Fasten ing points anchor the Selection border in place 3 To draw a freehand segment move the points along the edge you want to trace You can also draw with the mouse button depressed The most recent segment of the Selec tion border remains active As you move the pointer the active segment snaps to the strongest edge in the image based on the detection Width set in the options bar Periodi cally the Magnetic Lasso Tool adds fastening points to the Selection border to anchor previous segments 4 If the border doesn t snap to the desired edge click once to add a fastening point manually Continue to trace the edge and add fastening points as needed 5 To switch temporarilty to the other Lasso Tools a To activate the Lasso Tool hold down Alt win or Op tion mac and drag with the mouse button depressed b To activate the Polygonal Lasso Tool hold down Alt win or Option mac and click 6 To erase recent segments and fastening points press De lete until you ve erased the necessary fastening points 7 Close the Selection border a To close the border with a freehand Magnetic segment doubleclick or press Enter or Return b To close the border with a straight segment hold down Alt win or Option mac and doubleclick c To clise the border drag back over the starting point and click Setting options for the Lasso Tools The Lasso tool op Selections tions let you customize how the different Lasso Tools detect and select edges 1 Select the Tool 2 In the options bar specify whether you want to create a new Selection add to an existing Selection subtract from a Selection or select an area intersected by other Selec tions Specify feather and antialiasing options 4 For the Magnetic Lasso Tool set any of these options a To specify a detection width enter a pixel value for Width The Magnetic Lasso Tool detects edges only with in the specified distance from the pointer b To specify the Lasso s sensitivity to edges in the image enter a value between 1 and 100 for Edge Contrast A higher value detects only edges that contrast sharply with their surroundings c To specify the rate at which the Lasso sets fastening points enter a value bewteen 0 and 100 for frequency A higher value anchors the Selection border in place more quickly d To change the Lasso cursorto indicate the Lasso width press the Caps Lock key Change the cursor while the tool is selected but not in use Using the Magic Wand Tool The Magic Wand Tool lets you select a consistently colored area without having to trace its outline You specify the color range or tolerance for the Magic Wand Tool s Selection 1 Select the Magic Wand Tool 2 In the options bar specify whether you want to create a new Selection add to an existing Selection subtract from a Selection or select an area intersected by other Selections The Magic Wand Tool s cursor changes depending on which option is selected 3 For Tolerance enter a value in pixels ranging from 0 to 255 Enter a low value to select the few colors very similar to the pixel you click or enter a higher value to select a broader range of colors 4 To define a smooth edge select AntiAliased 5 To select only adjacent areas using the same colors se lect Contiguous Otherwise all pixels using the same colors will be selected 6 To select colors using data from all the visible Layers se lect Use All Layers Otherwise the Magic Wand Tool selects colors from the active Layer only 7 In the image click the color you want to select If Con tiguous is selected all adjacent pixels within the tolerance range are selected Otherwise all pixels in the tolerance range are selected 00 To move a Selection border 1 Using any Selection tool select new Selection from the options bar and position the pointer inside the Selection border The pointer changes to indicate that you can move the Selection 2 Drag the border to enclose a different area of the image ARCH 593 Digital Image Media Handout 12 September 16 2004 You can drag a Selection border partly beyond the canvas boundaries When you drag it back the original border re appears intact You can also drag the Selection border to another image window To control the movement of a Selection To constrain the direction of movement to multiples of 45 degrees begin dragging and then hold down Shift as you continue to drag To move the Selection 1pixel at a time use the arrow keys To move the Selection in 10pier increments hold down Shift and use the arrow keys To hideshow Selections edges Choose Extras gt Show or Hide from the View menu This command also shows or hides Selection edges grids guides target path slices and annotations To select the unselected parts of an image Choose Inverse from the Select menu or press CrtlShift win or CommandShift mac Adjusting Selections manually You can use the Selec tion tools to add to or subtract from existing pixel Selections Before manually adding to or subtracting from a selection set the feather and antialiased values in the options bar to the same settings used for the original selection To add to a Selection or select an additional area 1 Make a Selection 2 Using any Selection