New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Medical Pharmacology

by: Reba Rogahn

Medical Pharmacology PHAR 630

Reba Rogahn
GPA 3.5


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Pharmacology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Reba Rogahn on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHAR 630 at University of Virginia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/209620/phar-630-university-of-virginia in Pharmacology at University of Virginia.

Popular in Pharmacology


Reviews for Medical Pharmacology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/21/15
Medical Pharmacology April 16 2003 Doug Bayliss HYPOTHALAMICPITUITARYGONADAL AXIS 1 OVERVIEW The major physiological function of this hormonal axis in both males and females is the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics and the control of gametogenesz39s and reproduction The major uses of pharmacological agents that target this axis are 0 contraception 0 treatment of infertility 0 treatment of hormone dependent disorders eg prostate and breast cancer endometriosis o hormone replacement 0 to promote normal development and maintain normal structures e g hypogonadism o to alleviate symptoms of menopause to arrest premature development eg precocious puberty II HORMONES AND DEVELOPMENT The hypothalamicpituitarygonadal axis is active in males and females during three main periods of life 1 in the midtrimester of the fetal period 2 early in the neonatal period and 3 from puberty throughout the reproductive years During the fetal period testosterone secretion is essential for sexual differentiation in boys and elevated levels of FSH may contribute to folliculogenesis in girls The increased activity in the neonatal period results from the abrupt decrease in steroid levels at birth and the resultant disinhibition of the hypothalamopituitary system In both boys and girls increased pulsatile release of GnRH occurs mostly at night early in puberty later pulsatile release of GnRH occurs throughout the 24 hour day The increased GnRH release along with enhanced pituitary responsiveness to GnRH triggers elevated gonadotropin secretion gonadal steroidogenesis and development of secondary sexual characteristics In men testosterone levels peak following puberty are maintained at those levels throughout adulthood and drop slightly in old age In women ovulatory cycles begin and last until menopause when ovarian function ceases MALES FEMALES LH Secretion Panama Fetal Neonatal PubenaLL Adult jam Age 39 7 2 v E E 2 A I g 5 u E 39 100 E E 5 x E quot 39 s 5 o A l l e U 5 39 39 L E I g I 5 o a u39 r c n 1 5w 39 i x E m 39 a g 239quot 5 E H n I g a i l l x I 139 i I I39 l I quot l I E 4 I l 1 t 1 I 39 I 151 2nd 3rd 1 10 17 40 60 Bo 39 2m 3quot am 6m Myr so mg m 3911 quot am Fetal Infancy Childhood Puberty Reproductive Menopause Life Yaars Schematic diagram of phases of male sexual behavior Pattern of gonadotropin secretion during different as indicated by mean plasma testosterone level and stages of life in women Secretory patterns of LH sperm production at different phases of life during waking clear and sleep stippled 1 HORMONAL CONTROL OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE Wm illustrate many arms lmpunanl alums arms hypu39halamcrpxlm39aryrgumdal am Dams regarding mmmdual hurmunal cumpunems Engels drugs and may uses Wm be prumded later Fallinllar leil erzvjve Phase Fomcvu msa mm was iamc a gym4mg m rvus Mm I mummy mm an vauslevwc 9 Aosuogun g mm Endmmevwm Overview IV PREVIEW OF HORMONES MAJOR EFFECTS amp THERAPEUTIC AGENTS Hypothalamus GnRH released in pulses from the hypothalamus stimulates LH and FSH release from the pituitary o synthetic agonists of GnRH either mimic gonadorelin or inhibit lenprolide goserelin effects of GnRH They are used in assisted fertility to induce chemical castration eg for treatment of breast or prostate cancer and endometriosis and to treat precocious puberty Pituitary LH amp FSH from the pituitary gonadotropes hCG from the placenta stimulate gonadal development gametogenesis and gonadal steroid hormone synthesis 0 preparations of human LH FSH menotropins and hCG are obtained from the urine of menopausal and pregnant women recombinant forms may soon be available for use They are used primarily in the treatment of infertility Gonads Estradiol and progesterone from ovaries and testosterone from testis are required for development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics and for gametogenesis o Estrogens estrogen receptor antagonists and estrogen synthesis inhibitors are available 0 natural and synthetic estrogens eg ethinyl estradiol estrone sulfate as well as nonsteroidal estrogens may be used therapeutically most commonly in contraceptive pills and in hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women 0 antiestrogens in common use are estrogen receptor antagonists clomiphene for assisted fertility and tamoxifen for prevention and treatment of breast cancer 0 synthesis aromatase inhibitors such as aminoglntethimide have been used in treatment of breast cancer as secondline therapy following tamoxifen New aromatase inhibitors that are far more potent and speci c are now available eg anastrozole aka ArimideX o SERMs such as raloxifene to prevent osteoporosis and improve lipoprotein pro les in postmenopausal women 0 A number of progestins have been developed A receptor antagonist mifepristone RU 486 has been available in Europe for the termination of pregnancy it was recently approved in the US 0 agonists include natural and synthetic progestins e g norgestrel medroxyprogesterone acetate norethindrone They are used alone or combined with estrogens in contraceptive pills and together with estrogens for hormone replacement in postmenopausal women 0 Androgen preparations receptor antagonists and synthesis inhibitors are available natural testosterone in a transdermal patch and synthetic androgens eg testosterone enanthate are used principally to treat hypogonadism and delayed puberty some are used by athletes eg stanozolol in an attempt to enhance performance receptor antagonists eg utamide are used with GnRH analogs to treat prostate cancer 0 synthesis inhibitors that block testicular l 39 39 of e 39 39 or inhibit conversion of testosterone to its more active Socdihyroxy metabolite eg nasteride are used to treat prostatic hyperplasia Reading List Katzung Basic amp Clinical Pharmacology 6th Edition Chapters 3639 Additional Reading Goodman amp Gilman s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 9th edition Chapters 555758 3


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.