A Survey of the Neural Basis of Behavior
A Survey of the Neural Basis of Behavior PSYC 2200
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ethyl Hammes on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2200 at University of Virginia taught by Peter Brunjes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/209732/psyc-2200-university-of-virginia in Psychlogy at University of Virginia.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
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is damaged or abnormal If remove that area 9 seizures are gone Focus or Locus area where seizure is occurring Aura epileptics have an indication of impending seizure Brain has no sensory receptors All receptors are on brain surface Motor dealing with muscles Sensory Memory Recognition Suggests that brain controls behavior takes signals from the outside world 0 Michael Gazzaniga Wanted to limit size of seizure by limiting size of focus Corpus callosum fiber bundle that connects 2 cerebral hemisphere Cut corpus callosum from front to back Try to localize focus to one side of brain Crossed Connection R body 9 L brain and L body 9 R brain Laterality functions that occur on the L but not on the R I ie language L righthanded people I complex function is localized I Facial Recognition left brain cannot recognize faces faces only recog in right 0 fM RI functional magnetic resonance imaging 0 Can watch brain activity in real time O 0000 Exam 1 Page 2 o o 0 Chapter 1 Notes Monday August 30 2010 EMA PM Physiological explanation relates behavior to activity of brain and other organs Ontogenetic explanation how structure or behavior develops Influences of genes nutrition experiences Evolutionary explanation reconstructs evolutionary history of structure or behavior Functional explanation why a structure or behavior evolved as it did MindbodyMindbrain problem What is the relationship between the mind and the brain Dualism belief that mind and body are different kinds of substances that exist indepedently Monism belief that universe consists of only one type of substance Materialism everything exists in material or physical Mentalism only the mind really exists and the physical world could not exist 0 Identity position mental processes and certain kinds of brain processes are the same thing Solipsism I alone exist I alone am conscious Problem of Other Minds difficulty of knowing whether other peopleanimals have conscious experiences Hard Problem why and how any kind of brain activity is associated with consciousness Exam 1 Page 3 Cells of Nervous System Monday August 30 2010 1100 AM I Brain 7 2 types of cells 98 o Neurons 7 big o Glia r tiny o Cytoskeleton o Ribosomesr protein 0 Mitochondrion Pasled from lthll I 1870 Nissl Stain Nucleus stain 0 Lots of internal structure in brain I Not uniform I GlialCells o Astrocyte I Support and nutrition I Line spaces between brain and outside world lon balance Critical for breathing monitor acid levels I Create glial scar after brain injury I Glimoae glialtumors Pas ed from lthll cliilcvir iniaedu N c220 aslrol ifgt o Oligodendrocyte Forms myelin inside nervous system insulating material around dendrites Schwann cell outside spinal cord 7 forms myelin outside nervous system Exam 1 Page 4 Pasted from lthtt o Microglia I Blood is toxic to the brain I Clear debris o Radiaglial I Only found during embryonic development wires the brain I Forms highways substrates pathways Neurons 0 Cell body soma o Perikaryon o Dendrites o Dendritic branches bigger amp larger capacity 0 Dendritic spines smaller amp lesser capacity 0 Axon o Axon Hillock o Axon Collaterals like branches 0 Axon Terminal Boutons tip of axon o Boutons attach to dendritic spines 0 sometimes Myelin on xon o Nodes of Ranvier spaces between myelin Golgi and Cajal o Golgi stain stains 1 5 but entire neurons 0 Dendrite big bumpyspines branches come off at acute angles 0 Axon small 1 micron smooth branches come off at