tool a Select the Add to Selection option in the options bar and drag b Hold down Shift and drag to add another selection To subract from a Selection 1 Make a Selection 2 Using any Selection tool a Select the Subtract from Selection option in the options bar and drag to intersect with other Selections b Hold down Alt win or Option mac and drag to add another Selection To select only an area intersected by other Selections 1 Make a Selection 2 Using any Selection tool a Select the Intersect with Selection option in the options bar and drag b Hold down AltShift win or OptionShift mac and drag over the portion of the original Selection that you want to Select AntiAliasing smooths the jagged edges of a selection by softening the color transition between edge pixels and back ground pixels Since only the edge pixels change no deatil is lost Antialiasing is useful when cutting copying and Selections pasting selections to create composite images AntiAliasing is available for the Lasso Tool the Polygonal Lasso Tool the Magnetic Lasso Tool the Elliptical Marquee Tool and the Magic Wand Tool You must specify this option in the options bar before using these tools Once a Selec tion is made you cannot add antialiasing Feathering blurs edges by building a transition boundary bewteen the Selection and its surrounding pixels This blur ring can cause some loss of detail at the edge of the Selec tion You can define feathering for the Marquee Tool the Lasso Tool the Polygonal Lasso Tool or the Magnetic Lasso Tool in the options bar as you use the tool or you can add feath ering to an existing Selection by choosing Feather in the Se lect menu Feathering effects become apparent when you move cut copy or fill the Selection Moving Selections and Layers within an image The Move Tool lets you drag a Selection or Layer to a new loca tion in the image With the Info Palette open you can track the exact distance of the move You can also use the Move Tool to align Selections and Layers To specify Move Tool options Select the Move Tool Select any ofthe following in the options bar a Auto Select Layer to select the topmost layer with pix els under the Move Tool rather than the selected Layer b Show Bounding Box to display the bounding box around the selected item M4 To move a Selection or Layer 1 Select the Move Tool To activate the Move Tool with an other tool selected press Ctrl win or Command mac 2 Do one ofthe following a Move the pointer inside the Selection border and drag the Selection to a new position b Select the Layer you want to move Then drag the Layer to a new position Copying Selections or Layers You can use the Move Tool to copy Selections as you drag them within or between im ages or you can copy and move Selections using the Copy Copy Merged Cut and Paste commands Dragging with the Move Tool saves memory because the Clipboard is not used as it is with the Copy Copy Merged Cut and Paste coommands The Copy command copies the selected area on the active Layer The Copy Merged command makes a merged copy of all the visible Layers in the selected area The Paste command pastes a cut or copied Selection into another part of the image or into another image as a new Layer If you have a Selection the Paste command places the copied Selection over the current Selection Without an active Selection Paste places the copied Selection in the middle ofthe view area ARCH 593 Digital Image Media Handout 13 September 16 2004 The Paste Into command pastes a cut or copied Selection inside another Selection inthe same image or different im age The source Selection is pasted onto a new Layer and the destination Selection border is converted into a Layer mask To copy a Selection 1 Select the area you want to copy 2 Choose Copy or Copy Merged from the Edit menu To copy a Selection while dragging 1 Select the Move Tool or hold down Ctrl win or Com mand mac to activate the Move Tool 2 Hold down Alt win or Option mac and drag the Selec tion you want to copy and move When copying between images drag the Selection from the active image window intot the destination image window If nothing is selected the entire active Layer is copied As you drag the Selection over another image window a border highlights the window if you can drop the Selection into it Creating multiple copies of a Selection within an image 1 Select the Move Tool or hold down Ctrl win or Com mand mac to activate the Move Tool 2 Copy the Selection a Hold down Alt win or Option mac and drag the Se lection b To copy the Selection and offset the duplicate by 1 pix el hold down Alt or Option and press an arrow key c To copy the Selection and offset the duplicate by 10 pixels hold down AltShift or OptionShift and press an arrow key As long as you hold down Alt or Option each press of an ar row key creates a copy of the Selection and offsets it by the specified distance from the last duplicate In this case the copy isn t made on a new Layer Using the Snap command Snapping helps with precise placement of selection edges cropping marquees shapes and paths However sometimes snapping