Ch 3 Lecture Week 4
Ch 3 Lecture Week 4 HD 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HD 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dana Harmon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Ch 3 Lecture Week 4 Notes straight from the book Invitation to The Life Span Second Edition by Kathleen Stassen Berger 0 During the rst year of life most infants triple their body weight 0 At birth newborns can sleep for up to 17 hours a day INTERRUPTED o All healthy infants develop the same motor skills in the same sequence How does body size change in an infant o 0 4 Month old baby weight doubles by month 4 mostly baby fat 0 lyear old weight triples o Lyear old half of adult height 15 of adult weight Growth in Infancy 0 height and weight average weight at birth 75 pounds average length 20 inches these numbers are norms or average measurements 0 brain growth 2 year olds are totally dependent on adults but they have already reached half their adult height and 34 of their adult brain size Brain Development Developmental Cortex o frontal cortex assists in planning self control and self regulation very immature in the newborn o cortex crinkled outer layer of the brain is the cortex 0 auditory cortex hearing is quite acute at birth the result of months of eavesdropping during the fetal period 0 visual cortex vision is the least mature sense at birth because the fetus has nothing to see while in the womb 0 Some areas of the cortex such as those devoted to the basic senses mature relatively early Others such as the prefrontal cortex mature quite late Connections in the Brain 0 w a ber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons 0 dendrite a ber that extends from a neuron and receives electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons o symr intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons 0 neuro transmitter brain chemical that carries information from the axon of a sending neuron to the dendrites of a receiving neuron 0 neurons nerve cells in the central nervous system especially the brain Harming the Infant Brain 0 infants need stimulation playing allowing varied sensations and encouraging movement necessary for brain connections 0 stress and the brain overabundance of stress hormones damages later brain functioning 0 infants need protection shaken baby syndrome is a life threatning injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth This motion ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections Implication for Caregivers o self rigmig the inborn drive to remedy developmental de cits Sleep sleep speci cs vary because of biology and the social environment newborns sleep about 15 17 hours a day in 1 3 hour segments newborns sleep is primarily active sleep newborns have a high proportion of m rapid eye movement sleep REM sleeg rapid eye movement sleep a stage of sleep characterized by ickering eyes behind closed lids dreaming and rapid brain waves 0 sleep problems rst born infants typically receive more attention and this may contribute to sleep problems l4 of parents of children under age 3 reported sleep problems parent reactions to infant sleep shape the baby s sleep patterns which in turn affect the parents 0 co sleeping asian and african mothers worry more about separation European and North American mothers worry more about seX pros easier response time less parental eXhaustion more convenient for breast feeding cons higher SID ghosts in the nursery phenomenon Perceiving and moving the sense 0 sensory development typically precedes intellectual and motor development 0 sensation response of a sensory system eyes ears skin tongue nose when it detects a stimulus essential for the visual cortex to develop normally 0 perception mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation 0 perception follows sensation infants brains are especially attuned to their own repeated social eXperiences and perception occurs infant brain and auditory capacity to hear sounds in the usual speech range the parts of the corteX dedicated to the senses develop rapidly 0 sense of hearing develops during the last trimester of pregnancy most advanced of the newborn s senses speech perception by 4 months after birth 0 vision least mature sense at birth newborns focus between 4 and 40 inches away eXperience and maturation of visual corteX improve shape recognition visual scanning and details binocular vision the ability to coordinate the 2 eyes to see one image appears at 3 months 0 visual cliff designed to provide the illusion of a sudden drop off between 1 horizontal surface and another depth perception baby stops at edge of what she perceives as a drop off 0 touch sense of touch is acute in infants although all newborns respond to being securely held soon they prefer speci c touches 0 pain and temperature pain and temperature are often connected to touch some people assume that even the fetus can feel pain others say that the sense of pain does not mature until months or years later Moving and Perceiving Smelling and Tasting function at birth rapidly adapt to the social world related to family and cultural preferences may have evolutionary function Motor Skills Gross Motor Skills 0 physical abilities involving large body movements such as walking and jumping 0 3 interacting elements underlying motor skills muscle strength brain maturation practice 0 the entire package of sensations and motor skills furthers 3 goals social interaction comfort learning Motor Skills Fine Motor Skills 0 physical abilities involving small body movements especially of the hands and ngers such as drawing and picking up a coin 0 shaped by culture and opportunity Dynamic SensoryMotor