right angles 0 Neurons are polar Effects of early malnutrition Synapse point where info is transferred Tracers chemical dyes o Retrograde from axon terminal and moved to dendrite o Anterograde usual direction from dendrite to axon terminal Exam 1 Page 5 Chapter 21 Notes Mundax August so 2mm 7 49 PM Neuron membrane 7 2 ayers offatceHs mat ow arouno eacn other protern channe s rwater oxygen soorurn ootassrurn caxcrurn ch onde Nudeusr thocnondnonr waosomer Endop asrmc reucu umr Motor neuron o S 3 ore Dendntesrecewe excrtauons rnpuses conducted to rnusde a ong axon Soma m sta k offrna n trunk Specwahzed at one end ntgnxx sensmxe to hgntsoundtoucn nyreceptors eadfromreceptorswntoaxon nterneuronorntnnswcneuron wt s and axons are m stnge structure Brancnrngnoerstnatnarrowatenos Surface rs hned wrtn snaotrc receptors 39 ter surface area 9 more nformatwon tcan recewe Dendnt cSp nes snort outgrowuns matrncrease surface area for receotron Mum artam Prew39mpw Man tormrnatr eus waosomes thocnondna Soma ceH ooox Nuc Tnnnoer ongertnan dendntes nforrnat on sender convey mpu ses to neurons or organsmusdes nsu atwng sneet on axon Nodes of Ranxrer nterruptwonswnmVehnsneatn PresnapttcterrmnaVend bu b bouton I SWeHs at ends of axon branches Exam 1 Page a From which chemicals are released Neurons can have many dendrites but only one axon which may have many branches Afferent neuron 7 brings info to struc ure Ef ferent neuron 7 carries info away form structure Blood7Brain Barrier Keeps mostchemicals out of vertebrate brain Depends on arrangment of endothelial cells that form walls of capillaries Small uncharged molecules ie oxygen C02 cross freely ater7 protein channels in mem r ne quot 39 passively in Active transport 7 protein7mediated uses energy moves chemicals from blood to brain ie glucose aa purins choline vitamins iron some hormones I A n l39 I 39 L 39 39 vitamin A D heimer A H ian A L brain lz Nourishmentof Neurons Glucose 7 one of a few nutrients to crossthe blood7brain barrier o Ketones 7 a kind offat but in small quantities large amts cause health issues Thiamine7vitamin B necessaryforglucose u sage Korsakof f s syndrome 7 prolonged thiamine deficiency death ofneurons memory issues Exam 1 Page 7 Chapter 22 Notes Tuesday August 31 2010 1044 PM o o o 0 Electrical gradient Neurons have 8 nm thick membrane 0 Double phospholipid membrane 0 Embedded are cylindrical protein molecules 0 Retards chemical flow insideoutside the cell Polarization 0 Inside is slightly negative with respect to outside 0 More negative ions Resting potential 0 Difference in voltage in resting neuron 0 Measured with microelectrode o 70 mV Selectively permeable o Analogous to bloodbrain barrier 0 Most largecharged ions cannot cross barrier at all 0 When membrane is at rest Na channels are closed preventing all Na flow NaK Pump 0 Protein complex active transport 0 3 Na ions out and 2 K ions in o Poisons stop t and blood flow 0 Na ions are more than 10x concentrated outside I Na ions stay out o K are more concentrated on the inside I Some K leak out I Carrying positive charge I Increases electrical gradient Electrical gradient 0 Sodium is positively charged inside of cell is negatively charged 0 Cell tends to pull Na inside BUT ion channels are closed 0 Electrical gradient pulls K in concentration gradient pushes K out Chemical gradient 0 Difference in ion distribution Chloride ions are mainly outside the cell In neurons electricalchemical gradients balance Resting potential 0 Prepares cell to respond rapidly Exam 1 Page 8 Resting Potentials Wednesday September m 2010 39 6AM 0 4 x 10quot9 neurons 40 ml 4x10quotl3 synapses IN N N N 0 Hodgkins and Huxley cia quot7a a a l 0 Want to record electrical activity in the brain 0 Electrode used to record electrical pulses 0 Need 2 points std reference and experiment point 39K I 0 Measure potential difference between the tw 0 Amplifier l Protein J Protein l Protein l Protein I 0 Oscilloscope Na Na