Week 5 Notes (Art of India)
Week 5 Notes (Art of India) Art 275, Cjs 307, Geo 207, Mat 113, Phi 101
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Alexandra Lord on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Art 275, Cjs 307, Geo 207, Mat 113, Phi 101 at Illinois State University taught by M. Duncan-Flowers, S. Kethineni, A. Bloom, J. Cier, D. O'Connell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see World Arts:Visual in Art at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Art 275 World Arts Visual Arts Week 5 Notes The Arts of India 9 Includes India Pakistan Afghanistan Nepal mug7r r r rlll Bangladesh Bhutan and Sri Lanka 9 Lands were culturally linked and oldest most profound spiritual civilizations if 9 The earliest Civilization y m A Y 5 15351 gig developed in Harappan 39 quot quot quotIll Intinn I nm I l N D 0 N I S I w yo quot woman mu Inll u h m V I m v gt 1 M we win LILquotmm 33 9 jam 9 Emerged in Indus River Valley 27001200 BCE 9 Indus River flows through Pakistan and Northwest India 9 Harappan was the first civilization discovered in 1924 o Emerged nearly 5000 years ago 0 Flourished from 27001200 BCE 9 400 small towns 9 Economy was based on agriculture and trade in Mesopotamia and elsewhere 0 Wheat Barley and Peas 9 Written language and standard weights and measures were used 9 Towns and cities were well planned 9 The major cities were Harappa MohenjoDaro and ChanbuDaru Built over high and low mounds Population of 3500040000 3 areas I High citadel I Residential lower city I Commercial industrial area on outskirts 0 Well planned and well maintained urban centers I Similar designs and construction At the heart stood a o Served as administrative and ritual center I Had administrative offices audience hall pool and residential I No temple I Sophisticated drainage systems throughout 9 Oldest surviving public water tank 9 Accessed by two large staircases on the south ends 9 Has a ledge to stand without entering the pool 9 May have been used for ritual bathing 9 39 feet long 23 feet wide and 8 feet at its deepest end 9 Made with uniform kiln baked bricks and waterproof gypsum mortar 9 Floor slopes to the southwest corner towards the drain 9 Has a double ringed well 0 Likely source for water is arranged in Grid Patterns Each grid had residential public baths public wells latrines and drainage systems Inhabitants were tradesmen and administrators 0 They lived in 2 story houses I Made of kilnbricks I Located on narrow streets I 1 entrance I Few windows I Plain external surfaces I Inside arranged around a central court portico or porch with a well in the center I Bathing rooms and latrines are connected to drainage in some I There is no running water in the homes I They are all constructed with similar plans Seal Stamp Impressions in positive low relief Square or rectangle with pierced on back Steatite coated with alkaline glaze Over 2000 square seals 3 in 112 with knobs on back that are pierced for a cord 4 Made from 50ft stone and coated with alkaline glaze Fired to produce a white surface Figures were carved into the flat surface before fired 0 This created a negative image o Pressed into damp clay that gave a positive image Used to identify and seal trade goods in jars Served as family insignia and religious talisman The most common designs were horned animals 0 This suggests that people embrace nature based spirituality I Animal spirits are deeply respected o The bull was a common object of worship in Mesopotamia Egypt and the Indus River Valley IMade with a o 9 Indus River artists were skilled at naturalistic rendering of their subjects 9 They made wonderfully naturalistic animals that were carved with wellarticulated muscles 6 r A I With Flgul lt0 9 Shiva seated in a yoga posture 9 Head has 3 faces horned headdress and a striped tiger shirt 9 Surrounded by animals 0 All associated with god Shiva 9 Script is deciphered 9 People in the Indus Civilization practiced a meditative yogic discipline 0 Associated with Shiva In Ilv ll 39 9 Harappa 23001700 BCE 9 Found small figurines made of terracotta stone and bronze 9 Female figurines were found in abundance from Paleolithic period well into the bronze age 9 They represent the mother goddess and earth mother bestowed of fertility 9 Figures have no head arms or legs 9 The sculptor conveyed a soft scene of flesh in a natural pose 0 Shown in movement 9 This continues to be found in Indian sculptures 9 Has a slightly inflated appearance 0 Characteristic of both male and female 9 These figurines would have been adorned with jewelry and crowns Male Torso 9 Harappa 2000 BCE 9 Portrayal of man human form 0 Not muscular 0 Typical for both male and female 9 2 types of energy 0 Male 0 Female 9 Male gods represent male cosmic energy 0 Generative source of the universe 9 Goddess wives represent female cosmic energy 0 Created energy that gives form and animates everything in the world 0 Flings the world through creative dance Nothing would exist without iremple Figuresl 9 Tell Asmar Iraq Mesopotamia 9 29002550 BCE 9 Recognized as human figures 9 Don t look like human beings By 1700 BCE the Robust Urban faze