Introduction to Cognition
Introduction to Cognition PSYC 2150
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This 47 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ethyl Hammes on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2150 at University of Virginia taught by Daniel Willingham in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/209731/psyc-2150-university-of-virginia in Psychlogy at University of Virginia.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Irrationality effects of how you measure preference 0 how you make your choice shouldn t matter 0 You always should prefer 39A rationally A 8 in 9 chances to win 4 B 1 in 9 chance to win 40 0 Which would you pick 0 What s the lowest price at which you would sell the chance to play this game Eliciting Preference o On jury of only child sole custody case after divorce 0 Base judgment on I Parent A 0 Avg Income health work habits reasonable rapport and relatively stable social life 0 Above Avg Income minor health problems lots ofwork related travel close relationship with child extremely active social life I People choose B for both granting and denying the parent custody of the child Framing o I give you 100 and you must choose I A 50 chance ofwinning 200 and 50 chance of winning 0 I B 100 of receiving 100 6 people go for the risk of averse gains 0 I give 300 I A 50 oflosing 200 or winning 0 Risk seeking for losses I B Losing 100 for sure Sunk Cost 0 Time money or investment that is irretrievably spent and shouldn t affect current decision making yet it does Summary 0 Foregoing material shows us that people don t always behave rationally 0 Fact implies that some principle other than expected utility guides peoples choices Heuristics 0 Simple cognitive rule that is easy to apply and usually leads to acceptable answers but can also lead to errors I Representativeness Availability Anchoring and adjustment Simulation Representativeness 0 Used when you are asked to judge the probability of an event Representativeness leads you to judge that an event is likely to belong to a category if the event either has the features of the category that you strongly associate with that category or if it has features that you associate with the process that generates examples of the category 0 Randomness is the process that generates coin tosses 0 Linda is 31 years old single outspoken and very bright Majored in philosophy As a student she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice and also participated in antinuclear demonstrations I People choose between She is a bank teller and She is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement 0 People think she is a feminist and bank teller because they strongly associate her features with a feminist 0 That is more wrong than the first choice Availability 0 Used to judge probability ofwevents 0 You use availability by trying to call to mind ecaples the more examples you think of the more probably you judge the event 0 Are there more words with R as the first letter or with with R as the third letter I People say first because they start thinking of words that have R as the first letter 0 More likely cause of death I Airplane or car crash I People believe airplanes are worse but cars are far worse I Diabetes or Homicide 0 Diabetes more likely o Implication I Portrayal of racial and ethnic groups on TV and movies eg African Americans overrepresented as criminals on TV availability heuristic suggests what you ll believe Anchoring and Adjustment 0 Used to estimate probabilities 0 To use it you do a quick estimate based on memory or on info provided in the problem and then adjust the estimate 0 Giving you a price of something and saying you ll pay this much less for it Simulation 0 Mental construction or imagining of outcomes used to evaluate past outcomes which may in uence future decisions 0 Two guys arrive at airport 30 minutes after their planes were suppose to leave One finds out his plane was delayed He just missed it by 5 minutes The other guy s ight left on time 8232011 42300 PM 8 23 11 Three Basics 0 Introspectionism o Behaviorism 0 Cognitive Psychology Introspectionism 0 First attempt to apply scientific method to thought 18805 0 Became systematic because of Wundt I First Cognitive psychologist I Titchener first American Student I Inspired by work in chemistry 0 Order and structure of periodic table 0 Goal Description of the contents of consciousness find irreducible llelements of consciousnessquot 0 Method introspection to look at your own thought process 0 Problem is I Only covers conscious processing quotimageless thought controversy 0 There really is some kinds of thought with no images I Poor reliability between subjects 0 People have different ideas of what is being acknowledged I Watching a mental process changes it 0 Watching yourself watch something changes what is occurring 0 Typical experiment listen metronome 0 Try to observe and describe their thoughts as it was ticking Response Behaviorism o 1913 John Watson 0 Tenets he sets out o Observables only 0 Theory must be parsimonious simple 0 Break behavior down into irreducible concepts 0 Behaviorism took off during the 1910 s and dominated American psychology through the mid 1950 s 82511 Classical Conditioning 0 Basic Effect o If Unconditioned Stimulus 9 Unconditioned Response Then pair Conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus Then eventually Conditioned stimulus 9 conditioned response 0 Why is Pavlov famous 0 Measurement I You can t answer questions effectively without an experimental method I It s not enough to say quotshe makes a face baby with pickle o How many times must she eat pickles 0 What if sometimes I offer pickledshaped candy 0 Can any stimulus be associated with a pickle 0 Effectiveness Food Aversion O o Associating a CS food taco with sickness caused by US xray causes a person to avoid taco because it is related to getting UR sick 0 Tastes are easier to associate with nausea experience 0 Visual stimuli are easier to learn with other things like shock o Belongingness is observed in humans too Fear conditioning to snakesspiders vs flowers mushrooms dvGSR o What makes effective CS amp US 0 Novelty of CS or US 0 Bell alone then bell 9 food I Bell associated w background I Bell associated w no food 0 Food alone then bell 9 food 0 How does CC Classical Conditioning work 0 Importance of one stimulus being conditional on another 0 Learning that one stimulus is conditional on the other means that you re learning about the environment 0 This implies that if one stimulus is not conditional on the other you won t get leaning 0 Prediction 1 If you present CS and US randomly you shouldn t get learning 0 Prediction 2 Animals should ignore stimuli that don t have predictive value 0 Lose associative strength 0 Training Test Light food light amp tone food Tone food o What does the learning look like 0 SR theory old theory Stimulus substitution theory Response I USUR CR AssociationCS I But this can t account for higherorder conditioning 0 Having light then food then having bell then light this causes dog to salivate with bell o 55 theorymore recent Stimulus I When the US is presented you have an internal representation of what that is 0 Which is Right 0 Early favored SR learning and viewed the organism in Classical conditioning as passive o More recent views favor the 55 view in which the organism seeks out information about the environment 8 30 11 Classical Conditioning Cont 0 Applications to Humans 0 Bed wetting 0 Advertising I Attractive women to sell products 0 Drug tolerance amp addiction Operant Conditioning o It is also possible for the animal to generate a response and for that response to have consequences 0 Edward Thorndike 0 Put an animal in a condition it did not like than the animal learned through pressing a pedal to escape its confine o Thorndike s Law of effect I If a response in the presence of a stimulus is followed by satisfying event the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened It the response is followed by an annoying event the association is weakened o Thorndike s method was limited because it took too long 0 BF Skinner o Strippeddown environment I Have pigeon peck at button in order to receive food 0 Initial you would teach the animal to peck or press the bar by shaping its behavior 0 Schedules of Reinforcement o Fixed ratio I Consistent ratio of number of responses amp number of reinforcements I For example factory piece work every 5 shirts you sew you get 20 dollars 0 Variable Ratio I Set ratio of number of responses amp number of reinforcements but can vary locally I Example slot machine 0 Fixed Interval I First response after a specific amount of time since the last reinforcement I Example annual sales If there is a time you can get a bonus people would tend to work harder 0 Variable Interval I First response after some amount of time since the last reinforcement amount of time can vary locally I Example checking Email predators locating prey 0 Complex Contingencies o This exist in the environment 0 Person at a stop light in a car you stop however when walking you wouldn t do the same action 9 1 11 o What makes it effective 0 Schedule of reinforcement re extinguishing 0 Temporal contingency I TMaze I The time that elapses when the animal does the target behavior and when the reinforcement is admitted o Belongingness I Thorndike tried to condition his cat to yawn or scratch to escape box he proposed belongingness I Instinctive drift o A concept related to belongingness instinctive drift Breland amp Breland o A natural instinctive behavior that s related to what s being taught Motivational State can also influence a hungry animal does more foodseeking behaviors 0 Quality quantity of reinforcer Works as you would expect 0 What else the animal might do It s not as simple as lthe animal Maximizes good things minimizes bad things Even humans don t do this if the situation gets moderately complex Matching Law When in situations of choice people work to equalize ratios of work to reward o The problem of definition 0 What isa reinforcer Thorndike called a reinforcer something llthat brings about a satisfying state of affairsquot The animal will work to achieve the reinforcer 0 Another definition physiological homeostasis Animal seeks to lessen thirst hunger etc Definition of reinforcement is based on biological drives Learning a llstamping inquot of the work