Na Na O Negative wave goes down I 0 Positive wave goes up CI CI CI CI l 0 Squid Giant Axon Experiment ormal squid with big axon o Involved with escape mechanism Na outside 0 Invertebrates don t have myelin K Insl e 0 Conduction velocity Protein inside I Bigger axon 9 faster info transfer Cl outside 0 1 mm across 0 No waves on oscilloscope 2 electrodes in same area 0 Electrode put inside 9 oscilloscop went down negative 0 Inside is negative 0 Resting Potential 70 mV 0 Action Potential 0 Synaptic Induction how info gets from neuron to neuron Chemical Gradients concentration gradient ElectricalGradients Inside 0 ATP used to move 3 Na out o 2 K ions go in 0 Pump is then dephosphorylated 0 Membrane s potential difference results from the semipermeable membrane Exam 1 Page 9 Action Potentials Fillith Septembel 03 20b 10 LiLlllM ion a a i V K 400 20 M M Na 50 440 Cl 40 550 70 D Nernst Equation 0 Equation to predict voltage where ions are across 2 points Based on distribution offreelysmoving ion 0 o Clr is the freesmoving ion 0 v a 50 logKoutKin Kions o ie K 50 log 20400 78 Explanation ifK was a eelymoving ion the voltage across the membrane is 78 o ie Na 50 log 4405057 o iecl 9 0 Not tested Voltage clamp eloses eueuit How are models he pful andhow are they used How didthe squid giant axon experimennestthis Depolan39zau39on ifcell heeomes more posidv e Hyperpolariza on ifcell heeomes more negative Threshold point at which aetlon potential occurs a u t I 0 Proteins Voltage gated Na ehannels allow Nato go across membrane into the eell When many Na enters the eell heeomes positive Depolan39zau39on event and aeu39on potential is due to sodium eunent Voltage gated K ehannel different voltage that opens it pum Refractory period Absolute refractory period no new aetlonpotentlal ean occur ctory period ne aw eithez aeu39on potential orlack of ctionpotentials have the same size and shape N0 quotsmallquot quotbigquot aetlon potentials Relative refra All or No A Exam lPage 10 Propagation of Action Potentials Sunday September 05 2010 2de AM Axox hillock 0 Where axon exits soma 0 Action potentials starts here Propagation of action potential transmission of action potential down an axon Action Potential 0 Electrical stimulationsynaptic input 9 Na channel open Axon depolarizes to threshold Na go into cell Depolarize further Positive charge ows down axon and opens voltagegated sodium channels At peak Na gates shut K voltagegated channels open K go out of cell Repolarization o Voltagegated potassium channels close again Myelin insulating fat and protein 0 Node of Ranvier 1 um Local Neurons o No axons 0 Exchange info by producing graded potentials does not obey all or nothing law 0 Le astrocytes OOOOO Exam 1 Page 11 Synaptic Mechanisms Neurotransmitters mmay nqu wa Am 4 4H Am Swgna bumpstu am bud Axum tErmma aapuxames VD tagEsgatEd channe DpEns Ca2 Unmyellnaled axon Ahmsrswamw N 7 7 7 AHrZSVSWUEIIBAM 7 A A quotv7 7 N quot awarawsmazw quot39 V 7 ZHF553991VD1U39 m Myehnated nerve ber L g Eegm Sanaer nndudmn Camum gDEs mm amntenm a Ca mum gDEs mm v25m 25 m am b a VESm Es Bantam neumtransmwttgrs E nvatuwar sEdgE m amntenm u insmatmg gnal can A na n nEurD ansymuerrexeasemmusynapuccxe dEndntEmEmbranE r synamcEndmgand pustssynaptmEndmg mm Synzgl End 1 PrmEms nut vu taggsgated 9 gatEd by neurmransmmers W ngandsgatgd putassmm rEcEpVLDrs rexease Kfrum pususynapuc swdE o 22 gets hyperpma we 39 r P En and c DsEtD aHDW mns muut amun CDu dmDvErEstmngtEnUa updnwn o HypErpD anzmganddEpmarmng o Lungumescuursesufamun o CDu dmavErEstmgputEnha updnwn Neurnlrznx m Acawchuhne o FaundmnEummuscu anunmnn o NEummuscu anunmunsbwgprEsynamctErmm ransmwtstnmusdEs CatEchmammEs G utamate o GAEA ngmg GasEs Hrezkdnwn my ex A x In my chuhnEstEresE sbreaks dawn acayxcmhne ans brEaks dawn catEchD ammEs REsupdatE Exam1Pag212 Exocytosis Endocytosis Am ebas eat Cholinergic neuron r releases acetylcholine Seritonergic neuron Quanta 7 packets ofdiscrete