prevents you from correctly placing elements You can enable or disable snapping using the Snap command You can also specify different elements to which you want to snap when snapping is enabled Choose Snapfrom the View menu to enabledis able snapping To specify what to snap to Choose Snap To from the View menu and choose one or more options from the submenu Guides Grid only when the Grid is not hidden Document Bounds All None A check mark indicates that the option is selected and snapping is enabled A dot win or dash mac indicates that the option is selected but snapping is disabled Saving and loading Selections To save a Selection choose Save Selection from the Select menu To load a saved Selection choose Load Selection from the Select menu and then enter the options and click OK Selections Deleting Selections To delete a Selection choose Clear from the Edit menu or press Backspace win or Delete mac Deleting a Selection on a background or on a Layer with the Lock Transparency option selected in the Layers Palette replaces the original location with the background color Otherwise the original area is replaced with the Layer transparency Removing fringe pixels from a Selection When you move or paste an antialiased Selection some of the pixels surrounding the Selection border are included with the Se lection This can result in a fringe or halo around the edges of the pasted Selection These Matting commands let you edit unwanted edge pixels a Defringe replaces the color of any fringe pixels with the colors of nearby pixels containing pure colors those with out background color Choose Matting gt Defringe from the Layer menu enter a value in the Width text box for the dis tance to search for replacement pixels and click OK b Remove Black Matte and Remove White Matte are use ful when you want to paste a Selection antialiased aganst a white or black background onto a different background Choose Matting gt Remove Black Matte or Remove White Matte from the Layer menu Using the Extract filter The Extract filter dialog box provides a sophisti cated way to isolate a foreground object and erase its background on a lay er Even objects with wispy intricate or undefinable edges may be clipped from their backgrounds with a minimum of manual work You use tools in the Extract dialog box to specify which part of the image to extract When you extract the object Photoshop erases its background to transpar ency Pixels on the edge of the object lose their color components derived from background so they can blend with a new background without produc ing a color halo 1 In the Layers Palette select the Layer containing the object you want to extract If you select a background Layer it becomes a normal Layer after the extraction If the Layer contains a selection the extraction erases the background only in the Selected area 2 Choose Extract from the the Filter menu then specify options for tools on the right side of the dialog box a For Brush Size enter a value or drag the slider to specify the width of the edge highlighter erase cleanup and edge touchup tools b For Highlight choose a preset color options for the highlight that ap pears around objects you choose with the Highlighter tool or choose Other to specify a custom color for the highlight c For Fill choose a preset color option or choose Other to specify a custom color for the area covered by the Fill tool d If you are highlighting a welldefined edge select Smart Highlight ing This option helps you keep the highlight on the edge and applies a highlight that is just wide enough to cover the edge regardless of the current brush size 3 Specify Extraction options a Select Textured Image if the foreground or background of your image contains a lot of texture b For Smooth enter a value or drag the slider to increase or decrease the smoothness of the outline G Select Force Foreground if the object is especially intricate or lacks a clear interior 4 Adjust the view as needed a To magnify an area select the Zoon tool in the dialog box and click in the preview image To zoom out hold down Alt win or Option mac ARCH 593 Digital Image Media Handout 14 September 16 2004 as you click b To view a different area select the Hand tool in the dialog box and drag in the preview image G Select Force Foreground if the object is especially intricate or lacks a clear interior 5 Define the edge of the object you want to extract a To draw a highlight that marks the edge select the Edge Highlighter Tool Z in the dialog box and drag so that the highlight slightly overlaps both the foreground object and its background Use Smart Highlighting to trace sharp er edges Use a large brush to cover wispy intricate edges where the fore ground blends into the background such as hair or trees I IP WWW b If the object has a well defined in terior make sure that the highlight forms a complete enclosure You do not need to highlight areas where the object touches the image boundaries If the object lacks a clear interior high light the entire object WWW55 c To erase the highlight select the Eraser Tool I in the