that needs to be done to reduce hunger Eg quotI must not only consume and chew to get nourishment I also must press the bar and then chew Problems 0 Too many drives were proposed 0 Animals and people do things that seem more likely to raise drives not lower them 0 If you watch someone and they do something that s routine and then it is restricted It becomes a positive reinforcer o Bliss point is the point where the animal is when it is freely behaving 0 Applications 0 Animal training Revolutionized animal training Importance of temporal contingency Exclusive use of positive reinforcement Complexity of behaviors when these rules are followed o Biofeedback I Operant conditioning of the autonomic nervous system I For years not explored because no one thought it could possibly work 0 Apply operant conditioning principles to education 1 Make sure student doesn t make mistakes guide behavior 2 Immediate feedback 3 Review frequently I Little enthusiasm Teachers didn t like it for their own reasons Students were bored 0 Token economies I Used in some mental health institutions prisons and some classrooms I Giving a reward token for positive responses The token can therefore be exchanged for something at a llstorequot I Said to be dehumanizing mental patients or because it seems that you re quotpayingquot students for behavior that they should want to do 9 6 11 Turn to Cognitive Perspective gt Problems with behaviorist accounts gt Inspiration from outside psychology gt Example of how to think about thinking A framework scientific method Observe9 theorize9 test observe etc Prior to mid 19 h century intro Introspectionism 0 First attempt to apply scientific method to thought 18805 Introspection 0 Only covers conscious processing 0 Poor reliability between testing Turn to Behaviorism 0 Focus on observables only 0 Theory must be parsimonious llObservables only in theory development was too restrictive Overview of changes 0 Inability to account for all animal behavior indicated something might be wrong 0 Work from ethologyl 0 Critical Period A time when the animal is able to learn particular information rapidly and with little exposure if the time window is missed the animal learns with greater effort or not at all 0 All about reinforcement Critical Period in humans 0 I Johnson and Newport 1989 0 A case for the critical period Subjects 0 46 native Chinese or Korean learners of English 0 In the US for at least 5 years 0 Age of arrival 339 years old I Method 0 Grammaticality Judgment Test Results 0 Accuracy on grammaticality test correlated with age of arrival for subjects who arrived in US before puberty 0 Accuracy on grammaticality NOT correlated with age of arrival for subjects who arrived in US after puberty Fixed action pattern this is a complex behavior that emerges full blown with little opportunity I Fixed action patterns in humans 0 Eyebrow flick 0 Coy 0 Catch eye 0 Look down 0 Inability to go from animal models to human behavior indicated it was incomplete o Posing abstract constructs suggested as what needed to solve these problems 0 Inspirations from other fields to use abstract constructs Skinner 1957 o The behaviorist account of language Child utters sounds at random is reinforced for utterances that are close to appropriate Language is shaped Chomsky 1959 o Behaviorist account is wrong 0 Behaviorist accounts ignore that language is generative This means that virtually everything you say and hear is novel It can t be the case that you understand it because of reinforcement in the past because you ve never heard it before 0 Generativity seems to call for m similar to ymxb Need for abstract constructs o In memory research data seemed to call for some discussion of subjects strategies 0 Eg subjects hear a mixed list but report it back in categories When asked they y that they are doing so because it helps them to remember Abstract Construct o A theoretical set of processes and representations eg a rule for language or a strategy in memory 0 Eg why do people forget phone numbers after 30 seconds You could propose that there is a short term memory which holds information for 30 seconds or so 0 Short term memory has representations eg of the number quot8quot and process eg refresh It s like a mini theory Newell amp Simon s Logic Theorist 1956 o Discovered proofs in symbolic logic of the kind originally presented in Whitehead amp Russell s Principia Mathematica 0 Program contains a list of axioms a list of previously proven theorems and a manner in which axioms may be combined 0 Program given new statement which it must prove Greater Usefulness of Brain Data 0 More and more influence from behavioral neurology What replaced behaviorism 0 We ve just been listing problems with behaviorism question what could replace behaviorism o Observable stimuli observable responses 0 Observable stimuli abstract constructs mind9 observable response Goal of Cognitive Psychology to identify processes and representations ie abstract constructs that support thought Speech Interpretation 0 Segmentation where are the breaks between words 0 Where are the breaks between phonemes o Variability in phoneme production between speakers Interpretation of Question 0 Word order dramatically changes sentences 0 Surrounding context also matters 0 He smiled 0 He slowly took out the gun He smiled Summary this shows the basics of cognitive perspective 0 Emphasizes representations eg quotanswer in memoryquot and processes quotphrase the answerquot that transform the information 9 8 11 Methods of Cognitive Psychology 0 The Problem 0 We could have lots of different theories which predict the same outcome 0 Example scanning in STM o Sternberg task given a set of letters to remember eg AK YW size of the set varies I Stimulus appears K and you must say quotyesquot or quotnoquot as to whether it is in the set 0 How does search work 0 Serial selfterminating I More things you have to remember it takes longer to remember I The yes responses are going to be faster than the no responses 0 Serial exhaustive I You re going through all of them so no separation between yes and no time 0 Parallel I Searching for everything at the same time I Size of memory set does not matter 0 Key Features of cognitive strategy 0 Develop alternate models of processing I Serial selfterminating I Serial exhaustive I Parallel o Derive signature predictions of each model 0 Obtain data that allow comparison 0 Bottom Line 0 Allowing abstract constructs creates a special problem for theories 0 Solution is greater specificity and willingness to make many cycles 0 Types of Behavioral Research 0 Descriptive Naturalistic observation 0 Has the advantage of being llrealquot o The key disadvantage is lack of control Case Studies 0 Only examining one person in great detail They are often exceptional individual The advantage is that you may gain much richer insights by sustained study rather than brief lab stintsbut again you don t have much control and the individual may not be representative of other people 0 Relational describe the world as you find it Rather than just observing one thing you observe two things and see if they go together Correlation does not equal Causation 0 Musicians learn sequences better than nonmusicians 0 Musical training 9 improved sequence learning 0 Sequence learning skill9 musical training But bear in mind that EVERY study you ve ever seen concerning age gender race is a correlational study Also many studies of things that you in theory could manipulate but never would for ethical reasons eg abortion adoption 0 Experimentaldescribe relationships Allows you to make a claim about causality You get that because the experimenter manipulates something Faces are special 0 Evolution has quotpreparedquot us to perceive faces we are a social species etc 0 But notice the problem 0 Facenonface is associated with identifying upsidedown o EXPERTISE is associated with identifying upsidedown To make this an experiment CREATE experts o Neuroscientific data 0 Localizationwhere is a cognitive function located in the brain Method 1 Brain damaged patient identify the patient s problem and identify where the damage is Eg aphasic patient from last class Method 2 Brainintact subject observe activation using functional MRO or PET while the patient does a particular cognitive task I For each technique there s the brain side and the behavior side I For activation studies 0 Speech production 0 Patterns of activation associated with a target cognitive process 0 The problem anything I Four techniques 0 Clues about architecture 0 Diversity where there could be unity 0 Unity where there could be diversity 9 13 11 0 Four techniques by which localization data can be brought to bear Clues about architecture 0 Diversity where there could be unity 0 Unity where there could be diversity 0 Direct observation of a behavioral construct Evidence as to what cells code interpreted as observation of a construct eg lines or timing 0 Central Nervous system 0 Gross anatomic stricture o Nucleus Cortical subregion 0 Brain informs cognitive theory 0 Competing cognitive theories make different predictions about neural basis of a task and we know enough about the brain to collect discriminative data 0 Confirm a behavioral construct o This the biggest source of confusion for people who are not used to thinking about neuroscience 0 Images associated with a construct are taken as proof of the psychological reality of the construct But you will find some locus of ANYTHING 0 Theory of space including a special module for parallel parking 0 The theoretical value ofa cognitive construct like llscan in STMquot is established through behavioral experiments It s a dependent measure 0 We can show that the relationship between the construct scan ad behavior tasks 0 We can show that the construct really is a cognitive primitive and different than the parallel parking module LowLevel Vision 0 Problem the input is impoverished 0 You have lots and lots of information but the individual bits of information not useful for you 0 Simple Computation How do you get from one to the other 0 Researches divide this question into two parts 0 Lowlevel vision we assume that we can t get much information out of this array of intensity values There must be algorithms that summarize this into 0 Highlevel vision taking the output of the lowlevel processes and transforming it to get objects and their properties Crucial summary find edges 0 Edge