neurotransmitter amounts Each vesicle has specific amt of neurotransmitters Dale s Law Originally Aneuron 39 39 Vesicles can contain more than one neurotransmitter y 7 ins i itstermina Exam lPage 13 Synaptic Integration Sunday September 05 2010 23940 Stimulate here A M t Measure here 0 Temporal summation a lot of input in a short amount of time 0 Spatial summation a lot of input from multiple neurons Glutamate moi Glutamate One set of neurotransmitter negates the effect on another neurotransmitter Some neurotransmitters are depolarizing hyperpolarizing EPSP excitatory postsynaptic potential depolarize IPSP inhibitory postsynaptic potential hyperpolarize AxoDendritic synapse axon to dendrite Axoaxonic synapse axon to axon Axosomatic synapse axon to cell body Dendrodendritic synapse dendrite to dendrite Not all synapses are equally weighted Hierarchical Synapses 0 Proximity to axon hillockcell body stronger signal Graded Potential Neurons summate all the positivenegative EPSPIPSPs signals and uses that to decide whether to fire a signal Exam 1 Page 14 Neuropharmacology Diseases Sunday September 05 2010 240 AM o o Synapsesl Drugsl and Addiction Antagonist drug that blocks effects of neurotransmitters Agonist drug that mimics or increases effects of neurotransmitters Mixed agonistantagonist agonist for some effects antagonist for others OR agonist at some doses and antagonist at others Affinity for receptor binding strong weak Efficacy tendency to activate receptor high to low Olds and Milner 1954 o Abused drugs selfstimulation of the brain 0 Nucleus accumbens increased release of dopamine by axons is concentrated here 0 Dopamine release pleasure Relates how much you want not like something Stimulant drugs increase excitement alertness and activity Elevate mood and decrease fatigue Amphetamine stimulates dopamine synapses increased dopamine release from presynaptic terminal Dopamine transporter presynaptic side reabsorbs Cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine norepinephrine serotonin o Prolongs their effects Excess dopamine in synaptic cleft leaves faster than synaptic cell can make it Impulsiveness choose small immediate reward instead of larger delayed reward Methylphenidate Ritalin like cocaine 0 Children taking this are less likely to abuse drugs later in life MDMA ecstasy stimulant at low doses increase dopamine release 0 Higher doses increase serotonin o Damage neurons containing serotonin 0 Excessive serotonin release 9 mitochondria oxidizes 9 H202 produced Nicotine stimulates acetylcholine receptor nicotinic receptor 0 In CNS at nervemusclejunctions of skeletal muscles 0 Abundant on neurons that release dopamine in nucleus accumbens o Consequence nucleus accumbens cells responsible for reinforcement become less responsive than usual Opiates morphone heroin methadone 0 Relaxation decrease attention and decrease pain sensitivity 0 Endorphins neuropeptides produced by the brain I Operiates relieve pain by acting on brain receptors not skinorgans o Activate dopamine release 0 Endorphin synapses inhibit ventral tegmental neurons that release GABA inhibitis firing of dopamine neurons Marijuana contain cannabinoids delta9degreeTHC o Cannabinoid receptors most abundant receptors in mammalian brain I Presynaptic neurons 0 Anandamide and 2AG two brain chemicals that bind to cannabinoid receptors 0 When neurons depolarized release the above as retrograde transmitters which travel back to axons and inhibit further neurotransmitter release Hallucinogenic drugs LSD like serotonin Stimulates serotonin type 2A 5HT2A receptors Alcoholism alcohol dependence continued use of alcohol despite medicalsocial harm o Faciliates response at GABAa receptor brain39s main inhibitory site Exam 1 Page 15 o Combines with GABA to produce longer effects than solo GABA 0 Blocks activity in glutamate receptors brain39s main excitatory site 0 Increases stimulation at dopamine and opiate receptors 0 Type I or