of civilization began to decline People left cities to return to village life Not sure if it was from climate change or from an earthquake that changed river system VVVV Groups of Nomadic people from Central Asia called IndoEuropeans migrated from the mountains into Northern India between 1500 BCE1000 BCE Groups settled and formed kingdoms VV Known as Vedic civilization lo Vedics are called Arians gt Arians had an impact on the future development of India 0 They had warriors with horses and chariots 0 They had an hierarchical and patriarchal social order 0 Male gods 0 Caste system that developed once they settled Indra Mounted on His Elephant Airavata This is a relief sculpture in a cave 0 Found in Bhaja Maharashtra India 0 2nCI century BCE Sanskrit and Sacred Texts 0 Now the classic literary language of India 0 A collection of 1028 hymns to the 0 Date to 1700 and 1100 BCE o Indra heaven Agni Fire Surya Sun and Soma Sacred Potion chief among the Vedic gods I Part of the rituals and religious life Preserved in oral tradition Considered sruti heard or revealed literature Of divine origin not human made Each hymn attributed to a specific OOOO 9 4 sacred texts developed during the Vedic Period 0 Vedas Skt knowledge quotsacred teachings Basic World View of the Vedas 9 Life is a battle between the forces of good the and the forces of evil the between order and chaos 9 Fire is the mouth of the gods fire is the means of offering sacrifices to nourish the gods who maintain the universe 9 are the ritual specialists who conduct the rituals sing the hymns to the gods and make the fire sacrifices The 9 800 BCE 600 BCE 9 Primary philosophical concern the nature of reality is the interconnectedness of all things 0 Taking control of own life 9 Injustices in the Hindu Caste Systems 0 Created an imbalance in social power 0 Growing anger o Introduced a new body of teachings with some elements of the old view Holy Man Varanasi on River 9 Vedic religion reshaped 800 400 BCE by holy sages in the Ganges River Valley 9 Teachings and Wisdom of this period recorded in the Upanishads 9 Ascetic religious communities composed of 9 Jainism and Buddhism and Hinduism developed new approaches to spirituality 0 Became enduring religious traditions Mahavira in Brii Mahaveerji Temple 9 Shri Mahaveerji Rajasthan o Pilgrimage sight Prince warrior caste son of chieftain O Renounced birthright I Became a wandering mendicant I Didn t wear clothes I Rejected traditional Vedic teachings I Rejected Brahman Attained Moksa through asceticism and meditation after 12 years Known as Became a teacher for 30 years I Turned the idea of sacrifice inwards 0 Inside of the individual I Took on own forms of karma 0 Eliminate negative karmic accretions that imprison one s Jiva I Compassion for all living things I Ascetic life style I Meditation 9 Colossol Bronze figure 0 Common pose in full lotus posture with hands in meditation I In transcendent bliss I State of Moksa Tlrtlmanl in g chi H 9 Illumination from Kalpasutra MS 15th century 0 Mystical diagram 0 Abstract geometrical of internal energy of holy person or universe 24 Jain h amic o All 24 teachers attained Moksa o All taugh in the Cosmic Temple 9 Mahavira is the 24th and last of these sages 9 Jinas preached from cosmic temple 9 In the Dilwara Temple Complex 9 Mount Abu Rajasthan 0 Place of some of the oldest temples 9 1031 9 Built by Vimal Shah 0 People circle ambulate and make offerings 0 They don t worship gods for help or anything else I They do admire them though 0 Building looks light and spacious I Has lace like decorations yr a l g n 1 Hill lch ll llll l l all 13 i 1 7L 5 91 Pull lush t 9 Opaque watercolor on cloth 9 1800 9 Rajasthan India lSacred Lake and Indragiri Hill of Sravanabelagolal Sacred Jain pilgrimage site since the 10th century Once heavily wooded and habited by hermits etc back in BCE Sacred Lake High hill 0 Made of granite I Has steps I Created a courtyard at the top 0 Carved colossal 60 ft statue our of granite 4 VardhamanaMahavira Five major festival celebrations o Conception 0 Birth 0 Renunciation o Liberation 0 Final release at death Other festival celebrations for the other Jinas Gommata celebrated at Sravanabelagola lThe Second Jina Gommatal o Beloved and revered as master of meditation and Jain teachings 0 High born I Father was ruler I Struggle for throne between himself and brother when father died I Two brothers had a battle o Went around Bahubali and fell to the ground 0 First enlightenment movement Changed his lifestyle Went to the forest to meditate Myth of standing there for 1 year without food or water I Vines began to grow on him 9 ndragiri Hill Sravanabelagola 9 10th century 9 60 foot carving out of granite with scaffolding behind him llisl lllh llisl ll l 9 Head Anointing Ceremony 0 Last one was in 2006 0 Next one will be in 2018 9 Monks etc climb up chanting and carrying large jugs of water and cleanse him 9 They then pour thousands of gallons of milk butter honey herbs substances and saffron over the head of the statue 0 They believe they will be spiritually charged from him
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