dialog box and drag over the highlight To erase the entire highlight press AltBackspace win or OptionDeIete mac 6 Define the foreground area a If the object has a welldefined in terior select the HM tool E in the KT dialog box Click inside the object to fill its interior WWWquot b If you ve selected Force Fore ground select the Eyedropper tool in l7 the dialog box and click inside the object to sample the foreground color or click in the Color text box and use a color picker to select the foreground color 7 Click Preview to preview the extraction a Use Show menu options to switch LLLL at m wk m apnlv M3 or the Clamp Eng m aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa x5 bewteen previews of the original and extracted image Ii IP WERE b Use Display menu options to pre view the extracted object against a colored matte background or as a grayscale mask G Select Show Highlight or Show H to display the object s hightlight or fill 8 Touch up the extraction a To erase background traces in the extracted area use the Cleanup tool The tool subtracts opacity and has LLLL M a cumulative effect Hold Alt win or 5 Option mac while dragging to add opacity back b To edit the edge of the extracted ob ject use the Edge Touchip tool IE The tool sharpens edges and has a cumulative effect If there is no clear edge the ARCH 593 Digital Image Media Handout 15 September 16 2004 Layers allow you to work on one element of an image without disturbing the others Think of layers as sheets of acetate stacked one on top of the other Where there is no image on a layer you can see through to the layers below You can change the composition of an image by changing the order of and attributes of layers In addition special features such as adjustment layers fill layers and layer styles let you create sophisticated effects You can put multiple layers together in different ways 1 Groups let you view and physically manipulate multiple layers as a single object 2 Sets let you assign attributes to layers as a single object 3 Links let you link layers to use them as a single object The Move tool allows you to move an entire layer or layers set Using the Palette The Layers palette lists all layers layer sets and layer effects in an image Layers Q C W Channels A Y 0mm ou can accomplish many tasks such as creating hiding displaying copying Luck Fm and deleting layers usmg the buttons In the Layers palette You can access 5 39 DEM B additional commands and options in the Layers palette menu and the Layers l5 menu Displaying the Layers Palette Choose Window gt Layers Be sure to move the palette from the dock to enable the palette menu lil 395 I HE C ll quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot quot D Using the Layers Palette menu Click the triangle in the upper right corner of girl Layer E the palette to access commands for working with layers lal l 1 lo 31 a A Layers palette menu B Layer Set C Layer D Layer Thumbnail E Layer Effect Changing the size of the layerthumbnails Choose Palette Options from the Layers palette menu and select a thumbnail size Expanding and collapsing layer sets Click the triangle left of a layer set folder In Photoshop press Alt windows or Option mac when clicking the triangle to expand or collapse all effects applied to layers contained within the set Press Alt win or Option mac when clicking the triangle to expand or col lapse all sets including nested sets Press Crtl win or Command mac when clicking to see all sets at the same level as the selected one Creating Layers and Sets A new image in Photoshop has a single layer The number of additional layers layer effects and layer sets you can add to an image is limited only by your computer s memory When you create a new image with a colored background the bot tommost image in the layers palette is Background An im age can have only one background You cannot change the stacking order blending mode or opacity of the background You can convert a background into a regular layer 1 Doubleclick the background in the Layers palette or choose New gt Layer from Background from the Layers menu 2 Set layer options as desired click OK Creating new Layers and Sets You can create empty lay ers and add content to them or you can create new layers from existing content When you create a new layer it ap pears either above the selected layer or within the selected layer set in the Layers palette Methods to create a new Layer or Layer Set 1 Click the New Layer Button or New Layer Set Button in the Layers Palette This method uses default options or 1 Choose New gt Layer or choose New gt Layer Set from the Layer Menu 2 Set Layer options and click OK To copy a Layer or Layer Set Drag an existing layer or layer set to the New Layer button To convert a selection into a new Layer Make a selec tion choose New gt Layer Via Copy in the Layer Menu to copy the selection into a new layer To create a new Layer Set from linked Layers Choose New gt Layer Set from Linked from the Layer Menu To add new or existing Layers to a Layer Set Select the Layer Set in the Layers Palette