is a sudden discontinuity in intensity 0 Edges frequently correspond to the boundaries of objects a map of edges is a good start to identifying objects 0 Edges are invariant to lighting conditions 0 Computationally easy to find discontinuities o Comapre means of adjacent columns rows diagonals Textures 0 Assess at more than one scale 0 Assess neighboring columns yields five edges 0 Assess every three columns ie take the mean yields one edge Biological Evidence o It does seem hat some cells relatively early in the visual processing stream care about edges and lines Now how do you get distance shapes etc 0 Many of the qualities of objects that we would like to know about trade off with other qualities This is the second llproblem to be solvedquot 0 Shapeorientation o Reflectancelightsourceshadow o SizeDistance I Isn t it the case that we frequently just know the size an object should be I This is familiar size 39 Cues to distance 0 Convergence not very effective 0 Most effective are a range of cues that can be evaluated in a picture plane and so are often called pictorial cues How are these solved Assumption 91511 40 multiple choice question from 3pm 6pm 75 minutes 4 and 7 review session on Monday Chapters 1 3 o Cues to distance Pictorial Cues are different Another pictorial cue is texture gradient Linear perspective 0 Where the horizon line is where the roads meets the sky Height in the picture plane Atmospheric Perspective 0 When you are looking at something very far away it is blurry and takes on a bluish tint because you are looking through a lot of air which is water Stereopsis 0 Very important cue This is NOT a pictorial cue and not really an assumption 0 Based on the fact that the two eyes get slightly different views of the world 0 Difference between what the left eye and right eye sees is called retinal disparity Farther object less difference High Level Vision 0 Models of object recognition 0 Template I You take an image and compare it to all the templates images in your head and attach all the information you have on it to the image Vending machine scanning bills Problems 0 Location 0 Size 0 Orientation o Distortion 0 Need too many templates 0 Feature Pandemonium I Problems o Orientation 0 Missing features 0 Natural objects I Principle from Gestalt Psych 0 Good continuation 0 When you show people the figure that looks like two overlapping lines people see two lines overlapping or continuing rather than two angles joined together 0 Good continuation can be used to find the parts of objects 0 3D feature models I Recognition by Components 0 Geons o Good you usually need to see the edges ofa geon Geons have properties that are invariant to rotations this makes them VIEWPOINT INDEPENDENT I am able to recognize an object despite perspective 0 The spatial relations to geons are not relative to me but relative to one another 0 Bad I Do geons really represent all shapes I How are relationships among geons coded I BUT how good are people at viewpoint independence M 0 Alternative 0 Some researchers have suggested that object representations are NOT viewpoints independent Rather we store views of objects the way we see them Similar to the template theory 0 The difference is that you do some quotfixingquot size rotation of the 0 Top down influences 0 Bottom up processing refers to beginning with relatively raw unprocessed sensory information and building towards more conceptual representations 0 Topdown r 39 0 refers to I 39 39 39 39g influencing the processing or interpretation of lowerlevel perceptual processes 0 Perceptual input is not enough to explain perception 0 Navigation vs 92211 O O The Parsing Paradox f perceptual organization is a matter of mapping sensations onto structural schema which happens first interpreting the whole or interpreting the parts How can someone recognize a face until he has first recognized the eyes nose mouth and ears Then again how can you recognize the parts until you know that they are part of a face Object identification There is pretty good evidence that spatial information that helps us get around is independent of the information that helps us identify objects What where theory of visual processing 0 Mishkin 84 Ungerliedger What How theory 0 Figuring out spatial information to see how to reach for an object o Goodale amp Milner 0 Some evidence from brain damaged patients that this separation 0 Of action and object identification applies to humans as well Attention Whats it for o enhances processing so you must know when you are attending to the wrong thing 0 you can switch between two tasks or develop automaticity to evade the limitation of attention 0 attention is necessary for even the most basic process visual processing limited not all sensory stimuli simultaneously get continues processing selective attention must be selective exactly because it is limited decide where your attention needs to be directed a consequence of selectivity sometimes you re attending to the wrong thing how do you know that you re attending to the wrong thing 0 Things that catch your attention 0 unexpected physical stimuli 0 your name 0 start with 39 Istimuli r 39 0 physical 39 39 39 ex Loudness pitch9 processing semantics meaning category membership9 Awareness cocktail party phenomenon if you can pick out your name in a crowded room while you re focused on your own conversation then you are monitoring all other conversations in the room Filters 0 early filter only process physical stimulus of conversations you aren t paying attention to ex if it is really loud 0 late filter everything is processed for its physical and semantic characteristic everything around me is being processed notjust for how loud it is but also for what it means Method to study early vs late 0 headphones put on a person and two different things are played in each headphone and they told them to pay attention to only one of the stories in one ear made them repeat to make sure they are paying attention shadowing 0 they were getting physical characteristics but barely any semantics people don t remember words from unshadowed ear people don t notice if speech is played backwards or if language changes 0 people do notice if a pure tone is played or if there is a gap or if the gender changes 0 conclusion early filter why early Everything including unattended ear is processed for physical characteristic 0 O 0 Early Filter 0 cocktail party phenomenon 23 of the time people kept shadowing even when their name has been said 0 More late filter evidence 1960 0 same experiment 0 people would pick a couple of words from the unattended ear none noticed this ex If they mix baking and music they switch instruments and ingredients they were paying attention to semantics 0 Indirect Measures Corteen and Wood 1974 Phase 1 0 Phase 1 shock associated with three city names ex Dallas freson new york classical conditioning Train until GSR response palms sweet measure of autonomic nervous system activity 0 Phase 2 Dichotic listening they shadow an irrelevant message from one ear The other ear gets words plus occasional city names Do they show GSR to the city names 0 participants showed GSR response 38 of the time to the old city names 23 of the time to new city names 0 Early filter looks right note Goldstein kind of waffles on this 0 in the studies where people seem to get semantic info it looks likely that they are actually rapidly switching attention to the ear they are supposed to be ignoring When you do the experiments more carefully to guard against this it looks like they don t get much info from the unattended ear 0 we can process everything on physical characteristics but not on semantics Cognitive load 39239 People want to attend to both channels But they cant ts too create a cognitive load How do you deal with that o 1 Switch between two tasks 0 develop automaticity for one or both 0 you ve developed the ability to do the task with very little attention 0 automatic vs controlled tasks automatic little or no attentional cost with or without intention not affected by motivation can happen with out awareness o 00 o 00 o 00 o 00 o 00 o 00 controlled attentional cost occurs only with intention affected by motivation only with awareness when people think they are multitasking they aren t really they are switching attention really quickly between the two when can you go on llautopilotquot when you practice again and again and again and again Training to automaticity Shniffrin and Schneider find either a quotaquot or a quotdquot as the letters fly by sometimes one letter at a time or 4 after 2100 trials people barely made error because if it was there the letter would pop out at them but only if the letters you are looking for stay the same for all 2100 trials this is the only way automaticity forms Spelke Hirst and Neisser sought automaticity for more complex tasks subjects read stories while they took dictation initially huge interference an hour long session 5 days week for six weekend developed automaticity The point Attention and visual perception Attention is necessary for perception Intro to Cognition 2150 9 27 11 Attention Overt moving your eyes 0 Bottom Up processing of Attention o Paying attention or looking to other things that aren t supposed to be the focus of the scene 0 Movement attracts attention 0 Highly salient Those that carry motion 0 What strategies do you employ to avoid distraction I Remove the distraction I Listen to music I Strategy 1 Avoid distracting stimuli Faces are socially important I Strategy 2 Habituate 0 With continued exposure distracting stimuli no longer demand attention 0 This is more effective for stimuli that don t change much 0 Top Down 0 This is usually called llvisual searchquot I Search Covert 0 Spatial o ObjectBased o Posner s beam metaphor Attention is like a quotspotlightquot that enhances perceptual processing Neural basis of the beam o If move is damaged superior colliculus 0 Valid trials very slow to show advantage the cue but do show it o Invalid trials slow but not a special problem at short delays cue is not used o If engage is damaged thalamus 0 Valid trials don t seem to use the cue much 0 Invalid trials don t seem to use the cue much Easily distracted by irrelevant stimuli 0 Can t stay engaged 0 Thus the beam metaphor works BUT o A couple of predictions of the beam metaphor don t work 0 Moving attention greater distances doesn t take a longer time 0 Moving attention isn t slowed