A alcoholism after age 25 do not always have relatives with alcohol abuse 0 Type 2 or B alcoholism before age 25 close relatives have alcohol problems l Drug Behavioral Effect Synaptic Effect I I l Amphetamine Excitement alertness ncr release of dopamine and other elevated mood decreased transmitters fatigue Cocaine Excitement alertness Blocks reuptake of dopamine and others elevated mood decreased fatigue Methylphenidat Increased concentration Blocks reuptake of dopamine and others but e Ritalin gradually MDMA Low dose stimulant Releases dopamine High dose sensory distortions Releases serotonin damages axons Nicotine Stimulant Stimulates nicotinictype acetylcholine receptor 9 incr dopamine release in nucleus accumbens Opiates Relaxation withdrawal dec Stimulates endorphin receptors pain Cannabinoids Altered senses decr pain and Excites negativefeedback receptors on nausea incr appetite presynaptic cells l Hallucinogens Sensory distortions Stimulates 5HT2A COMT enzyme that breaks down dopamine after release 0 Valine version more active more impulsive decrease reinforcements o Methionine version Movement Disorders Parkinson39s disease rigidity muscle tremors slow movements 0 Impaired at initiating spontaneous movements in absence of stimuli 0 Cause progressive death of neurons in substantia nigra dopaminereleasing neurons I Increased inhibition of thalamus I Decreased excitation of cerebral cortex 0 If have monozygotic MZ twin who develops Parkinson39s before 50 you will too 0 MPTP chemical that is converted into MPP accumulates destroys neurons that release dopamine LDopa treatment dopamine precursor crosses bloodbrain barrier o Neurons convert it into dopamine 0 Main treatment for parkinson39s 0 Does not prevcent continued loss of neurons does not work for latestage Huntington39s disease extensive brain damage esp in caudate nucleus putamen globus pallidus cerebral cortex 0 Autosomal dominant gene 0 Children with parent having disease have 50 chance of getting it themselves 0 Huntingtin protein that gene for disease codes for I Occurs within brain inside neurons not membranes I Increases neurotransmitter release I Forms clusters that impair neuron39s mitochondria Exam 1 Page 16 Brain Development amp Evolution Spinal Cord Lilldayl September HE lUlll 39 HAM Develogmem First organ that dewWand mammals Neural plate Neural groove Neurallube O Ventricles Ring of cells around inner neural tube Contains cerebrospinal lluid Prosencephalon 0 F0 n o Telencephalon from a bac k I o Metencepnalon front 0 Myelencephalon back Evolutio Endocast r plaster impression of brain cavity in skull Biglelencephalon a big cerebral cortex Dorsal back Roslral rront Caudal back Ventral stomach I Medialrclose lolongaxis from dorsalview Lateral 7 close to short axis from dorsal view I Distal rfar lip of animal I Proxmalrcloselo animal Hu mans Anterior likeventral Posteriorllike dorsal Exam 1 Page 17 r Nervous System i CNS PNS Brain Spinal Cord l l Somatic NS Autonomic NS Sensory info Sympathetic NS Fight or flight Parasym pathetic NS Resting Spinal Cord Spinal nerves Nerves collection of axons out of the CNS Tract collection of axons in the CNS Collect sensory info Distribute motor info Spinal cord stop growing before rest of body 31 nerve sets 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeal Dermatome area that is enervated by a single spinal nerve while maller ra matter l g y domalroot somao i 39 sensory neuron 7 r V dorsal root 1 39 r i g ganglion 39l 39 I y r a 33 soma of motor 39 mm neuron Grey matter 0 Dendrites o Synapses o Nervous system functions White Matter Inside grey matter Sensory signals come into dorsal horn via dorsal root 0 Dorsal root ganglion differentiates dorsal from ventral o Ganglion collection of neural cell bodies outside CNS 0 Nucleus collection of somas inside CNS Motor signals leave from ventral horn via ventral root Exam 1 Page 18
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