and click the New Layer but ton or Drag a layer to the Layer Set folder Layers 1 avemanvawamivesmwammvwnhiveved mivs Vaucan ae1aepae1ea1 wee eup11ea1e We and chanvuhe appea1a1ee a1wapea smv ivers Yov eMmdeLayErsw hmaSat 11aewe111a11a1e1a11e 1e11a111eupe15e11awe1a expandcahvsuhecamems 1 wave was wenp11e uvevs Van a1e11111e Livers pa1e1e M New Vi ede a111e Maie m1 1 A11e1ae1eapw11e Maie m1 gamma 5e1ee1 La1e1 11 he ppm pa1 and e11ae11e dacumem a111e1a1e1ew 1e111aewaw1aae1ea1 Yhe avmas ivevcamammvlees wee11weeewa1w111peae1ea1ee a1 A11e1ae1ea1wp1we Mame m1 WM ewe 11 he wave and change a upe111aw11e camm menu We 155 a11 he Livers 11a1eaw1a11 Fixes unde he ce11e11paw11aea11w p1ap1angeweaa11a15a1 eayaa m can use me UV er pa1e11e1a ae1ee1we We and why me eawewa a1 Yo awageewewapwym a LagEn eaya Sen or man 11 he lavas pa1e1e e11ae11e eve nex 1a a Livev ea1e1 5e1 a1 Dvev Emdtashwnmde 15 camenhnme dacumem wmdwu uphcamg eayaa DuvhcahnvLivers s an caW camem M111 in wave 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VVevenwhethev e 1p1 advu 5 1 Dvevandvam 1 a 11e1we mewaww Wu Can cha seep paw smv aawp1ee am waw a1pa1p1e lavas 5e1ee1 w move has skd apaee andmmeammnsbav ae1ee1 UseNHJVevs Image Concepts I ARCH 593 Digital Image Media Handout 11 September 9 2004 The Pixel A Digital Image is composed of an array of picture elements or pixels Each pixel represents a single color and value The computer arranges the pixels to create the illusion of a continous image in a manner similar to that of a television screen or a Pointillist painting Every image has an absolute width and height in pixels Image Resolution The number of pixels packed into a unit of measure eg inch that determines the quality of the image This value is the image resolution Image resolution most commonly refers to the number of pixels per inch This is called dots per inch or dpi In most cases higher resolution higher dpi results in better image quality Remember however that final image quality is limited by the quality of your image source While image resolution can always be reduced increasing resolution will not improve image quality Image Size Image size refers to the realworld dimensions of an image usually measured in inches The dimensions of an image are independent of its file size eg a 6 X 8 image at 100 dpi will print out at the same size as a 6 X 8 image at 300 dpi although the 300 dpi pixel image will have a higher resolution conversely a 3 X 4 100 dpi image will print out at half the size of a 6 X 8 100 dpi image even though the images have the same resolu O 3 File Size File size refers to the amount of memory needed to store a given image document File size is directly propor tional to the number of pixels in an image the more pixels the greater the file size Since resolution measures dots per square inch file size is proportional to the square of Image Resolution For instance the file size of a 300 dpi image is 9 times that of a 100 dpi image File size also depends on the kind of pixels that comprise the image eg since a fullcolor pixel needs more memory than a black amp white pixel a 100 dpi color image will consume more memory than a 100 dpi greyscale image A good rule of thumb is that color images are approximately three times larger than greyscale images The file format of an image document can also affect its file size Sampling Images Any time the resolution of an image is changed while keeping the image size constant the image is being sam pled If the resolution is decreased then the image has been downsampled Scaling Images In order to scale an image without losing image quality it is important to understand to relationship between im age size and image resolution When scaling in image remember this basic formula Pixels Image Size X Resolution When scanning a very small image such as a color slide or film negative it may be necessary to greatly increase the scale of an image after scanning Accordingly you will notice that a slide scanner will typically allow you to scan at resolutions as high as 2700 dpi printers and flatbed scanners rarely go above 600 dpi Such a high resolution may seem excessive but is necessary to capture all the information contained in a 1 X 15 slide Also the small image size would make for a relatively manageable file size see above formula A 2700 dpi 1 X 15 image can be scaled into a 300 dpi 6 X 9 image without a change in file size or image quality h 239 DownSampled gt i i 39 09quot X 045quot 300 dpi 104 kb 267 X 134 pixels 27quot X 13quot 100 dpi 104 kb 267 X 134 pixels Image Concepts ARCH 593 Digital Image Media Handout 12 September 9 2004 There are many different file formats that can be used to store image data Some of them are very high quality yet very large while others may be small but compromise quality Which format you use will be dependent on what your image looks like how much quality you need and how much space you have to store it in The matrix here delineates some of the strengths and weaknesses of a few of the more common formats Format Extension Color Depth Quality Size Remarks