down by intervening stuff 0 Stuff outside the beam is actually inhibited 0 Beam implies attention selects space So you can selectively attend to just one word based on color even though another word overlaps in space Attention selects space and selects objects 0 Different parts of parietal lobe are maximally active during betweenobject shifts and within shifts 0 Possible that both mechanisms are present 0 NOTE brain science diversity where there could be unity Intro to Cognition 2150 Feature Integration Theory 0 Conjunctive search serial o Disjunctive search parallel o llAttention is perceptual gluequotTreisman o In order to associate color and shape you need to bind the features 9129111 Sensory memory and its characteristics 0 Modal Model Rehearsal 0 Capacity 20 items 7 items Duration 1 sec 30 sec Forever Semantic Purpose Permanent Span I Background introspectionists were interested in how much information could be in consciousness at one time o Span of Apprehension I Work like this continued in the early part of the century span estimates were always the same but there was a nagging feeling that something was missing from these experiments 0 Can also lose via masking 0 Properties of Iconic Memory I Large Capacity can be pretty accurate on arrays up to 20 characters I Physical properties probably little semantic I Lost through decay or masking 0 Decay actually starts when the stimulus first appears decay doesn t start when the stimulus disappears 0 You might think it is sustained activation of representations but it is probably sustained activation of processes Short term memorymodel 1 0 Much of what we have described as Short term memory was actually inspired bu another model Working Memory Working memorymodel 2 o Phonological Loop 0 Her phonological loop has two components 0 The phonological store stores about two seconds worth of aufitory information 0 Information can enter the phonological store from the environment 0 Information can also be entered into the phonological store via the articulatory control process 0 Prediction 0 Since the store lasts 2 seconds people who can talk fast have larger capacity 0 Since the store lasts 2 seconds anyone has small capacity for long words 0 Since the store is auditory you should confuse words that sound alike cap cat can Intro to Cognition 2150 o If you busy the articulators blah blah blah the articulatory control process can t put anything on the phonological store so you re forced to code the words some other way lo and behold these effects disappear 0 Primary memory representation 0 Release from proactive interference o This result indicates there is also a semantic code in primary memory 0 Visuospatialsketchpad o This is where you store visual or spatial information It is similar to mental imagery which we ll discuss later 0 Central Executive 0 Cognitive supervisor o What is working memory for 0 Not just maintaining some information briefly 0 Size of vocabulary correlates about 4 or better with nonword repetition loddernaypish 10 4 11 Memory Encoding Memory The Basic Problems 0 Getting it in o How are memories creates Encoding 0 Keeping it in o How are memories stored and retained Storage 0 Using It 0 How are memories accessed and used Retrieval Which Factors determine what gets into long term memory 0 Imagery 0 You get a big boost of memory with mental imagery o Emotion 0 Things that engender some emotion will be remembered later on o It may not be the emotionality of the object but some other property eg guns attract attention because they are most likely to be quotactivequot in a scene emotional scenes may be distinctive 0 Another approach Use exactly the same stimuli but put the person in a good or bad mood I But this is a different idea you re not remembering happy or sad stimuli 0 Another approach stimulus materials are identical but in one case they elicit emotion and in another case the same stimuli don t elicit emotion o Flashbulb memory I Original study by Brown amp Kulik asked people about their memory of the Kennedy assassination o Repetition alone 0 Sheer repetition does NOT necessarily lead to memory for the stimulus 0 Thinking about meaning depth 0 quotDepthquot refers to thinking about meaning and how the toberemembered material relates to things that you already know Shallow processing means thinking about physical characteristics of the stimulus 0 Note Intro to Cognition 2150 I It is not the case that deep processing leads to better memory because it is harder other experiments have checked for that o EffortDesire to learn 0 Intention or effort is irrelevant o Effort to learn Hyde amp Jenkins 1973 I Deeprate pleasantness I Shallow does a word contain a quotQquot or an quotAquot I Depth has a big effect while intent doesn t matter Limitations of Levels of Processing 1 Definition of levels and circularity note that this is a problem with the theory not the data 2 We can t ignore what s happening at retrieval Transferappropriate processing 0 Does deep encoding always lead to better memory Morris Bransford amp Franks 1977 0 Deep encoding is better than shallow encoding when coming to recognition 0 Shallow encoding is better deep encoding is better when it comes to rhyming Transfer appropriate processing when processes are the same at encoding and retrieval then memory will be successful when the processes are different at encoding and retrieval then memory will not be successful Note that this is another powerful idea that is 39 39 circular What happens after encoding o The memory does NOT simply sit quietly waiting to be recalled 0 Evidence from retrograde amnesia o Anterograde Old memories mostly intact Can t encode new memories 0 Retrograde Old memories lost New memories encoded normally 0 Retrograde amnesia temporal gradient 0 Not all memories from the past are equally affected recent memories very affected distant not so much I Example Blow to the head Interpretation 0 Initially memories are fragile 0 Memories must be consolidated after they are encoded o Consolidation is the process by which they become more stable even if they are not practiced o It takes years for a memory to be fully consolidated 10 6 11 Memory Retrieval Free Recall 0 Very minimal information from the experimenter experimenter simply says quotRememberquot and the context is usually implied occasionally described Cued Recall o Experimenter also gives part of the information or some related information Recognition o The tobe remembered information is presented along with other stuff distracters and the subject must distinguish new from old Savings in relearning 0 Subject learns some material to a criterion and the of trials required is noted Later subject relearns the material to the same criterion if fewer trials are required that is savings Intro to Cognition 2150 Difficulty 0 An important principle is this whether or not it appears that someone remembers some material depends Measures difficulty o In general free recall is hardest and then cued recall then recognition Shepard amp Recognition 0 Subjects see 512 words then take a 2chice recognition test get 88 0 Subjects see 612 brief sentences eg llThe truck swerved to avoid the limping deer then tae 2 choice recognition testget 88 0 Final experiment Caveat 0 Although it is true that recognition memory is usually very good you have to bear in mind that the difficulty of a recognition test is the distactors Hart 1965 1967 0 When free recall fails subjects recognize answer 50 of the time 0 Recognition more sensitive than free recall Tulving amp Pearlstone 1966 0 Condition 1 Free recall then cued recall 0 Condition 2 Cued recall then cued recall 0 Cued recall950 more remembered than free 0 Cued more sensitive than free recall Nelson 1978 0 When recognition fails subjects relearn the material faster than new material 0 Savings more sensitive than recognition Why the difference in sensitivity It feels like memory success is some combination of memory strength and the sensitivity of the test Tests are sensitive to the extent that they give you good cues Free recall context time and place 0 Cued recall context partial information 0 Recognition context all information Mnemonics 0 General 0 Method of loci o Pegword 0 Specific 0 Roy G Biv o On Old Olympus s Towering Top a Finn and German Viewed Some Hops 0 Why do mnemonics work 0 Mnemonics are all about CUES o Acrostic mnemonics give you the first letter as a cue o Pegword amp Method of loci also provide a cue rely on effective imagery Does the number of Cues sensitivity explain everything 0 No what s actually important is whether the cues make you think of material the same at encoding and retrieval Barclay et al Intro to Cognition 2150 This effect works even if you don t change the word but emphasize different properties of the word Eg quotThe moving men struggled to get PIANO up the stairs Cue something that makes music avg 16 words10 o Cues something heavy avg 46 words10 We can take this effect one step further if a recall cue is better at making you think as you did at encoding than a recognition cue you should be better at cued recall than recognition Recognition failure of recallable words 0 Key finding there are some words for which people fail to recognize the word but then are able to recall it Testing effect 0 Study Study some more take a test 0 Study take a test9take a test Implications 0 Deep processing make it meaningful 0 Transfer appropriate processing study in the same way that you ll be tested Don t quotlook over your notesquot 0 Testing effect once you ve done some studying test yourself Added benefit makes it more obvious what you know and don t know Retrieval amp prior knowledge 0 We can generalize from this example to say that memory is almost always a combination of the actual event plus relevant prior knowledge Schemas o A memory representation of a type of event characteristics generally true of the vent not of a specific event Things that conflict with the schema are attended to and remembered Things that are not part of the schema but are irrelevant are not 0 At encoding schemas make atypical things stand out and they are memorable 0 At retrieval schemas make it seem likely that typical things happened 10 13 11 Implicit Memory Intro to Cognition 2150 I What is anterograde amnesia like Have trouble learning new things and has some sort of retrograde amnesia typically Researched in the 50 s and 60 s Pursuit rotor platter with a target on it