Environmental Challenge and Animal Agency
Environmental Challenge and Animal Agency 73356
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This 3 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Kristi Leslie on Thursday September 11, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 73356 at University of Massachusetts taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Farm Animal Care and Welfare in Science at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 09/11/14
AnSci 260 Environmental Challenge and Animal Agency how animals learn and adapt to the environments that they re in What is Behavior anything an animal does in response to a stimulus two types innate vs learned behaviors Learning in Animals learning the acquisition of knowledge results when innate action patterns are modified as a result of experiences ex when you put your fingers on the stove then know not to do it again Kinds of Learned Behavior in order from most basic to most in depth Habituation amp Sensitization habituation gt long term stimulus specific waning of a response ex horses getting used to objects moving after taking them out multiple times sensitization gt becoming increasingly responsive to a repeated stimulus exshaking a treat box to summon your dog lmprinting forming a social attachment to another object usually irreversible and takes place during a specific period in life Operant Conditioning learning by trial and error gt rewards strengthen behavior punishments diminish behavior CIassicaI Conditioning learning by association unconditioned stimulus US a stimulus that has the ability to produce a specified response before conditioning begins unconditioned response UR the response thats produced by the US conditioned stimulus CS an initially neutral stimulus that comes to produce a new response because it is associated with the US conditioned response OR the response produced by the CS Insight most complex type of learning using previous experiences to respond to a new situation Agency and Competence Agency engaging actively with the environment gt gathering knowledge and enhancing skills for future use proactive Competence possession of skills knowledge or qualifications gt applying strategies to deal with novel challenges reactive Expressed in 3 Ways Problem Solving gt initially driven by an external situation triggers cognitive processes that continue beyond the immediate problem Exploration gt aimed at gathering information occurs in response to novel situations and stimuli reduces environmental uncertainties Play gt spontaneous intrinsically motivated behavior performed for its own sake functions to train animals for unexpected situations Benefits of AgencyCompetence helps them social interact better helps with long term survival helps with their health and fitness Effects of Suppressed AgencyCompetence increases boredom and depression increases fear and anxiety restrictive environments might cause slower healing and increased pain Differences in Expression of Agency Competence non human primates devote different proportions of time to social play some species play less frequently with age individuals play moreless depending on location time of day and mood Environmental Enrichment EE altering the environment of captive animals to increase behavioral diversity and welfare gt promotes species typical behaviors increases ability to cope with challenges reduces frequency of abnormal behaviors expacing increases positive interaction with the environment Limitations of EE variable success due to negative early experiences individual variationpreference disturbances may inhibit use costlabor expenses Providing EE Two Approaches 1Naturaistic captive environment that mimics natural environment zoo 2 Behavioral artificial environment but satisfies most behavioral needs farms marine parks Types of EE physical gt housing occupational gt toys exercise nutritional gt making them work to find their food social gt human and animal sensory gt sounds sights agency makes animals more competent to deal with challenges Quiz 1 List the 5 Freedoms freedom from paininjurydisease freedom from hungerthirst freedom from discomfort freedom to express natural behaviors freedom from fear 2 Name the 3 types of welfare concerns that scientists have focused their research on biological functioning naturalness 3 Learning by trial and error is more formally known as what type of learning operant conditioning 4 List the 5 ethical views regarding animal use contractarianism utilitarianism animal rights relationalism right of naturalness 5 In 1964 published ruth segar animal machines which sparked interest in farm animal elfare
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