Tiff TlF 24 bit Excellent Very Large Good for line art and drawings Jpeg JPG 24 bit Very Good Medium Good for photographs GlF GlF 8 bit OK Very Small Good for small web graphics Photoshop PSD 24 bit Excellent Varies Containts proprietary technologies like layers actions channels ransparency but not compatible with most viewers Generally the Tiff format is best for use with line art or drawings where image quality is key Jpeg is best for working with photographs where a little bit of loss in color quality but not too much is acceptable and not noticable Color Spaces amp Gamut Greyscale Greyscale images contain no color information All shades vary from white to black RGB RGB stands for Red Green and Blue This model represents how your computer sees colors According to the RGB model each shade of each of the 3 colors Red Green and Blue is repre sented by a number ranging from 0 to 255 For example the black color is represented by the 0 0 0 RGB value R0 G0 and B0 while the white color is represented by the 255 255 255 RGB value R255 G255 and B255 So the RGB model can represent more than 16 millions of colors RGB is an additive model because Red Green and Blue are additive colors In other words when red green and blue are comined they create white Red Green Blue White CMYK CMYK stands for Cyan Yellow Magenta and blacK This model is used for printing CMYK is a subtractive model In theory cyan yellow and magenta should combine among themselves to absorb all colors and produce black But because of the small impurities found in all inks they actually com bine to form a muddy brown This is one of the reasons for the black ink HSB HSB stands for Hue Saturation and Brightness According to this model any color is repre sented by 3 numbers The first number is the hue and its value ranges from 0 to 360 degrees First there is the red color 0 or 360 degrees and then there are all other colors for example yellow at 120 degrees green at 180 degrees and blue at 240 degrees up to the violet color All colors are repre sented here The second number is the saturation It represents the amount of color or more exactly its percentage Its value ranges from 0 to 100 where 0 represents no color while 100 represents the full color Finally the third number is the brightness 0 represents the white color and 100 represents the black color The more this value tends to 0 the brighter the color is The more this value tends to 100 the darker the color is LAB LAB stands for Luminance or lightness and A and B which are chromatic components Ac cording to this model A ranges from green to red and B ranges from blue to yellow This model was 39 designed to be device independent In other words by means of this model you can handle colors i I regardless of specific devices such as monitors printers or computers The Luminance ranges from 0 to 100 the Acomponent ranges from 120 to 120 from green to red and the B component ranges 7 from 120 to 120 from blue to yellow Gamut The graph belowleft represents the LAB color space all colors perceivable by the human eye Each color space and in fact each device has its own portion of the LAB space which it is capable of displaying The graph belowright shows the RGB color space used by computer monitors as well as the CMYK color space used by printers superimposed on the outline of the LAB color space As you can see the are colors that a monitor will show that cannot be printed and there are colors that will print that a monitor cannot display lab cnlnrgamm RGB olov gamut CMYK alargamul Photoshop Program Layout ARCH 593 Digital Image Media Handout 13 September 9 2004 Menu Bar I Photoshop File Edit image Layer Select Filter View Window Help 1 l I Feather Dpx w I Style Normal 8 39vv 1 ll iii I Brushesquot Tnanresetsquot Layermmps a Options Bar Palette Well 1 o e 0 I 2 3 03032521133 legpg 100Ef ackgrourid RGBJBa g m 5 Navigation Palette I 39 39 39 7 71quot II o r tr 39 39 f 39 h I JNaViator info 1 Histogram p 37 ii 3 35 67 0 R IE six Di El 239 i 3 E E1 ELEANOR nose E if El 7V 7 m Toolbox 7 El m a 1 7 Iionw T W Dec LlliMJ39lJ M b Menu Bar Contains menus for perfor maing tasks organized by topic Options Bar Contains toolspecific options and modifiers Toolbox Holds tools for creating and edit ing images Active Image Area Palette Well Helps orgainze the palettes in your work area Navigation Palette Shows you where you are working relative to your entire image Color Palette Allows you to choose and modify colors with a variety of color models Layers Palette O O was I Normal 9 OpaCIry39 l El39A39 Elam History Palette Shows you the actions that have been performed on your image and allows you to undo them 5 u Background l9 lul0llillil Layers Palette Allows you to see and control the visibility and arrangement ofthe layers in your image Getting to Know the Work Area ARCH 593 Digital Image Media Handout 14 September 9 2004 Photoshop File Edit Image Layer Select Iter View Window Help Edlr image Layer Se image Layer Seleu Fllr Layer Seleu Fll Selecr Filter View Wl FIle Is used for opening closing and saVIng 3m