Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 14 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Taylor Sherman on Thursday September 11, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 99 views.
Reviews for 02_Themes_Methods_short.pdf
I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!
-Magnus Gleason DDS
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/11/14
Applying the Scientific Method o How do we use the scientific method a First step start with some good ques ons o How do we explain the behavior of a shy child struggling to keep up in class a Second step formulate some hypotheses o parents didn t teach good social skills a shy personality a child comes from a different cultural background from the other children Applying the Scientific Method Steps 12 bring together the first Theories elements of the scientific method Each hypothesis we came up with has a broader na39ive theory or theme underlying it o Parents didn t teach good Hypgtheses social skills nurture a shy personality nature environmental contribution 1 temperament Genes Experiments 8252014 8252014 Research questions based on 7 themes 0 O 0 Nature and Nurture The Active Child 9 9 9 0 9 0 0 0 0 ContinuityDiscontinuity O O O O Mechanisms of Developmental Change The Sociocultural Context Individual Differences Research and Children s Welfare COO 0000 00000 333 1 Nature and Nurture Nature biological endowment especially the genes we receive from our parents Nu rtu re physical and social environments that influence our development 0 Important no t nature vs nurture not 43 nature and 57 nurture rather it s nature X nurture fully integrated inseparable see Shenk 2 How do children shape B their own development 3 o Children are active explorers This activity in first few years shapes T s emuk 39 l o Attentional patterns a Language 0 Play o Children actively choose environments friends and activities choices shape developmental trajectories 3 Continuity vs Discontinuity SE Continuous development oievelqpmentpooccuurslgraclually quantitativecuhangesi C Discontinuous development cleyelqpumentlodcsurs via sudden Phriq lieu mtnIlarI1Lnll mi lllllll I ium pesto new behaviorslstageltheoriesr qualitative changes Not one or the other can be both 8252014 Height gain l crnyearl 3 Continuity vs Discontinuity 35 o Appearance of continuous or discontinuous depends on time intervals viewed B 2 4 6 8 ll 12 M 35 13 a Long view over 18 yrs vs raw short view 1 yr a Change over time graph 2 4 Mechanisms of development 55 o How does change happen a One example inspired by Darwin ariatiOn generateilots of differentthoughts and behaviors seeCtiOn strengthen thebehaviors that are successful 8252014 8252014 5 Sociocultural context 55 a Development is embedded in structured contexts physical social cultural economic and historical circumstances create an environment for development a sleeping arrangements differ between Mayan and US a US culture prizes independence and sef reiance whereas the Mayan culture values interdependence a Key question what are the outcomes of these sleeping patterns 6 Individual differences 55 Why are children so different o Genes interact with environment GXE o Children treated differently by others o Children react differently to treatment by others o Children choose different environments even within same family after completing this course you might also ask why wouldwe ever think children should be the same 8252014 7 Research children s welfare public policy a Practical benefits of developmental research a Can be used to design intervention prevention programs a We ll talk about two examples later this semester Applying the Scientific Method 55 o How do we use the scientific method 0 a Third step test hypotheses using appropriate methods 8252014 Steps 23 bring together Theories the next elements of the scientific method 1 Each hypothesis must be Applying the Scientific Method 553 tested in an experiment Hypotheses o Must develop appropriate methods 1 o Must use an appropriate research design a Must draw appropriate conclusions Experiments Research Methods 55 a way to elicit the behavior you are interested in from a particular set of participants a The methodology you choose should be based on your theorymypothesis your research question 39 the ageabilities of your participants 8252014 Example What can very young p infants do 3339 o suck o turn their head a track objects with their eyes 0 fixate on objects Is this the same as that Looking Measures Are these the same 5 Habituation Habituation Paradigm Habnua on Phase Test j Phase 8252014 Looking Measures Are these the same t Preferential Looking Preferential Looking Paradigm Familiarization Phase T Pheasse Example What can toddlers do 55 group objects search for objects simple problem solving a talk 8252014 Sequential Touching i tquot f39 nimaIs thentgvev1tgn tgtthsigth91ranimas Research Designs 55 o correlational designs experimental designs table 15 comparison Cr0333939Cti0 a39 These can be correlational longitudinal andor experimental microgenetic 10 Correlational Designs 55 o Nothing is manipulated o Examine association between two variables 0 Directionofcausation problem cannot tell which variable is the cause and which is the effect c Thirdvariable problem correlation may arise from both being influenced by some third variable used for initial research exploration use of contraception Correlational Study Birth Control by Toaster Method a Li 1975 o Use of contraception 39 best predicted by 5 number of appliances 39 o 39 in the home a Positive correlation coefficient r toasters in the home 8252014 11 8252014 Third Variable Problem 33 Toaslter ye Contraception Toaster Contraception Experimental Designs 55 o Experiment manipulate something and observe its effect on behavior a independent variable a dependent variable 0 participants randomly assigned control vs experimental group 0 can infer causality and why relationship exists 12 Crosssectional vs Longitudinal 353 o quot i quot quot quotSI LZffjjf3 Children of different ages arecompared on a given behavior or characteristic over a short period of time 0 Pr0bemI differential ability among same age groups a Strength not too time consuming I7 77777777 39 q I I r vaiiIquot i iquot I Usedwhen the same children are studied twice or more over a substantial period of time Probem timeconsuming practice effects do the same text over and so they get better at the task through practice o Strength can watch development happen long time OVGF SO Microgenetic Designs a Used to provide an in depth depiction of processes that produce change Problem very intensive lots of coding o Strength can watch development happen short time uncover mechanism see table 16 for comparison of designs 8252014 13 Conclusions o We ve discussed methods a We ve discussed research designs a What should you conclude after doing an experiment a Cycle through multiple experiments hypotheses across multiple years of work Theones 1 Hypotheses 1 Experiments 8252014 14
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'