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Geographic Information Systems

by: Baron Nienow

Geographic Information Systems PLAN 5120

Marketplace > University of Virginia > Environmental Science > PLAN 5120 > Geographic Information Systems
Baron Nienow
GPA 4.0

David Phillips

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David Phillips
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Baron Nienow on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PLAN 5120 at University of Virginia taught by David Phillips in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/209623/plan-5120-university-of-virginia in Environmental Science at University of Virginia.

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Date Created: 09/21/15
Spatial Analysis using Raster Data Plan 512 Jason Espie November 8 2005 Exercise Overview and Re ections This exercise introduced us to the use of raster layer overlays and the use of the ArcGIS spatial analyst to modify themes and analyze data sets using a grid with a dimension of 16 sq ft or 4 x4 A variety of operations were performed on vector layer attribute table data to determine distance and proximity The grocery layer was converted to a raster grid with spatial analyst to assign grocery store values to a the grid The process of nding distance and allocation for these stores for both straight line and cost weighted required a few steps An input later was constructed for the road network by creating a buffer around the vector street layer similar to previous exercises using buffers and some time was spent making sure that this buffer intersected each parcel This required that we edit some of the streets and play with the width of the buffer I ended up using a buffer of 65 and having to modify and in some cases extend the streets to they intersected with all real not sliver parcels and that all streets also intersected with one of the grocery parcels since the grocery grid would be a layer of analysis later on The streets thus acted as a spatial join to the parcels but only those parcels we selected to have dwelling units of greater than 0 ie only residential parcels Thus the selection of parcels is necessary early on in steps of a procedure It would require us to repeat many of these steps if for example we wished to determine grocery stores near higher density parcels or those with dwelling units greater than say 5 In other words one lesson from this exercise is to know where you want to end up early on in a process though one could also possibly reverse the process by converting raster back to a vector layer though I did not play with this during this exercise With the grocery grid created and a street buffer grid created we used spatial analyst to determined which store was closest to each grid cell stlinalloc and the straight line distance from each store stlinedist We next did the same procedure but used spatial analyst to determine the cost weighted distance of 4 for each unit of the roadway These steps lay the grid foundations for the next step of analysis the zonal statistics This is an operation that overlays grids to find values of one from values of another in this case we were adding parcels and dwelling units to the analysis of grocery and streets like a layered cake We selected just those parcels inside the study area then just parcels with dwelling units greater than 0 to choose just the residential parcels The Zonal Statistics function of spatial analyst was used to take these data and overlay the previous grid stlinedist etc to create data tables We had to then use previously learned skills to add fields to the venparcels vector layer and calculate values in these fields from the zonal data ables we just created From these the following maps below were created or density straight line distance and allocation and cost weighted distance and allocation Summagy of Map Results Six Maps were produced for this exercise A brief summary analysis is for each follows 1 Density of residential dwellings for the study area The density map using a 300 ft kernel is useful in that it reveals which neighborhoods of Venable have the highest concentrations of dwelling units per square mile Similar to a contour map these color coded circles of density indicate that the highest density areas are near the comer Venable and Madison with some peaks of density in the University Circle area 2 Straight line distance and allocation zones This map was created to simply show the results of the interim steps involved in this exercise The two themes shown here are both the straight line in radial feet distance from grocery stores as well as the straight line allocation area for each store represented by the blocks of solid colors wherein a portion