Chapter 4 Lecture Week 4
Chapter 4 Lecture Week 4 HD 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HD 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dana Harmon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Ch 4 Lecture Week 4 Notes straight from the book Invitation to The Life Span Second Edition by Kathleen Stassen Berger Emotional Development Infant Emotion 0 early emotions high emotional responsiveness reactive pain and pleasure to complex social awareness 0 crying typical excessive Colic smiling and laughing gtIltgtIltsocial smile 6 weeks evoked by viewing human faces gtIltgtIltlaughter 3 to 4 months often associated with curiosity Infant Emotional Development 0 anger rst expressed at around 6 months is healthy response to frustration 0 sadness appears in rst months indicates withdrawal and is accompanied by increased production of cortisol stressful experience for infants Emotional Development Infant Emotions 0 fear emerges at about 9 months in response to people things or situations 0 stranger wariness infant no longer smiles at any friendly face but cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close 0 separation anxiety tears dismay or anger when a familiar caregiver leaves if it remains strong after age 3 it may be considered an emotional disorder Toddler Emotions anger and fear become less frequent and more focused laughing and crying become louder and more discriminating temper tantrums may appear new emotions pride shame embarrassment dis gust guilt Self Awareness person s realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body mind and actions are separate from those of other people 0 rst 4 months infants have no sense of self and may see themselves as part of their mothers 0 5 months infants begin to develop an awareness of themselves as separate from their mothers 0 15 18 months emergence of the me self sense of self as the object of one s knowledge Mirror Recognition 0 classic eXperiment M Lewis and Brooks 1978 0 babies aged 9 24 months looked into a mirror after a dot of rouge had been put on their noses 0 none of the babies younger than 12 months old reacted as if they knew the mark was on them 0 15 to 25 month olds showed self awareness by touching their own noses with curiosity Growth of the Brain 0 Experience and Culture promote speci c connections between neurons and emotions shape functional anatomy of self representation 0 emotional self regulation directly connected to maturation of the anterior cingulate gyrus related to development of preferences for speci c others 0 smile and laughter related to corteX maturation 0 memory contributes to all emotional reactions gradually improves as dendrites and axons connect 0 memory for people occurs as facial recognition improves improves as gradual differentiation of social smile as neuronal circuitry becomes more sophisticated with repeated eXperience Growth of the Brain Stress o Hypothalamus regulates various bodily functions and hormone production may grow more slowly in stressed than in non stressed infants 0 abuse form of Chronic stress may cause potential long term effects on a child s emotional development often create high levels of stress hormones indicative of emotional impairment and later behavioral dif culties Brain and Emotions Temperament o temperament inborn differences between one person and another in emotions activity and self regulation temperament is epi genetic originating in the genes but affected by child rearing practices 0 New York Longitudinal Study NYLS started in the 1960s found 4 categories of temperament temperament often changes in the early weeks but is increasingly stable by age 3 extreme temperaments at age 3 tend to carry over to adolescence and young adulthood parenting practices are crucial temperament can change or be changed 0 Longitudinal study of infant temperament Fox et al 2001 grouped 4 month olds into 3 distinctive types based on responses to fearful stimulation 1 positive exuberant 2 negative 3 inhibited fearful less than half altered their responses as they grew older fearful infants were most likely to change exuberant infants infants were least likely to change maturation and child rearing has effect on inborn temperament Development of Social Bonds 0 synchrony coordinated rapid and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant o synchrony in the rst few months becomes more frequent and elaborate helps infants learn to read others emotions and to develop skills of social interaction usually begins with parents imitating infants 0 synchrony lets infants and caregivers communicate the crucial messages that one person seeks to share with another Is the message here I love you or How delightful or simply Tell me morequot 0 the father probably knows we can only guess Is Synchrony Needed for Normal Development 0 experiments using the still face technique experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and eXpressionless in face to face interaction with an infant babies are very upset by the still face and show signs of stress 0 conclusions parent s responsiveness to an infant aids psychological and biological development infants brains need social interaction to develop to their fullest Attachment lasting emotional bond that one person has with another begins to form in early infancy and in uence a person s close relationships throughout life demonstrated through proximity seeking and contact maintaining Development of Social Bonds Attachment Types 0 secure attachment relationship in which infant obtains both comfort and con dence from the presence of his or her caregiver o insecure avoidant attachment pattern of attachment in which infant avoids connection