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This 2 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Emily Hechavarria on Thursday September 11, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 93 views.
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Date Created: 09/11/14
Learninq and Memorv Types of memory Declarative What you declare that you know something the capital of Massachusetts is Boston is semantic remembering an event is episodic Nondeclarative How can only show you know how to do it ride a bicycle skill learning use a new word you heard priming salivating for favorite food conditioning Short term memory 30 hours limited mind can handle 7 things at once anything more chunking phone number Patient H M Epilepsy gtgt Cut out troubled zones of brain gtgt Seizures stopped BUT no longer able to consolidate longterm memory think 50 First Dates called anterograde amnesia cannot remember events after injury Retrograde Amnesia cannot remember events before injury Who am HM was able to maintain motor skill a nondeclarative memory without knowing it o ProcedurallMuscle Memory is stored in the cerebellum not the temporal lobe o In humans medial temporal lobe in the hippocampus is important for declarative memory o Different parts of the brain process different aspects of memory like puzzle pieces Sensory Information gt encoding gt ShortTerm gtrehearsalconsolidation gt LongTerm few secondshours Hippocampus is especially important for consolidation everything else is influenced by different sensory cortices o Hippocampus is also important for spatial memory 0 place cells in rats gt neurons fire when exploring a plane girninq and Memorv Svnaptic Plasticitv Synaptic Changes that May Store Memories After Training o Increased PSP o New synapses form o Shift in synaptic input Potentiation strengthening of a synapse add axoaxonic gt increased PSP widening of either or both prepost synaptic receptive area a Lonq Term Potentiation LTP stengthen a speci c neuron o Synapse is strengthened gt SAME INPUT bigger response bigger PSP after LTP o Requires repeated highfrequency stimulation temporal summation gt AP or Strong Depolarization Hebb s Rule stregthening of a synapse that is repeatedly active cell that fire together wire together LTP discovered in many brain areas but many studies in mammals is focused on hippocampus HIPPOCAMPUS pyramidal cells made up of 3 subfields CA1 CA2 CA3 Glutamate is in most forms of LTP CA1 AMPA receptors Nachanne opens w NMDA receptors Ca channel blocked by magnesium glutamate Chem gated depolarize ions needs both glutamate amp change in voltage to open depolarization evicts magnesium ligandchem gated Both are on the same postsynaptic membrane but normally only AMPA is open Mgz is knocked out when cell depolarizes enough opens to Caz ions which initiate protein cascades After LTP both prepost synaptic changes strengthen the synapse for a few hours or more Synaptic strengthening efficiencymore of AMPA receptors increased release of glutamate change in structure Structural stranges fatter mushroomy synapses more synapses neurogenesis birth of neurons Language Animal Communication Elaborate vocal behavior to distinguish species mating alert for danger Songbird songs earned speciesspecific by tutors gt crystallized Even without the tutor the birds develop a similar pattern in the song without exposure Chimps learn sign language use symbols could be classical conditioning for rewards unable to make unique sentences Animal Communication Phoneme a sound produced for a language ph oo ah etc Morpheme smallest meaningful unit of language s non un etc Semantics meaning of words within sentences Syntax grammar rules of a language Prosody rhythm tone Multimodal spoken written signlanguagedifferent means of language ReceptiveExpressive inllenqes of Speech Learned implicitly rapid presentation transient signal signal variability individuals coarticulation accents speech segmentation Cocktail party effect selective attention individual speaker pay attention at times perhaps you know parts of it Broca s Aphasia Nonfuentexpressive aphasia Damage to lower left frontal lobe Difficulty in language production that girl that looked like she knew what to say but couldn t Wernicke s Aphasi fuentreceptive aphasia Damage to posterior of the left superior temporal gyrus Difficulty in language comprehension that older dentist that couldn t understant questioning o The Arcuate Fasciculus bundle of axon fibers connects lang comp sites to lang prod sites 0 Visible Wernicke s Area gt Broca s Area 0 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation temporarily deactivates cortical brain regions process specific language characteristics semantics phonology etc o Language processing typically leftlateralized more various in lefties o Cerebral specialization for language is innate estab before exposure o Music is right lateralizedl Qnquaqe Acquisition birth 6 yrs gtgt Pruning Dah Dauh experience Bilinqual Language Development both processed in Native areas Attention task switching inhibition etc Better white matter integrity in older adult bilinguals corpus collosum frontal regions Protects from Azheimer s
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