of the grid needs to be assigned the nearest grocery store 3 Parcels Straight line distance to closest store This map is the result of the zonal analysis to determine those parcels that are nearest to a grocery store any grocery store using a blue graded scale I included the radius straight line distance as well as coloring the parcels to show how these allocations were reached for each parcel The Winston Avenue neighborhood really shows a dense coloring of those parcels farthest to a grocery store represented by a thick band of darker blue colored parcels University Circle parcels likewise had darker blue colors I tried to get the range or colors to be similar for both the distance radius and the parcel coloring to Note this map and the following were mislabeled as single dwelling unit parcels when it should have been simply residential parcels 4 Straight line allocation showing store assigned to a residential parcel The zonal analysis for straight line allocation of grocery stores to a parcel is represented I this map which shows how a location of a store can greatly change the fabric of what store people consider closest to them For example even though the Kroger is very near a number of Winston Ave parcels the carriage house sits between it and those parcels thus they have been allocated or assigned the Carriage House as their closet store If one were to use this map to analyze which store to invest in improving the small Grady Avenue convenience store has the best location of all the grocery stores just based on straight line parcel allocation not total dwelling units That would be a different step worth of investigation But not here 5 Minimum Cost Weighted distance to closest store This map shows the minimum cost weighted allocation for each parcel A cost weighted value is assigned to each parcel based on the distance along the street network to a grocery store Those that were furthest using this zonal statistic analysis were clearly the parcels in Winton and University Circle that were at the end of streets and cul de sacs Though these parcels have a relatively short straight line distance when you have to travel the street grid to get to a grocery store they are actually farther away This method of analysis would be useful for areas that are not walkable and which rely more heavily on street access which is probably more the norm than the exception in many places 6 Cost Weighted grocery store allocation Like the straight line grocery store allocation map the cost weighted grocery store allocation map that analyses the street grid connectivity also shows that the Grady Ave Convenience store is the most strategically located grocery parcel in these neighborhoods It perhaps should be upgraded to a Food Lion or small grocery market from a convenience store if the goal was to improve the quality and choices of grocery store service to a majority of residential parcels for the neighborhoods of Venable Density Map Dwelling Units Per Square Mile forthe Neighborhoods of Venable Charlottesville Virginia Neighborhoods of Venable Dwelling Units per Sq Mile CI 0 250 1 25001 1750 1 17501 3500 3 35001 6000 C 60001 9000 C 90001 19000 D 19001 28000 28001 38000 D Neighborhoods in Study Area V nston Venable lll l Feet 0 375 750 11500 21250 31000 By Jason Espie PLAN 512 Fall 2005 Straight Line Distance and Allocation Zones for Grocery Stores in the Neighborhoods of NeighbomoodsofVenable quot 7 39739 Radius ft to aGrocery 0 225 E22517 E44917 E67517 D9001 11 1267 31350 574 391 800 2 025 Nelgnbornood5 m Study Area Grocery Store Allocation lll I Feet 0 375 750 1500 2250 3000 By Jason Esple PLAN 512 Fall 2005 SingIeDwellingUnitParcels Straight Line Distance to Grocery Stores Neighborhoods of Venable Charlottesville Virginia Neighborhoods of Venable 7 Radius ft from a Grocery Cl 0 225 I 2251 449 l 9001 1125 1126 1349 13501573 15741799 1800 2024 2025 3207 Parcels Dist ft to a Grocery 0 225 1574 1798 1799 2023 2024 2247 lll l Feet 0 425 850 11700 21550 31400 By Jason Espie PLAN 512 Fall 2005 SingleDwellingUnit Parcels Assigned to their Nearest Grocery Store Neighborhoods of Venable Charlottesville Virginia Neighborhoods of Venable quot Grocery Stores L I a 10 and Wertland 39 Grady Ave Conv Emmet Ivy Gas Harris Teeter Corner Carriage House Integral Yoga x Feet 0 1 By Jason Espie PLAN 512 Fall 2005 Minimum Cost Weighted Distance to a Grocery Store feet for Residential Parcels Neighborhoods of Venable Charlottesville Virginia Neighborhoods of Venable p V K Min CW Dist to Grocery yf 01640 gtV X 77 E a 9585 11410 11420 13560 13570 16130 16140 19850 gt D Neighborhoods in Study Area lt Grocery lll I 0 375 750 1500 2250 3000 By Jason Esple PLAN 512 Fall 2005


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