with the caregiver as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver s presence departure or return 0 insecure resistantambivalent attachment pattern of attachment in which anxiety and uncertainty are evident as when an infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion o Mganized attachment type of attachment that is marked by an infant s inconsistent reactions to the caregiver s departure and return When Attachment Isn t there The DSM S includes a new diagnostic category for attachment 0 reactive attachment disorder recognizes that some children never form an attachment at all even an insecure one Development of Social Bonds Social Referencing 0 social referencing seeking emotional responses or information from other people 0 observing someone else s expressions and reactions and using the other person as a social reference 0 utilizing referencing in constant and selective ways 0 mothers use a variety of expressions vocalizations and gestures to convey social information to their infants 0 mothers do more caregiving and comforting 0 synchrony attachment and social referencing are all apparent with fathers sometimes even more than with mothers 0 fathers elicit more smiles and laughter from their infants than mothers engage in more intensive play and teach appropriate emotional expressions Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development 1 Psychoanalytic Theory FREUD Oral and anal stages 0 oral stage rst year 0 anal stage second year Potential Con icts 0 oral xation 0 anal personality disputed by current developmentalists 2 Psychosocial Theory ERIKSON Trust and autonomy stages 0 trust vs mistrust infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs are met 0 autonomy vs shame and doubt toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self rule over their actions and their bodies Early Problems 0 an adult who is suspicious and pessimistic mistrusting or who is easily shamed insuf cient autonomy can be created 3 Behaviorism BANDURA Social Learning Theory 0 parents mold an infant s emotions and personality through reinforcement and punishment behavior patterns acquired by observing the behavior of others demonstrated in the classic Bobo Doll study Proximal and Distal Parenting o proximal parenting caregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby with frequent holding and touching o distal parenting caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby providing toys food and face to face communication wit minimal holding and touching 0 research ndings notable cultural difference exists with newborns and older children Culture is especially pivotal for the proximaldistal response 0 distal parenting results may produce children who were self aware but less obedient o proximal parenting results may produce toddlers who were less self aware but more compliant 4 Cognitive Theory Working model set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences o a person might assume that other people are trustworthy and be surprised by evidence that this working model of human behavior is erroneous o the child s interpretation of early experiences is more important than the experiences themselves 0 new working models can be developed based on new experiences or reinterpretation of previous experiences 5 Humanism MASLOW Hierarchy of needs with lower levels being prerequisites for higher ones 0 infant survival needs must be satis ed to enable them to reach higher levels 0 infant caregiversparents have needs that in uence their response to infants Unmet needs can interfere with the ability to nurture 6 Evolutionary Theory 0 emotions for survival infant emotions enmeshed in evolutionary mandate over human history attachment with proximity seeking and contact maintaining promoted species survival by keeping toddlers near their caregivers and keeping caregivers vigilant 0 allocare care of people other than the biological parents is essential for Homo sapiens survival Day Care Cultural variations in allocate are vast 0 most newborns will be cared for primarily or exclusively by their mothers with allocate increasing from ages 1 to 20 0 worldwide fathers are increasingly involved in infant care but this varies by culture 0 paid leave fro mother and fathers and grandmothers varies by nations 0 in the US paid leave varies by states and employers Types of Nonmaterial Care 0 family day care child care that includes several children of various ages and usually occurs in the home of a woman who is paid to provide it 0 center day care child care that occurs in a place especially designed for the purpose where several paid adults care for many children usually the children are grouped by age the day care center is licensed and providers are trained and certi ed in child development Essential characteristics of highquality Day Care adequate attention to each infant encouragement of language and sensorimotor development attention to health and safety professional caregivers warm and responsive caregivers Effects of Infant Day Care 0 family income culture religion and education affect choice of care and those same variables affect child development 0 the fact that boys are more affected than girls may indicate something about biological seX or that dif cult boys are more often placed in day care or that cultures encourage traits in boys that are discouraged in girls 0 not every study nds that boys are more affected again there are many possible reasons to eXplain a lack of gender differences just as there are many reasons to eXplain gender differences Berger Kathleen Stassen Invitation to The Life Span Second ed New York Worth nd Print
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