Week One/Chapter One HumanNutrition2210Ch1.pdf
Week One/Chapter One HumanNutrition2210Ch1.pdf 2210
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Leathers on Thursday September 11, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 2210 at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Natural Sciences at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/14
Human Nutrition 2210 91114 454 PM Week One Chapter One What you eat and Why Why do we eat Flavor texture taste appearance availability convenience peer influences access rural vs urban residence nutritional knowledge etc Nutrients come from food Provide energy calories Provide building blocks proteinsamino acids Vital for growth and maintenance Essential 0 A substance that when left out of the diet leads to signs of poor healthdeath Ex vitamin A deficiency night blindness adding back can reverse the condition If body can39t make essential nutrient it must be consumed in the diet Ex vitamin D sun exposure bone health Why is proper nutrition so important Avoid diseases heart disease cancer respiratory disease Nutrition plays a key role in development of these diseases Prevention is key Requires adequate nutrition Adequate Nutrients essentialnonessential 0 Energy yielding nutrients carbsprotein 0 Non yielding vitaminsminerals o Regulate the body processes 0 Energy providing carbslipids The 6 classes of nutrients 1 Carbohydrates carbon hydrogen oxygen 0 provide a major source of fuel for the body 0 basic unit monosaccharide glucose 0 simple and complex carbs 0 energy yielding 4kCa 2 Fats carbon hydrogen and fewer oxygen OOOOOOO basic unit fatty acid triglyceride is a major form of lipid fats are soluble at room temp oils are liquid at room temp unsaturated vs saturated fatty acids essential fatty acids energy yielding 9kCa 3 Proteins carbon oxygen hydrogen nitrogen O O O O 0 basic unit amino acid make up bones muscles other tissues and components lack of can lead to malnutrition 9 essential amino acids 1 non essential amino acid energy yielding 4kCa 4 Vitamins various elements OOOOO vital to life essential enable chemical reactions needed in tiny amounts fat soluble vs water soluble yields NO energy 5 Minerals inorganic no carbon 0 O 6 ooogoooo O vital to life essential function in cellular process nervous system water balance structural needs needed in tiny amounts not destroyed in cooking cremation minerals still present trace mineralsmajor minerals yields NO energy ater hydrogen oxygen h2o vital to life essential requires about 8 cups per day is a solvent lubricant medium for transport chemical processes temperature regulator makes up majority of human body Alcohol 0 Not an essential nutrient 0 Ex four loco Transforming food to create energy Build new compounds Perform muscular movements Promote nerve transmissions Maintain ion balance within cells water balance Calories measurement of energy Define the amount of energy of heat it takes to raise the temp of 1g of water by 1 degree C kCa calories on food labels Energy yielding nutrients Carbs 4kCag Protein 4kCag Fat 9kCag Alcohol 7kCag Examples 0 25g carbs 100 calories 4kcag 4x25100 o 50g protein 200 calories 4kcag 4x50200 o 78g fat 700 calories 9kcag 9x78700 0 Percent calories from 1000 total calories Carbs 10 Protein 20 Fat 70 Percentage recommendations for a healthy diet 0 Carbs 45 to 65 0 Protein 10 to 35 0 Fat 20 to 35 o no more than 10 o from saturated fat 0 Low carb diet beats a low fat diet for weight loss and heart heath Typical American Diet 16 of kcals as proteins 66 from animal sources 50 of kcals as carbs 50 o from simple sugars 33 of kcals as fat 60 from animal fats Number one nutrition problem in the US is obesity BMI body mass index Weight times 703 divided by height squared 1924 healthy 2529 overweight 3040 obese Health promotion and Disease Prevention Diet Physical activity Lifestyle Improving our diets Energy intake Salt sodium Alcohol Fat Adequate fluids Eat 5 a day Use supplements wisely Healthy people 2010 Promote healthy lifestyle and reduce preventable deathdisease Reduce obesity Increase fruit vegetables whole grain intake Lower intake of fat saturated fats sodium Increase calcium and iron intake Healthy promotion and disease prevention from diet High cholesterol causing elimination from diet may cause body to create more cholesterol on its own Physical Activity Lifestyle Recommended 0 Regular 0 30 minutes minimum most days 0 numerous benefits Recommended 0 Minimize alcohol 12 drinksday 0 Not smoking 91114 454 PM 91114 454 PM
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