and the subject holds a curved wand and the job was to keep the wand on the target motor skill people found it initially difficult but were able to learn it Mirror tracing you see an outline of a star and show it to the patient and tell them to race the outline of it as quickly as you can then there is a mirror perpendicular to the table and there is a screen that prevents them from seeing the start but you can peek over it and see the mirror and reflection of it and try to draw it most people get better at it quickly 1015 of people don t get better amnesic patients get better as well Savings measure show subject incomplete pictures and keep showing them more complete pictures and eventually they will recognize what the object was do the same thing over again sometime later and see if they can identify the objects quicker amnesiac people are just as good as normal people at doing this Tachistoscopic identification 0 First phase you show the subject a list of words and have them do something with them Then an hour passes and let them do what they d like Then you show them a tube and flash a word at the end of it and tell them to identify them 0 People are more likely words that they saw an hour ago than words that they hadn t seen an hour ago 0 Amnesiac people show the same results as normal people However amnesiac patients wouldn t be able to physically tell you which words they had already seen Stem completion rea fill in the blank after they saw a list of words the chances of them filling out the target word after seeing the list is 13 amnesiac patients are good at this but they don t realize they have seen a list of words before Lexical decision 0 Flash words on the screen t the fastest time that yields 50 correct All of these are repetition priming tasks 0 Gollin figures 0 Words out of noise 0 Tachistoscopic presentation 0 Stem completion 0 Lexical decision 00 0 Conclusion 0 Its not just that there is a memory and there are motor skill perceptual stuff can be preserved 0 People start to think of amnesia as memory minus some process this missing process impairs most memory but certain tasks don t depend on the missing process so the tasks are learned 0 Maybe amnesia hasn t wiped out the bridge of learning short term memories to long term memories maybe it affects some processes in memory that isn t necessary for repetition priming tasks What is the missing process Intro to Cognition 2150 Poor encoding doesn t matter for repetition priming I Test get patients to do deep encoding ex Show them a picture and tell them to talk about it I Deep encoding has nothing to do with memory Fast forgetting I Test you cant measure fast forgetting if there is no slope to the forgetting curve if they start at 0 I Give amnesics lots of time to study so that their performance wont be at chance 15 seconds I Amnesics show a normal forgetting curve Poor retrieval I Can t retrieve new things but they can retrieve things that happened before they got amnesia People give up researchers gave up on the idea that there is a single memory system which is missing some process leading to the pattern of spared and impaired memory functions I You have 2 types of memory Explicit you are always aware of explicit memory Conscious memory tested directly accompanied by awareness that you re remembering something Revealed by indirect testing just perform a task memory shown by performance Motor skill priming People give up again researchers gave up on the idea that there are two memory systems implicit and explicit largely due to separability in the brain I Memory Systems Declarative memory episodicsemantic Episodic have that flavor of llit happened to mequot specific time and place Semantic memory Motor skill pursuit rotor mirror tracing Repetition priming gollin figures like the elephant stem completion etc Skeletal conditioning classical conditioning wa motor response as the CR Puff of air on the eye conditioning so that a tone is associated with a puff to the eye Emotional conditioning classical conditioning with an emotional response as the CR Boat horn anxiety you condition a picture to give you anxiety Very important source of evidence for separability is the brain basis of these types of learning Declarative memory I Repetition priming Hippocampus I Motor skill learning basal ganglia I Skeletal conditioning cerebellum I Emotional conditioning amygdala Multiple memory systems This research has expanded our notion of memory There appear to be multiple cognitive systems in the brain that have some plasticity I What about people with ordinary memories Memory wout awareness O O O 0 Intro to Cognition 2150 Priming I Flash words on screen at fastest time that yields 50 correct I Read list of words I Filler task to delay to try and make them not realize that the next list of words don t contain any of the previous words I Lexical decision test Memory with out awareness memory skill I Show them a sequence of lights but they don t realize the sequence and they get faster and faster but if you change the sequence they get slower again I They usually don t realize the sequence Memory with out awareness skeletal conditioning I Show subjects a silent movie tone and puff to the eye Memory without awareness emotional conditioning o Familiarity O 0 What s happening when something feels familiar but you can t place why I One source priming leads to easy processing False fame effect I Task 1 read list of novel names ex Sebasian weisdorf I Task 2 tell me who is famous in this list Horatio Sanz Sebastian Weisdorf Morgan Fairchild I People will think that Sebastian is famous because they were primed to his name around an hour ago I If task 2 is immediate no false fame but after 24 hours false fame works 0 Process purity O O O 10 18 11 We just saw that an implicit memory priming can influence an explicit task Could an explicit memory influence a priming task Phobias you see a snake and explicit memory says its harmless but the emotional conditioning is telling you to run Motor skill What s in memory concep1s The Importance of concepts 0 What s this 0 How do you know they are cherries given that you ve never seen them before 0 Does it have seeds inside 0 Does it have lungs Definitional View 0 A concept is a list of necessary and sufficient features Eg to be classified as a grandmother you must 0 Be female 0 Be a parent of a parent 0 Thus by the definitional view concepts are definitions 0 This idea works okay for some terms eg kinship or legal but poorly for most others 0 Eg what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for being a pear 0 Data like this were taken to mean that the definitional view is wrong Intro to Cognition 2150 o If the definitional view 0 How you reason 0 Robins like to eat onions I Do you think starlings like to eat onions 0 Owls like to eat onions I Do you think starlings like to eat onions 0 Robins are seen to be more bird like therefore starlings are more likely to eat onions Owls are strange birds and therefore eating onions might just be another weird things about them 0 More than just typicality levels I Basic level categories most inclusive but members still share most of their features Eg most quotbirdsquot are quotwingedquot lay eggs 0 Basic level categories are argued to be psychologically privileged meaning that s what we usually use when thinking 0 Note that basic level depends on expertise If you re an expert what is a subordinate level for everyone else may be a basic level for you I Superordinate level category is one level more abstract more general Eg quotanimalsquot do not all share features some are quotwingedquot some are not some are quottailedquot some are not some are quotwarmbloodedquot some are not etc I Subordinate level categories are less abstract most specific than basic level Eg quotwrensquot are all very similar only a few features ProbabilisticSimilarity Models 0 An influential answer has been quotprobabilistic or similarity modelsquot 0 Called probabilistic because category membership is a matter of probability not allor none Similarity because the likelihood of being a member of a category is calculated by computing the similarity of the exemplar to the category 0 Prototype model 0 Create a deck of cards with exemplars of A s and B s but not prototypes Study exemplars until can categories correctly One week later categorization test for old new and prototype How a prototype model works I When you see a new exemplar you compare it to the prototype the more similar it is to the prototype the more confident you are that it belongs to that category Thus when you see the prototype dot pattern you re very confident that you know its category It almost feels like the prototype model has to be right Problem I Not that these effects all depends on your having a prototype of each category stored in memory 0 Exemplar Model 0 Exemplar model also accounts for the fact that you can recognize specific dogs not just the prototypical dog 0 Problems 0 Feature selection Compare Barack Obama amp a pack of Double Mint I Similarities can be chosen by using certain questions weighs less than six tons sometimes described as quotsweetquot 000 GO Intro to Cognition 2150 I However if certain questions or features are picked you can find out different things respiration wears a hat 0 How you judge similarity depends on what else is around or the context I Categorization based on rules 0 Similarity o llTake an object that is 3 inches in diameter is it more similar to a pizza or to a Quarter 0 Most people say quotquarterquot 0 Categorization o The object is 3 inches in diameter Is it a pizza or a quarter 0 Most people say pizza 0 Low similarity high diagnosticity 0 Allen amp Brooks 0 Subjects trained to categorize diggers vs builders Some told to memorize exemplars learn the categories that way Others told to categorize using a rule At test they see creatures that follow the rule to define them as one creatures but they are most similar to the other creature 0 Results I When confronted with builders who were similar to diggers subjects categorization depended on the instructions they had received 0 Told to memorize categorized based on similarity o Told the rule cat The return of rules 10120111 EXAM NEXT THURSDAY Watch House Paternity Episode Memoryhow is it organized Properties of Memory 0 Property 1 Quantity and Speed 0 You can pluck answers out of memory rather rapidly 0 Property 2 Neat Miss 0 Names that are