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by: Harrison Harvey Jr.

Proseminar ISPS 3899

Harrison Harvey Jr.
GPA 3.72


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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Harrison Harvey Jr. on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISPS 3899 at University of Virginia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/209627/isps-3899-university-of-virginia in OTHER at University of Virginia.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
Holly Jenkins ISPS 399 Capstone Proposal 4 December 2005 Exercise Addiction Regular physical activity is very bene cial for both physical and emotional well being According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention individuals should engage in at least thirty minutes of moderate physical activity on a regular basis Physical Activity and Public Health 2003 Regular physical activity and exercise has been proven to reduce the chances of health problems such as heart disease obesity diabetes cancer and osteoporosis Adams Miller amp Kraus 2003 Psychological bene ts associated with exercise include increased selfesteem con dence emotional stability body image and memory capabilities In addition it decreases anger anxiety con lsion depression tension and general Type A behaviors Whaley 2005 However in some cases individuals have become addicted to exercise and regularly engage in excessive exercise This is de ned as physical activity that is extreme in frequency and duration relatively resistant to change and likely to be accompanied by an irresistible impulse to perform even in the face of an injury fatigue or other personal demands Gulker Laskis amp Kuba 2001 Other common names for this abnormal behavior include exercise dependence exercise addiction morbid exercise tness fanaticism athletic neurosis compulsive athleticism obligatory exercise and exercise abuse Adams et al 2003 Excessive exercise has been listed in the Diagnostic and Statistics Manual as a behavior associated with bulimia nervosa O en individuals who sulTer from this eating disorder will abuse exercise as a way to compensate for an eating binge to avoid weight gain This type of excessive exercise is much more commonly found in women than men Although there are no known causes for eating disorders many people blame our culture s emphasis on physical appearance The media sends the message that attractive people are very slender As a result many women feel pressure from society to be unusually thin which makes them more vulnerable to eating disorders Oltmanns amp Emery 2004 O en women who have bulimia will exercise excessively to avoid weight gain a er eating On the other hand some psychologists believe that excessive exercise is a result of an addiction disorder similar to gambling or alcohol addictions Primary exercise dependence is done for the sake of exercising rather than a means of weight control O en weight loss is common in this type of dependence but only as a way to improve athletic performance and ability Zmijewski amp Howard 2003 Currently exercise dependence is not recognized as a primary disorder by either the Diagnostic and Statistics Manual or the International Classification of Disorders However some psychologists believe that it should be included based on its similarities to other dependence disorders Adams et al 2003 In 2003 Adams Miller and Kraus designed criteria based on three components of dependence This includes tolerance withdrawal and compulsive behavior A maladaptive pattern of exercise behavior leading to clinically significant impairment or distress as manifested by three or more of the following occurring at any time in the same twelve month period 1 2 4 Tolerance to exercise as de ned by either of the following a A need for markedly increased amounts frequency duration and or intensity to achieve the same effect 0quot Markedly diminished effect with continued exercise of the same frequency duration andor intensity Withdrawal from exercise as manifested by either of the following a Characteristic withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety depression irritability tension guilt frustration lethargy malaise in the absence of exercise b Exercise occurs to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms Exercise o en occurs in longer duration or more frequently than intended The Individual exercises even when heshe does not feel like it A great deal of time is spent exercising Exercise is continued despite a physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the exercise ie a recurrent injury Important social occupational or recreational activities are given up or reduced secondary to exercise 8 Continued exercise despite persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the exercise ie amount of time exercising 0 Recurrent exercise resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work school or home care professionals may refer an individual for treatment Adams et al 2003 This type of addictive behavior can have devastating effects on the individual Since exercise is the individual s first priority other things such as careers families and social engagements sulTer Excessive exercisers will o en go to work late or give up social events in order to squeeze in a workout This behavior is also physically harmful to the individual s health O en the constant abuse to their bodies will result in overuse injuries Despite doctors recommendations to discontinue the routine they will not stop or decrease their tness regimens In the mind of the excessive exerciser the mental anguish of not exercising is more pain ll than the injury In a study done by Bamber Cockerill Rodgers and Carroll 2003 fi ysix women were interviewed about their exercise dependence One such exercise dependent woman explains the effects of this selfin icted physical abuse I have knackered my knee joints and I have got arthritis in my knees and ankles from too much exercise and I have crumbling hip joints from overexercise so I know I have got permanent knee and shin injuries that I have given myself from overexercise but I still continue to do it Bamber et al 2003 However in their study of fi ysix women Bamber Cockerill Rodgers and Carroll found that only ten women t the criteria for exercise dependence All ten of these women also met the criteria for an eating disorder This could possibly confirm that excessive exercise is a symptom of an eating disorder On the other hand they could not dispute the idea that there could be high comorbidity between eating disorders and primary exercise dependence Bamber et al 2003 In other words it is possible that eating disorders and exercise addiction commonly occur at the same time even though they are independent disorders In a study done by Zmijewski and Howard 2003 over two hundred college students were interviewed to examine excessive exercise in relation to eating disorders They found several cases of exercise dependence without the presence of an eating disorder As a result they concluded that primary exercise dependence is a separate disorder and not strictly a symptom of bulimia nervosa Zmijewski amp Howard 2003 These two studies serve as examples of the current controversy regarding exercise addiction More evidence is required to determine whether it is only a symptom of an eating disorder or if it is an independent primary disorder I nd the debate over the nature of exercise dependence to be quite intriguing Speci cally in which ways is exercise dependence a primary disorder I propose that exercise dependence is a primary disorder which is closely related to other addiction disorders During the course of my research I will evaluate evidence relevant to my theory With the assistance of my mentor Monnica Williams I plan to nd additional information that suggests that excessive exercise is a separate disorder that is experienced by people who do not suffer from bulimia nervosa In order to accomplish this I will perform a literature review of peer evaluated journal articles that are related to this subject I will obtain these sources by performing a search on two popular databases Medline and PsycINFO Next I will read all of the articles pertaining to exercise addiction to evaluate the past studies By comparing all of the research ndings I will be able to determine if there is supporting eVidence to suggest that exercise addiction is a primary disorder In conclusion exercise dependence is a harmful addiction that affects indiViduals physical and psychological wellbeing Additional research needs to be conducted in order to llly understand the nature of this disorder I hope that my literature reView will be a valuable contribution


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