Unanimwmshaww 3 Mod New importing and exporting and page setup and Sm 08 34de L2 Amumems r 322 S W printing 096quot Rem Dupirzare Edit m ImaqeReadv 0 3m W W Layer Style gt Edit contains a variety of commands including Close H sew Couv sec MES newmla ver m I I r I aw Mm yer undo and redo cut copy and paste fIll and save 03 me ssv giljfsp39mm I I I Save As 35 I II I HI I stroke and free transform I Clear memes gt Save farWeb YOBSS I rum Image contains area commands Including color 2 quotZ I ReveaIAII modes and adjustments image and canvas omwwm F1 0 sizing rotating cropping and trimming mp0quot gt FreeTransfcrmParh m Exparr Transform Path l l Layer contains commands related to layers only Automate I I H I I some of which are duplicated In the layers pal De necimmsiape I I I I File lrIfa 3 M ii ette Commands Include creating duplicating We gt w L I and deleting layers adjusting layers I 53 I g Ef ii i iiig gil39 m H I and styles fill and adjustment layers layer 3135va mi My Emma 0 vector and clepIng masks layer arrangement WTO Emmy and linking and mergin and flattening Filter View WI View Window Hel Wquot W Select contains a variety of commands Including Preferences and Col II I mum PmofColcrs SEV or Settings ran tsex Cammwammg my FIirerGallery I I Filter contains a variety of commands including Preferences and Color ColorRange in ame mm zoom In sh Zoom our 3amp SettIngs nsuc Fir on Screen 3w Bru sh Strokes r 1de m View contains some naVIgatIon tools zooming fIt screen actual sIze Isrart S M d I I H Noise p reen o a and prInt sIze as well as screen mode and a number of commands 7 mum mm H v1 related to Image assistance tools rulers ngd snapping and gwdes I r I 22an The Show Extras item will turn on or off all the items that can be in 39 353 I We 3 Sna 03g dIVIduallyturned on or off VIa the Show submenu Turning an Item off 32 I SnaZTo in the Show menu does not affect its performance it simply makes my Lgrkcmdes m D b It not VIsIble Note that Items In the show menu are only available If g39m Newcume they already exist in your document WW Window is where you can hide or show any palette the status bar the options N39WEHQ Fh39mww a bar and the type tool s paragraph and character palettes Palettes which are Workspam v Welwmmmen on the screen but hidden behind another palette in a group can be brought to gym 5 Tm39grfquot W the front from this menu Clicking on the palette s name toggles it to show or 233 Sysmmmm hide Palettes that are showing have a check mark next to their name Clicking vgfelomww rs Updates the name of a checked palette will either close it to the palette well or remove HEEZgyram Photoshapommem it entirely from the window mm Howwcrweweb Ima as gt Layercomps Howrc Customize and Aurumare avers Hnww FIX and Enhance hams gt The Arrange submenu contains command that Will organize how your open mgm H Marmara raw gt v prions ow to Prepare Art for orher Appllzatiuns r Images are arranged We Will arrange multIple Images WIthIn the Window WIth paragraph owroCJInrkPhaws I me or w out overlapping them Cascade overlaps pIctures but allows a faIr amount of 233 How m Workwirh Layers and Selections p h d I t t h wmm How u WorkwlrhTyDe gt eac un er yIng pIc ure 0 remain s owmg ELM Hawm mmwm gt A list of all open images is at the bottom ofthe menu clicking the name of the leuoopsd one you want will bring it to the front Help Choose Help gt Photoshop Help to use Adobe s online help The index and contents are a little bit confusing but the Search feature works quite well There is a wealth of step by step information there Getting to Know the Work Area ARCH 593 Digital Image Media Handout 15 September 9 2004 Toolbox The toolbox contains all the Photoshop tools Some are not visible but are hidden under another tool To choose a hidden tool click and hold on the visible tool icon and pick the subtool from the popup menu that appears Selection Tools Marquee Tool Select a rectangular region click and hold mouse on tool for other shapes Lasso Tool Select by drawing a freeform shape Magic Wand Click on a pixel to select a contiguous area ofthe same color Use the Shilt Key to add additional areas to the selection J J Quick Mask convert a selection into a mask which can be edited with any ofthe painting tools Edges can be distorted and filters or effects applied You can convert the mask back into a selection Painting Tools Brush Dragging in the ima e 39 39 paint is applied varies according the options you have selected 7 History Brushes Paints 39om an earlier state ofan image onto the current state ofthe image 0 Paint Bucket Fill a selected region with the foreground color Gradients Appies a color fade 39om foreground to background in the selected area Pencil Drawing tool that provides a harder edge than what you get with the brush um foul t 33 mm mm mi 39g quot L n paintbrush The way the Retouching Tools I Healing Brush Lets you correct imperfections blending them into the surrounding image y quot 3 mm rm I Patch Lets you repair a selected area With pixels 39om another area or pattern gymWmmw i i Clone Stamp Takes a