similar or somehow related 0 Property 3 Relevant Info 0 Does a canary have lungs 0 You know the answer despite not being tested on it or 0 Property 4 Resistant to faulty input 0 Able to receive incorrect information and use your memory to see if it connects to something similar to it Some people compare your memory to a library or book store Clearly your mind does not work this way 1 More books means slower search 2 Slight errors mean possibly big mistakes Near misses in particular indicate we need to find things not by an address but by CONTENT ITSELF o Contentaddressable storage Collins amp Quillian Hierarchical Model 0 Good at LOTS OF STORAGE Intro to Cognition 2150 o Good at RELEVANT INFORMATION 0 Problems 0 Some of the predictions aren t borne out I quotis a gorilla a mammalquotgt llis a gorilla an animalquot I quotis a hawk a birdquotgt quotIs a robin a birdquot 0 Properties don t seem to be stored only once I eg quotfliesquot is a property that people strongly associated with robins bluebirds wren etc Collins 84 Loftus Spreading Activation Model 0 Activating other things related to that memory 0 Bush activates white house 0 Allows contentaddressable storage 0 Creates defaults o A property you just assume an object has in the absence of other information 0 Accounts for typicality 0 You activate the words and you see where you get overlap for the information 0 Odd implication the fan effect 0 Fan effect is realbut usually not observed 0 A person who only knows one fact about something you more likely to retrieve that information than a person who knows a lot of facts I The connections are only linked from the fact to the answer I This only occurs in the lab o In real life however this does not occur I In real life the information is all liked together Distributed Representations o Localone node one concept 0 Distributed concepts distributed across multiple nodes Connectionist or Parallel Distributed Processing or PDP models 0 Output Receive input from hidden units 0 Hidden Receive input from input unites o nput Stimulated by environment 0 llNeuronslike units 0 The Connectionist Approach 0 Parallel distributed processing 0 Knowledge represented in the distributed activity of many unites o Weights determine at each connection how strongly an incoming signal will activate the next unit 0 How learning occurs 1 Network responds to stimulus 2 Provided with correct response 3 Modifies responding to match correct response 0 Advantages o PDP models have all the advantages of local representation models plus Graceful degradation 2 Automatically generalizes 3 Also seeks to show how memories are acquired not just how they are organized after learning Intro to Cognition 2150 10 25 11 Expertise What do experts do 0 Obviously they are better at solving problems in their domain 1 Experts know what s important 0 A seeming 6 h sense about what s important 0 Pilots I Experienced talk about searching for problems or looking for information 0 They spend more time in preparation I Novice pilots talk about things happening to them 2 Experts notice things that others miss 0 Expert boxers can see very subtle cues in their opponents in order to react o Experienced look for trouble that may happen further up while novice drivers only look at dangers up close 3 Fail Gracefully 0 When they make a mistake the mistake they make is sensible 4 They show better transfer of knowledge 0 Bette able to transfer what you are learning or what you ve learned to apply it a different situation What cognitive tools are in an expert s mental tool box 1 Experts Chunk 0 Using logic and long term memory to cheat the limitations of short term memory 0 You need knowledge in order to chunk o Chunking is very important in many fields such as in chess o The reason that chunking is important is that it is saving more space in working memory 2 Experts see deep stricture o Refers to the functional relationship in the components of a problem 0 The underlying structures of certain problems 0 Our minds are biased to see surface structure not deep structure 0 Why is our mind biased to see surface structure I This is how memory cues work I Seeing deep structure requires seeing the functional relationships among parts and the possibilities are almost limitless o Expertise I Experts see deep structure like Americans see the Hansel amp Gretel solution I Benefit thinking functionally makes it obvious what is important contributes to function and what does not I Benefit thinking functionally helps with graceful fails you understand things as a system 3 Experts generate hypotheses 0 Expert billiard players verbalize plans and consequences of shot choice 0 Amateurs repeat task instructions if they talk at all How can we think like an expert I llThink functionally doesn t really help I 10000 hour rule I Practice does not equal play or experience 0 Trying to get better effortful Intro to Cognition 2150 o Meaningful feedback I quotGritquot o Talent is not enough you need sustained and focused application of talent I Experts 0 quotHigh threshold for mental exhaustionquot 10 29 11 EXAM 11 1 11 Visual Imagery What is it Imagery 0 Most people report quotlookingquot at a mental picture to answer such questions 0 This implies but doesn t prove that there is a type of representation that is quasi pictorial that is has some properties of a picture Analog vs proposition quotA ball is on a box 0 Proposition 0 Relation o Syntax there is a proper way to form a proposition 0 Truth value 0 Abstract 0 Non spatial 0 Image Analog o No distinct relation 0 No syntax 0 Truth value only when described 0 Concrete 0 Spatial Medium How do we know there are images 0 When you read all of it gets transferred into proposition 0 The big controversy came if it was just proposition or position AND images 0 Property 1 Rotation 0 Property 2 Size Zooming 0 Property 3 Scanning o Stronger linear relationship between how long it takes you to scan and distance scanned 0 Property 4 Brain locus What is imagery like Memory representations Perceptual processes Memory representations visual experience screenquot early perceptual processes Confusability Perky 1910 0 People confused imagery and perception Like perception Interference o Atwood 1971 0 High imagery quotA nudist devouring a bird 0 Low imagery quotThe intellect of Einstein was a miracle Intro to Cognition 2150 0 Visual interfering task subjects see a 1 or 2 on a computer screen amp must say which digit did not appear 0 Auditory interfering task subjects hear a quot1quot or quot2quot and must say the other digit 0 Control group no task 0 Visual interfering task big effect on high imagery pairs 0 Auditory interfering task big effect on low imagery pairs Like perception separation of quotwhatquot and quotwherequot 0 Visual imagery 0 Color questions what color is the outside of a pineapple 0 Size comparisons which is bigger a popsicle or a pack of cigarettes 0 Spatial Imagery 0 Letter rotation 0 Mental scanning o Damage to ventral impairs visual imagery Damage to dorsal impairs spacial imagery o Imagery not like perceptions distortions 0 Which city is further North Rome or Philadelphia 0 Imagery not like perception 0 Image Inspection 0 Images What is imagery for 0 Memory 0 People are better at remembering concrete nouns than abstract nouns o It is also harder to create an image for abstract nouns than concrete nouns 0 Does bizarreness help I It seems to data conflict a bit from study to study 0 Make implicit knowledge conscious o Is the writing on the CocaCola logo cursive 0 Which is closer to the ground the tip of a horse tail or the knee on its back leg 0 Which is larger a tennis ball or the rounded part of a light bulb 0 Prepare for future actions 11 3 11 Language Ambiguities of Language what makes it hard 0 The Problems 0 How do we perceive speech sounds phonemes I Phonemes are basic speech sounds I You can get different phonemes within a language I Why is phoneme perception hard 0 Phonemes produced fast SOsec 0 Different speakers produce differently accents based on where you grow up 0 A single speaker produces them differently Depending on the context of the phoneme this is coarticulation 0 Does sometimes go wrong famously when trying to understand son lyrics 0 How do we perceive words I Why is it hard to understand words Intro to Cognition 2150 0 Speech stream no space between 0 How do we perceive sentences I Why are sentences hard 0 Obviously word order is crucial o llJane kissed Jonquot 0 Jon kissed Janequot 0 Even if the word order is the same the meaning of the sentence can have different interpretations o How do we perceive texts I What makes understanding texts hard I A text is a collection of sentences forming a paragraph or a collection related paragraphs I Language is full of gaps and full of holes How the ambiguities are resolved 0 Solving Problems 0 Perception of phonemes I Phoneme restoration effect when a phoneme is missing or ambiguous there some process where the phoneme is still perceived I McGurk effect we use visual information as well as audio information Hearing one thing and seeing the mouth form to make a different sound I Categorical quot r 39 Our r r 39 39 system J39 D J slight quot in phonemes o Perception of words I Most researchers think it s a matching process between input and the lexicon I To test lexical access you can do crossmodal priming I Gaskell et al 1998 showed that mispronounced words do get lexical access if they are mispronounced the way people tend to mispronounce them I Reading 0 Visual input goes either to o Spelling 0 Sound pattern 11 8 11 o How are sentences parsed 0 Grammar refers to a set of rules that describe 0 Incorrect Theory I Grammatical sentences are constructed word by word by selecting the next word in a sentence based on the associations of the rest of the words in the sentence 0 Word Chain Grammars I Perhaps just specify next part of speech not specific word I llThe boy took his baseball bat and hit the quot could be completed by a noun ball but the next word could also be an adjective smelly ball or an adverb swiftly escaping boy I The reason that word chain grammars don t work 0 Dependencies o Eg verbs must agree quoteitherquot implies llorquot quotatquot implies a noun Intro to Cognition 2150 0 Embeddedness o Dependencies can be embedded o llEither Dan or Brian will go and then embed that clause in another clause forming llEither Dan or Brian will go or Karen and Jon will go 0 