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Ant. Notes – Week 4


Ant. Notes – Week 4 ANT 1001


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Week 4 notes
Robin Root
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 1001 at City University of New York taught by Robin Root in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.


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Date Created: 03/16/16
Anthropology 1001 - Week 4 ANTHROPOLOGY OF GENDER/SEX Gender & Power  Intersexuality  Empowerment of women? o Both should be empowered  Assign positive qualities of gender traits Nature vs. Nurture, Sex vs. Gender  Sex-gender differentiation Gender Concept – Social Construct  Gender stereotype  Gender stratification  Gender traits to gender roles  Basis of race/gender o Economic systems o Social constructs  gender studies  Margaret Mean challenged U.S. cultural assumptions about human sexuality & gender roles  are there more than two sexes?  nature creates diversity Distinguishing Between Sex and Gender  sex- physical difference btwn male and female related to human reproduction  gender- thought/behavior that each culture assigns to people of different sexes  sexual dimorphism- the phenotypic differences btwn males and females of the same species  links btwn biology and behavior o tasks may be done by both stratified by power and prestige  gender is constructed by culture Cultural Construction of Gender  cultural construction of gender- ways humans learn to behave as a man/woman & recognize behaviors as masculine or feminine within their cultural context  parents assign genders to their children (ie. through clothes, names, colors)  gender becomes powerful, it is a potent cultural system through which we organize our collective lives, through categorizations of what it means to be a man or woman.  gender training on individual’s attitudes & behaviors  gender enculturation in sports begins early (in children)  inequality throughout sports culture btwn men & women  Constructing Masculinity in a U.S. H.S. o 1970s- gender studies mainly focus on women o C.J. Pascoe’s ethnography Dude, You’re a Fag (2007)- explored the construction of gender (mainly masculinity)  calling someone fag was not bc they were gay, it was directed at guys who cared about their clothing, too emotional, were incompetent– they were not manly enough  masculinity is not always associated with men, females can be masculine  Machismo in Mexico o The Meanings of Macho (2007)- Matthew Gutmann examines what it means to be a man/woman o depends on the particular circumstance o no simple formula Performance of Gender  gender performance- the way gender is expressed through action  both women and men display the same characteristics (ie. physical, tough, loving, smart, persuasive, emotional, strong)  people make choices about how they will express their gender identity, for whom, in what context  gender is performed o Viagra- can a man be a masculine man without an erection? o Kath Weston (1991)- showed how certain jobs carry expectations of gender performance Case Study: Caster Semenya – Female Athletes & Gender Stereotypes  Caster Semenya (b. 1991)- South African, track and field A Theory of Five Sexes  Biologist Anne Fausto-Sterling (1993)- theory in conceptualizing categorizes of biological sex & how they relate to gender identity o there are at least 3 major groups of intersexuals  intersexuals- individual born w/ a combination of male & female genitalia, gonads, and/or chromosomes Alternate Sexes, Alternate Genders  not every culture fixes sexualtity & gender in two distinct categories o Role of Hijras in Hindu Ritual  Indian culture recognizes many alternative constructions  transgendered- gender identity/ performance that does not fit with cultural norms related to one’s assigned sex at birth  hijras are auspicious and powerful ritual figures  they are both men and women, yet neither men nor women, their ideal identity is that of a chaste ascentics o Two-Spirits in Native North American Cultures  traditions of gender diversity Relationship Between Gender and Power  Ida Susser (anthropologist)- social difference and inequality  how gender structures relationships of power have far-reaching effects Male Dominance  Sherri Ortner (1974)- proposed the existence of a symbolic association of women w/ nature and men with culture, bc women reproduce, breast-feed, they are at a disadvantage in negotiating relationships of power


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