Culture and Society of the Contemporary Arab Middle East
Culture and Society of the Contemporary Arab Middle East ARAB 2270
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Albert Stamm on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARAB 2270 at University of Virginia taught by Ahmad Obiedat in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/209723/arab-2270-university-of-virginia in Foreign Language at University of Virginia.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
I Chapter 21 The End ofthe Empires 19391962 1 N V 3 The Second World War a War was a catalyst for bringing rapid changes in power and social life b When France withdrew from the war in 1940 its control weakened Italy and Germany threatened British and French positions in the Middle East Egypt Sudan Syria Lebanon Iraq c In 19423 Germans and Italians in Libya advanced into Egypt but the British counterattacked and invaded Libya Simultaneously AngloAmerican armies took German areas in the Maghreb d The British and French economies were too shaken from the war to continue in uencing their empires which created hope for the Arabs for freedom but the aftermath of WWII allowed for the US and USSR to move in and in uence these territories e Egypt Saudi Arabia Yemen had some sense of Arab solidarity with a strong conception of their national interest Syria and Iraq wanted a closer bond reminiscent of the ottoman empire Lebanon was balanced between those who considered themselves Arabs and those mostly Christians who saw Lebanon as a country closely linked with Europe f In 1945 the league of Arab States was created They supported the Arabs of Palestine National Independence 19451956 a Crises in 1943 and 1945 led to Lebanese and Syrian independence without the limitations that the treaties with Britain had imposed upon Egypt and Iraq b British wanted to continue having good relations with the Arabs due to investments oil and markets so they supported Arab independence and unity while preserving its interests c 1951 Libya gained its independence with head of Sanusi order ad king Idris British and US military base present d As Jewish migration to Palestine increased so did demands for a Jewish state The UN proposed a partition favorable to the Zionists which was rejected by the Arabs On May 14 1948 Britain withdrew from Palestine and the state of Israel was declared Israel and neighboring Arab states fought war ending in ceasefire larger Israeli occupation and 23 of Arabs becoming refugees e Egyptian forces under Abd alNasir seized control over canal zone from Britain and government f AngloEgyption agreement to transfer power to Sudanese over nonArabMuslims of south g Situation in IndoChina forced French negotiations with NeoDestour and the sultan of Morocco and in 1956 Morocco and Tunisia were given independence Suez Crisis 3 Unlike Iraq and Jordan which wished to maintain autonomy and relations with the west Egypt adopted a neurtralist policy and began to rise in power with its own source of arms and appealing strongly to the feelings of Palestinians was seen as a threat to Israel After the US withdrew aid to build the dam at Aswan Egypt took control over the suez canal This display of growing power result in agreement between France Britain and Israel to attack US and Soviet pressure caused all sides to withdraw and Abd alNasir increased his popularity In 1958 civil war broke out in Lebanon and struggle for power in Syria led to union with Egypt Iraqi and Jordanian Hashemite sought same union but was foiled by coup creating Iraqi Republic New of revolution led to American troops in Lebanon and British in Jordan but withdrew shortly The Algerian War France considered Algeria a part of it due to the great number of settlers living there and these settlers had a great power in the politics of Paris Algerian Muslims although the majority had lower standard of living and no way to improve In 1954 the FLN was formed and the revolution began the climax was the ght for Algiers In 1962 an agreement was signed the Europeans left state of Algeria included the Saharan part II Changing Societies 1940 s and 1950 s 1 Population and Economic Growth a g Population growth occurred due to decrease in death rate Egypt Morocco Tunisia Syria Iraq had an exponential population boom Foreigners and Jews also left the Arab countries Amman grew 8 fold due to Palestinian refugees Most refugees went to Jordan Lebanon Syria After US withdrew aid for Aswan dam the Soviets aided its construction It was meant to store oods release water where necessary and generate power but it prevented silt deposit in north Introduction of tractors caused cultivation increase Governments concerned themselves industry Countries were indebted to the Europeans and US except for Egypt which traded with east bloc Oil reserves in the Middle East were important and European and American companies monopolized and exported most of the oil to the West Most of the profits went to the companies In 1950 the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries tried to negotiate with companies The Profits of Growth Merchants and Landoweners a Merchants used their access to the governments to obtain a larger share of trade Rise shi i merchants in Iraq and of mixed banks became important in oil profits in the hands of Lebanese and Palestinians