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GEO 101-007 Chapter 4 Key Terms

by: Jennifer Gintovt

GEO 101-007 Chapter 4 Key Terms GEO 101-007

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Geology > GEO 101-007 > GEO 101 007 Chapter 4 Key Terms
Jennifer Gintovt
GPA 3.361
The Dynamic Earth
Dr. William Lambert

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About this Document

Here are the key terms and definitions for chapter 4
The Dynamic Earth
Dr. William Lambert
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101-007 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. William Lambert in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see The Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
GEO 101007 92115 Chapter 4 Key Terms Assimilation the process of magma contamination in which blocks of wall rock fall into a magma chamber and dissolve Batholith a vast composite intrusive igneous rock body up to several hundred km long and 100 km wide formed by the intrusion of numerous plutons in the same region Bowen s Reaction Series the sequence in which different silicate minerals crystallize during the progressive cooling of a melt Crystalline Igneous Rock a rock that consists of minerals that grew when a melt solidified and eventually interlock like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle Dike a tabular wallshaped intrusion of rock that cuts across the layering of country rock Extrusive Igneous Rock rock that forms by the freezing of lava above ground after it ows or explodes out extrudes onto the surface and comes into contact with the atmosphere or ocean Flood Basalt vast sheets of basalt that spread from a volcanic vent over an extensive surface of land they may form where a rift develops above a conventional hot spot and where lava is particularly hot and has low viscosity Fractional Crystallization the process by which a magma becomes progressively more silicic as it cools because earlyformed crystals settle out Fragmental Igneous Rock a rock consisting of igneous chunks and or shards that are packed together welded together or cemented together after having solidified Geotherm the change in temperature with depth in the Earth Glassy Igneous Rock igneous rock consisting entirely of glass or of tiny crystals surrounded by a glassy matrix HotSpot volcano an isolated volcano not caused by movement at a plate boundary but rather by the melting of a mantle plate Igneous Rocks rock that forms when hot molten rock magma or lava cools and freezes solid Intrusive Igneous Rocks rock formed by the freezing of magma underground GEO 101007 92115 Laccolith a blistershaped igneous intrusion that forms when magma injects between layers underground in a manner that pushed overlying layers upward to form a dome Large Igneous Province a region in which huge volumes of lava and or ash erupted over a relatively short interval of geological time Lava molten rock that has owed out onto the Earth s surface Lava Flow sheets or mounds of lava that ow onto the ground surface or sea oor n molten form and then solidify Liguidus the lowest temperature at which all the components of a material have melted and transformed into liquid Mafic Magma contains a relatively high proportion of iron oxide and magnesium oxide Magma molten rock beneath the Earth s surface Magma Chamber a space below ground filled with magma Obsidian an igneous rock consisting of a solid mass of volcanic glass Partial Melting the melting in a rock of the minerals with the lowest melting temperatures while other minerals remain solid Pegmatite a coarsegrained igneous rock containing crystals of up to tens of centimeters across and occurring in dikeshaped intrusions Pillow Basalt glassencrusted basalt blobs that form when magma extrudes on the sea oor and cools very quickly Pluton an irregular or blobshaped intrusion can range in size from tens of meters across to tens of km across Pumice a glassy igneous rock that forms from felsic frothy lava and contains abundant over 50 pore space Pyroclastic Rock rock made from fragments that were blown out of a volcano during an explosion and were then packed or welded together Scoria a glassy mafic igneous rock containing abundant airfilled holes ill a nearly horizontal tabletopshaped tabular intrusion that occurs between the layers of country rock GEO 101007 92115 Solidus the highest temperature at which all the components of a material are solid at the solidus temperature the material begins to melt Stoping a process by which magma intrudes blocks of wall rock break off and then sink into the magma Tuff a pyroclastic igneous rock composed of volcanic ash and fragmented pumice formed when accumulations of the debris cement together Ultramafic Magma has a higher proportion of magnesium and iron oxides relative to silica Vesicle open holes in igneous rock formed by the preservation of bubbles in magma as the magma cools into solid rock Viscosity the resistance of material to ow Volcanic Arc a curving chain of active volcanoes formed adjacent to a convergent plate boundary Volcanic Ash tiny glass shards formed when a fine spray of exploded lava freezes instantly upon contact with the atmosphere Volcanic Breccia a pyroclastic igneous rock that consists of fragments of volcanic debris which either fall through the air and accumulate or form when solidifying lava breaks up during ow Volcano 1 a vent from which melt from inside the Earth spews out onto the planet s surface 2 a mountain formed by the accumulation of extrusive volcanic rock Xenolith a relict of wall rock surrounded by intrusive rock when the intrusive rock freezes


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