Because embedding opportunities are infinite you d need an infinite word chain generator 0 The Solution phrase structure grammars o Phrase structure grammars use hierarchical organization not linear as word chains did 0 Phrase structures specifies a limited number of sentence parts and a limited number of ways the parts can be combined I Sentence noun phrase verb phrase 0 How do we get embeddedness o Embedding is accounted for because definitions can be recursive meaning a definition has that definition embedded in it 0 Key Question I What cues does the parser use to decide which phrase structures are which 0 Key Words 0 quotaquot indicates that a noun phrase follows quotwhoquot quotwhichquot and quotthatquot indicate a relative clause 0 Fodor and Garrett 1967 I The car and the man whom the dog but drove crashed I The car the man the dog bit drove crashed 0 Word Order 0 Parser assumes that sentences will be active noun then verb then direct object 0 Principal of minimal attachment o If new word can be attached to an existing node in a phrase structure go with that interpretation I Phrase structures ambiguity o Phrase structures can account for some ambiguities of language Some sentences are ambiguous llThey are frying chickens I When do we assign roles 0 Online NOT by waiting until the end of the sentence 0 Another heuristic that normally but not always works well I Garden path sentences 0 Ones where you are assigning roles than all I Pragmatics 0 Language as it is really used 0 Not the crisp clean sentences we ve been discussing 0 Speakers should be informative truthful relevant clear unambiguous brief and orderly o Texts o 3 levels I Surface structure exact words amp phrases you read Intro to Cognition 2150 I Text base the meaning represented as propositions I Situation model knowledge integrated from both the text and prior knowledge 0 Text example I A text is a group of connected sentences forming a paragraph or paragraphs 0 You struggle to make texts coherent Language o Is Language special 0 0 Does Language influence thought 0 SapirWhorf hypothesis I Strong version you can t think certain things in certain languages because you don t have the concepts to shape the thoughts I Weak version certain thoughts are more difficult because they are clumsy to express in one s native language 0 Color naming research I Color naming research Seemed ideal because there is an objective reality to color wavelength but different number of names 0 Place Vlaues I Some East Asian languages make place values explicit in the names of numbers 11 10 11 o Ape language 0 What are the cognitive capacities of nonhuman primates Early studiesvocal speechfailure ASL studies Gardner amp Gardner Washoe TerraceNim Chimpsky Abstract symbols Premack Sarah Savage Rumbaugh Kanzi They have opportunity to learn I Symbolic nature of words I Syntax o What do they learn I Signs 0 O O O O Certainly 125 or so 0 Some may be gestures chimps do in the wild 0 Palm outrequest o Shaking handhurry I Do they understand the signs as arbitrary symbols or is it more in the manner of a rat pressing a lever to get food 0 Ape language arbitrariness o Apell 39 quotSavage 39 U39 and her conversation 0 They were also able to do this to pigeons too 0 Apes Grammar 0 They do put words in nonrandom order some of the timeeg Nim Chimpsky put quotmorequot before a word more often than after But close analysis of video tapes showed that this was not the case because he was coerced into saying it before 0 Bottom Line on Ape Language had two chimps engage in a u Intro to Cognition 2150 o Apes likely do have some rudimentary capacity to treat signs as symbols and some compactly re grammar o It is not clear why it is so important to us as humans as to whether or not animals have language as we do Problem Solving Problem Solving definition you have a goal and you are currently not at the goal Approaches to Problem solving 0 Behaviorist 0 Problem solving seen almost as a matter of chance early in training Due to random variation you produce slightly better versions these are reinforced so you re more likely to do them again 0 Gestalt o In perception emphasized that the relationship among parts is crucial to what we see 0 Sometimes more than one organization of parts is possible the perception can reverse 0 Same emphasis in problem solving 0 Gestalt view says little about nonAha problems or about how you get the change in representation 0 Information Processing 0 A particular configuration of the problem is called a An operator moves you from one state to another Initial knowledge New state New state9Goal Note that it s the operators that move you through problem space Problem solving is all about choosing operators 0 This observation that operators move you through the space makes our job clearer the question is how do you select operators 0 Algorithm I An algorithm for problemsolving is a formulait is a fixed series of steps that you apply If you apply them correctly you will arrive at a solution possibly the desired solution I Algorithms are widely applicable and because they are stored in memory save you the trouble of having to think I Algorithms are great but they are not applicable to all problems 0 You have to have some experience 0 Algorithms are usually only applicable to well defined problems 0 Problem Types 0 Well defined initial state goal state and methods available to you are understood 0 I defined initial state goal state andor methods are poorly understood 000 0 Little Knowledge I You have to fall back on operators that are very generalpurpose and will be more or less applicable to any situation I Heuristics 0 We do have heuristics we can use when we are in an unfamiliar problem solving situation 0 Brute force search I You try sequentially to try things in sequence Intro to Cognition 2150 I Problem As the state space gets larger you get combinatorial explosion 0 Hill climbing I Looking ahead and selecting an operator that you judge will bring you closer to your goal 0 Working backwards I As the name suggests working backwards means imagining being at the goal of the problem space and seeing If you can figure out a way to get to the initial state or closer to it 0 Means ends analysis I Compare the current state to the goal state If there is not a difference between them the problem is solved I If there is a difference between the current state and the goal state set a goal to solve that difference If there is more than one difference set as a goal to solve the largest difference I Select an operator that will solve the difference identified in step 2 11 15 11 Prior knowledge can also impede 0 Functional fixedness 0 People fixate on the typical function of an object so they fail to use it in a way different to the way they are used to o Depends on if you have prior knowledge You can be fixated not only on the function of an object but also on the procedures used to solve the problem try to solve the problem as you have been 0 Reasoning As psychologist study it reasoning usually refers to problems that are amenable to formal logic in the form of deductive reasoning Deduction vs Induction 0 Induction strart with specific cases and ask what general rule you can abstract Tells you what is more probably true 0 Deduction start with a general assertion o Are people logical o Isn t logic just formalizing the rules of everyday thought o If that s the case then errors are just result of misreading carelessness etc o BUT errors happen all the time and are systematic Deductive logic 2 premises amp a conclusion 0 Premise f Dan can jump well he can dunk a basketball o Premise Dan can jump well 0 Conclusion Dan can dunk a basketball Casebased reasoning 0 Perhaps we are merely good at scenarios with which we are familiar 0 But casebased reasoning can t be the whole story because people are good at unfamiliar problems too Message familiarity is not enough to explain why people are good or bad at these reasoning problems Intro to Cognition 2150 Pragmatic Reasoning schemas 0 These are bundles of quotifthenquot rules which are activated for situations like permissions obligations or causations 0 Rule 1 If the action is to be taken then the precondition must be satisfied 0 Rule 2 If the action is not to be taken then the precondition need not be satisfied 0 Rule 3 If the precondition is satisfied then the action may be taken 0 Rule 4 If the precondition is not satisfied then the action must not be taken 0 The emphasis is on the fact that they are pragmatic meaning useful formal logic leads to conclusions that are correct but not very useful eg f have a headache then I take an aspirin leads to conclusion f have not taken an aspirin I must not have a headachequot Evolutionary View 0 We are social animals and we evolved to do social exchange Part of doing social exchange is the ability to catch cheaters Bottom Line 0 People are not logic machines who can plug any problem into a logical formula 0 The familiarity of a problem doesn t matter much 0 We still don t have a complete answer re the critical features of a problem that lead to successful reasoning pragmatic reasoning schemas amp evolutionary perspective are two viable tries at a theory Induction o Analogy o Analogical reasoning is a type of inductive reasoning 0 You extend knowledge from a situation you do understand source to one that is less well understood target 0 Good analogies share characters AND their important relations 0 Analogy is used I Teaching I Literature simile and metaphor I Learning I Persuasion 0 But analogy is inductive I Not all properties and relations follow 0 Steps using analogy Ideally structural similarity I Retrieval of source I Map new situation to source I Extension use source and mapping 0 We are very susceptible that analogies are a good way to reason 0 Retrieval of source is hard but mapping is usually easy I Source retrieval is usually prompted by surface similarity but a good analogy needs structural similarity for mapping I This is why people like to prompt analogies for you 11 17 11 Decision Making Definition two or more choices laid out and you must select one Question What if any are the consistent rules that guide such decisions Summary if main point 0 People s reasoning is not driven by optimality Intro to Cognition 2150 o People s reasoning is driven by heuristics Rational Theory refers to being internally consistent eg transitivity should hold 0 A or B 9pick A o B or C 9pick B o A