Systems The entire package of sensations and motor skills furthers 3 goals 1 social interaction 2 comfort 3 learning Success and Survival 0 immunization primes the body s immune system to resist a particular disease contributes to reduced mortality and population growth herd immunity 0 successes smallpox Polio Measles Rotavirus Surviving in Good Health 0 immunizations are unsafe embryos eXposed to rubella newborns people with compromised immune system 0 problems no effective vaccine found for AIDS malaria cholera typhoid and shigellosis many rural areas of world not reached 0 adequate nutrition for every infant disease including SIDS breast feeding reduces risk and malnutrition increases it stunting growth of body and brain breastfed babies are less likely to develop allergies asthma obesity and heart disease as the infant gets older the composition of breast milk adjusts to the baby s changing nutritional needs What Happens to children who are malnourished 0 stunting the failure of children to grow to normal height for their age due to severe and chronic malnutrition 0 wasting the tendency for children to be severely underweight for their age as a result of malnutrition Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS o situation in which a seemingly healthy infant usually between 2 6 months old suddenly stops breathing and dies uneXpectedly while asleep 0 Beal studied SIDS death in South Australia and concluded factors related to increased risk sleeping position back is best maternal smoking bedding type Infant Cognition Piaget o assmililation type of adaptation in which new experiences are interpreted to t into or assimilate with old ideas 0 accommodation type of adaptation in which old ideas are restructured to include or accommodate new experiences 1 Sensorimotor intelligence the way infants think by using their senses and motor skills 0 ject permanence realization that objects including people still eXist when they can no longer be seen touched or hear 0 infants adapt re exes through information from repeated responses 2 Information Processing 0 information processing theory modeled on computer functioning involves incremental details and step by step description of the mechanisms of thought adds insight to understanding of cognition at every age has overturned some of Piaget s conclusions including the concept of object permanence Memory 0 infants store no memory in their rst year 0 developmentalists now agree that very young infants can remember if the following conditions are met eXperimental conditions are similar to real life motivation is high special measures aid memory retrieval 0 reminder session provides time for infants to retrieve stored information o repeated reminders are more powerful than single reminders o context is crucial especially for infants younger than 9 months Language What Develops in the First Two Years listening and responding 0 before birth language learning via brain organization and hearing may be innate 0 newborn preference for speech sounds and mothers language gradual selective listening 0 Around 6 months ability to distinguish sounds and gestures in own language Language Learning Early Communication 0 child directed speech hi gh pitched simpli ed and repetitive way adults speak to infants 0 babbling extended repetition of certain syllables such as ba ba ba that begins when babies are between 6 and 9 months old 0 naming gplosion sudden increase in infant s vocabulary especially in the number of nouns that begins at about 18 months of age Language Learning First Words gradual beginnings 0 at about 1 year speak a few words 0 6 15 months understand 10 times more words than produced 0 12 months begin to use holophrases recognize vocalization from universal to language speci c Naming eXplosion 0 once spoken vocabulary reaches about 50 words it builds quickly at a rate of 50 to 100 words per month 21 month olds say twice as many words as 18 month olds Cultural differences in language use cultural and family variation eXists in child directed speech infants seek best available language teachers music tempo is culture speci c holophrase single word used to eXpress a complete meaningful thought infants differ in use of various parts of speech depending on the language they are learning more nouns and fewer verbs Language 0 gestering all infants gesture concepts With gesture are expressed sooner than speech pointing emerges in human babies around 10 months Theories of Language Learning 1 Infants need to be taught 0 BF Skinner 1957 noticed that spontaneous babbling is usually reinforced 0 parents are expert teachers and other caregivers help them teach children to speak 0 frequent repetition of words is instructive especially when the words are linked to the pleasures of daily life 0 well taught infants become well spoken children 0 if adults want children WhO speak understand and later read well they must talk to their infants 2 Culture fosters infant language infants communicate because humans evolved as social beings the emotional messages of speech not the words are the focus of early communication each culture has practices that further social interaction including talking the social content of speech is universal Which is Why babies learn Whatever speci cs their culture provides Language Learning 0 infants teach themselves language learning is innate adults need not teach it nor is it a by product of social interaction 0 Chomsky language too complex to be mastered through step by step conditioning language acquisition device LAD Berger Kathleen Stassen Invitation to The Life Span Second ed New York Worth nd Print
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