sample of an image which you can then apply over another area of an image Eraser Makes pixels the background color or transparent if on a layer Dodge Lightens an area ofthe image Bum Darkens an area ofthe image Sponge Subtly changes the color saturation of an area Blur So ens hard edges or areas in an image to reduce detail 739 Sharpen Focuses so edges to increase clarity or focus nnl x A smean x Smudge Simulates the actions of draggin a finger through wet paint W EKW quot Vector Tools I Path Select Used to select a path D WWW i Pen Create straight lines and flowing curves Shape Create vector shapes in shape layers and as paths Also can create raster shapes 0 t 39 editable with the painting tools nmmmmn Line Create linear vector elements Navigation I Hand Tool Pan around the image just click and drag Zoom Get closer or thher away Percentage Zoom is shovm at top of image window 100 means one pixel on the screen shows one pixel ofthe image Hold down the Option key Mac or Ctrl key Windows to zoom out Type Allows you to insert a text layer into an image Crop Allows you to remove portions ofthe image outside the selected area Move Tool Move a selected region or an entire layer Hold dovm Option key mac or Ctrl key Windows to copy Notes Aows you to attach a text annotation to a particular location on an image Appears as an icon Eyedropper Choose a color by matching a pixel on screen 1 Color Picker Set foreground and background colorfor all manipulations Mask mi y mi rm Mm lunl v Getting to Know the Work Area ARCH 593 Digital Image Media Handout 16 September 9 2004 Options Bar The Options Bar is context sensitive and changes as different tools are selected Some settings are common to several tools such as painting modes and opcaity and selection boolean logic When you select a tool in the toolbar it s very im portant to remember that you need to set the proper options before using the tool Selection tools used for creating closed boundaries Once a selection has been made editing can only occur within the selection outline Painting tools used for add ing color by using the mouse like a brush or by simply fill ing areas with a selected col or These include the brush history brushes paint bucket gradients and pencil tool Retouching tools used for editing existing colors and im age details These include the new healing brush and patch tool the clone stamp formerly known as the rubber stamp eraser dodge burn sponge blur sharpen and smudge tools Vector tools used for creat ing and editing vector shapes These include the path select pen shape and line tools Change view tools used for moving and magnifying the view of an image without af fecting the image itself The hand and zoom tools are workhorses you ll be using constantly 3 a W ire i I l J quot 3939 g HIT FeatliierIDpgtlt I HAmi ailased a pm I lt9 c a X I ToleranzeIFI EAniialiased 3939Enintigunus 39 Lise Ml LBVEFS I nnnnnn as lI TWil 39 I a m E mm mm spaci HWIMi I I Erush 1 uni I Mode Normal B Opacltv 100 B I Flaw JO 39Ai IE I II amp pi FIII Foreground Pattern v Mode Normal E OpaclryImUa II I I m I I Mode Normal Opacity I 39439 Reverse B Dither E Transparency 39 39 Md N l D tunaLI IquotA1E l o e onlia Paciv 5 uo rase l Brush Tolerance U I 39739 Aniialiased L4 contiguous 39A39 All Layers I l Brush I Mode Normal E I Source 8 Sampled Pattern v Aligned 3939 Use All Layers l 1 V l a I Patch 8 Source Destination 39 Transparent I i I l V Brush I in I Mode Normal 0 acitv 100 I Flaw 100W I 39 Ali ned 39 Llse All La ers IIgJI j p ljrl ljbl eg i I grj Brush I Mode smsh Be Opacity lG 39A39 1 I Flow minx IE I i i I Brush I Range39 Midtgnes Exposure 5m I I I Range Mldrones E Exposure ISG H 1 l I Mode Desatura39re E HOW 50 I39E l I Made V Normal Strength I 3939 use All Layers Mode V Normal Strength I 3939 Lilse Ail Layers Mode V Normal Strength I 3939 Lilse Ail Layers 3939 Finger Painting IE llgl l M m I Brush I2 Brush EEl Brush Brush El 35 lJlJllli lJ I EITHI Color I IJ i1ilI IgI Style 7 Color I E II I 3939ShuwBoundlng px ggr 5o 3 I EMBED Imam 0 Emmi Q I Magnetlc llJ4 I IE Style And then there s the power ful type tool the crop tool for chopping images down to size the move tool for mov ing selection contents or lay ers the notes tool for adding little sticky notes to an im age the eyedropper for col lecting color data and the big foregroundbackground color squares you see near the bottom of the toolbox that are where you can make your color choices IMIEMIIDI i5 i5quotquotD C O wegm 1px IIELHJ39 Ell 1 I mquot MEIEEI ColaniI f Frim Size l I Actuall39uxels ii I I 397 Scroll Ml Windows H10quot screen If I I 397 Reslze Windows To Fit I i v i i r I 39g Zoom Nil WII ldO WS I if Mluall ixels l Flt 0n Screen 4 l FrintSize l I 1391quot Ikl ill IuoI IBolditallc TTIm pt a3 Smooth I 39f I I I Widthrl I Heaghtrl I Resulutlon 39 pixelsllnch lees i Front Image i i Ciear WI WI I sewer snowsounmasnx ewe li iijl 352 lJlJrlJIilJ I AuthorIunwersiwofvnglnia I I rant Lucida rande Size Medium I I Color I i s I El Sample Size Polril Sample E


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