or C 9 shoul pick A Normative Theory theory is prescriptive values some choices over others 0 A or B 9 should pick A 0 Example of a normative theory 0 Eg expected value theory get the highest expected value 0 Probability obtain x value 0 Expected utility theory value of outcomes vary depending on the individual probability if winXvalue of prize Irrationality 0 Effects of how you measure preference 0 Effects of problem description Examples of Problem Description 0 Irrationality Framing o Sunk Cost 0 A sunk cost is time money or other investment that is irretrievable spent and therefore should not affect current decision making and yet does 0 People do not always behave rationally Heuristics o A heuristic is o Representativeness 0 Used when you are asked to judge the probability of an event Availability 0 Used to judge the probability of an event 0 Anchoring and adjustment 0 to use it you do a quick estimate based on memory or on information provided in the problem and then adjust the estimate 0 Simulation 0 Downhill adding a highprobability event to the mental simulation so that the outcome would have been different 0 Horizontal trading equal probability 0 Uphill nformation We ignore 0 Sample Size 0 Sample size refers to the number of things in a group that we are evaluating 0 Base Rate 11122111 Intelligence 0 What is intelligence 0 J Of Ed Psych poll in 1921 I Capacity to learn from experience I Ability to adapt to surrounding environment o In 1986 same as above and includes I Includes metacognitive processes to govern cognition Intro to Cognition 2150 I May vary by culture History if intelligence testing 0 0 Measures of intelligence I The study of intelligence really got going in psychology labs Two traditions of intelligence measurement I Psychophysicalabilities o Sensory acuity physical strength motor coordination 0 Sir Francis Galton 1883 0 quotThose equipped with the best sensory abilities for it is through the senses that one come s to know the worldquot 0 Many distinct abilities I Judgmental abilities 0 Problem solving and reasoning 0 Alfred Binet 1890 0 His goal was to classify children not measure absolutely he cared about predicting school performance not characterizing the person 0 Compare 7year old to other 7year olds Stern 1912 suggested comparing a ratio of chronological age to mental age IQ MACAx100 I But problems came around the age of 16 where the mental age stopped increasing 0 Standard tests I Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS o Verbal vocab verbal similarities 0 Performance picture completion picture arrangement I The Ravens Progressive Matrices Test 0 Factor Analytic view 0 O OO O O OO 0 To the statistical technique to see which type of intelligence testing is correct We then take a sample and see how many types of intelligence there are I We give various tests such as vocab grammar etc o If these represent separate abilities Correlations Factor analysis is a statistical technique designs to determine if underlying relationships exist between sets of variablesitems represented Everyone agrees on this method but there is lots of disagreement as to how many factors there are and what the factors are Factor Analysis Schools I General postulates the existence of general intellectual ability that is partially tapped by all intellectual activities and numerous specific aptitudes I Multiple Factor Fluid Intelligence nonverbal relatively culture free independent of specific instruction Crystallized intelligence acquired skills and knowledge that is dependent on exposure to a culture as well as to formal and informal education Carroll s Hierarchical model Intro to Cognition 2150 0 Information processing and intelligence 0 Choice Reaction Time I Jensen 1979 1982 reported a strong inverse correlation between choice RT and intelligence if you re slow you re slow 0 Lexical Access I Hunt 1978 reported a strong correlation between difference score of these two tasks and intelligence 0 Working Memory I Highly correlated with measures of reasoning not intelligence 0 Note that these probably load on fluid intelligence not crystallized 0 Alternative approaches to intelligence 0 Gardner s Multiple Intelligences I Linguistic I Logicalmathematical I Spacial I Musical I Bodily Kinesthetic I Interpersonal I Intrapersonal I Naturalist I No one takes this very seriously 0 Some sound more like quotskillsquot then intelligence 0 Gardner ignored factor analytic evidence which does not support his theory 0 Criteria were too loose 0 Culture I Crystallized intelligence is very important eg older people seem to lose fluid intelligence but their overall intelligence seems not to go down because they have built up crystallized intelligence I Examples 0 Puluwat sailors have crystallized intelligence about sailing Gladwin o Moroccan rug merchants have excellent memory for complex patterns I Culture may also affect fluid approach 0 Nature vs Nurture I How much variance attributable to 0 Genes 0 Shared family environment 0 Identical twins reared together correlations reflect both points Identical twins reared apart correlation reflects first Fraternal reared together vs identical reared together 9difference reflects first 0 Maybe 5070 of IO variance is hereditary o BUT this is not true for low SES social economic status samples I Nurture argument OO 11 29 11 Intro to Cognition 2150 0 Some studies indicate that schools do make substantial difference taking children out of lowperforming schools and put them in high performing schools there IQ goes up 0 Flynn effect we re all getting smarter lQis rising faster than genes could be changing Obviously there is an interaction of naturenurture There is some genetic inheritance the potential of which is actualized to the extent Animal Cognition What can they think Extreme 1 animals as machines Extreme 2 anthropomorphism More balanced animals have cognitive abilities as humans do but they are different cognitive abilities When studying an animal we shouldn t study them as how smart or stupid they are compared to us or on a spectrum Many species are good at 0 Understanding of the material world 0 We know a good deal about objects in the world but never think about this knowledge Objects have permanence they don t spontaneously disappear o Refers to whether or not an organism appears to understand that an object still cists once it is out of sight 0 Humans have object permanence at 9 months old 0 Animals almost certainly have it o Zebras and lions for instance 0 Tool use Body parts eg bird using its bill Object in the environment eg sea otters use stones to open mollusks Using two objects or changing an object eg chimps and capuchin monkeys use two stones as hammer and anvil Twig llfishing rods Impressive causality understanding 0 Possible it was simple association apples with knives not pencils 0 But understood the use of the objects and what the outcome would be Causality 0 Tool construction as evidence of understanding causality 0 Some animals seems to have some understanding of causality 0 Understanding numbers 0 We can say confidently that many many species have some ability to appreciate and calculate numbers eg many types of animals do calculations about rate of return of o Cardinals number understanding requires training 0 Human 0 Using space Human babies are actually born with the ability to add and subtract Addition expectancy violation 0 Many animals are quite good at certain types of spatial navigation 0 Mental Spacial maps You have mental map of UVA grounds you have a broad picture of all of grounds and you knowledge is not comprised simply of a set of turns for how to get from A to B Do animals have this Intro to Cognition 2150 I Both rats and chimps can be taken on quottoursquot of novel environments with feeding sites that they are not allowed to sample When released into the environment the animals do not retrace the tourthey take a different route 0 Upshot 0 Many many animals are able to use three concepts space numerosity properties of the material world Much more questionable 0 Animals ability to understand quotselfquot 0 Some of your cognitive abilities involve understanding that you are separate from other individuals 0 Mirror Studies I Chimps will stare at the mirror look behind it display in front of it etc Some have used it to see previously unseen parts of the body eg inside of the mouth Caveats 0 The numbers of chimps in individual studies who respond to the mirror vary widely Upshot o What we really care about the sense of self and not the recognition of self 0 Prosopagnosics can t recognize self in mirror but have sense of self o It is possible that sense of self is actually secondary to sense of others I Sense of others theory of mind 0 A term coin 0 Animals ability to intentionally deceive others 0 Sense of others theory of mind I Deception studies are used to investigate theory of mind I Plovers will fake an injury display 0 Intentions in chimps I Premack had one of his star chimps Sarah watch video tapes of humans engaged in problem solving 0 We might be the only species to have theory of mind 1216111 Applied Cognitive Psychology Education and Product Usability 0 Education 0 The Problem I The difficulty is that most things can only be controlled in the laboratory The conditions that need to be studied are found in the class room 0 Solution I Do studies in classroom I Find cognitive principles that are SO universal they always apply 0 Humans are not very good at thinking and tend to avoid it I Humans are not very good at thinking compared to other things our mind does I Humans are really good at seeing and moving Machines are not Intro to Cognition 2150 I Thinking is slow effortful and unreliable I Most of the time we don t reason we rely on memory 0 Not just facts but procedures 0 Memory is much more like vision and movement It is fast effortless and relatively reliable 0 People are naturally curious but curiosity is fragile we think only when we believe that thought will be successful I Problem solving brings pleasure I Environment in order get people to like it 0 Surprise them 0 Change mode of presentation 0 There is too much variation in individual interest for it 0 work well I Content 0 Using this fact to make school more interesting 0 Object Usability o If possible simplify o Visibility of current state of object and what are the options 0 When in doubt subsidize it
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